J Bickerton's scientific contributions

Publications (52)

Chapter
This chapter describes the diagnosis and pathology of subarachnoid hemorrhage. Increase in the blood pressure from exertion, bending over, or a severe bout of coughing may eventually be sufficient to rupture one of these aneurysms causing bleeding into the subarachnoid space. This is what normally happens if the aneurysm is small. It is found that...
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This chapter describes the structure and function of the reflex arc. Spinal reflexes are those which act through the spinal cord. Receptors in the muscles and tendons are stimulated by stretch, so initiating impulses which travel through the sensory neurons of the peripheral nerve to the posterior horn of the spinal cord. Within the spinal cord, th...
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This chapter discusses the hormones of the pituitary gland. The pituitary gland, a part of the endocrine system, also consists of nervous tissue. The posterior lobe that is although closely related anatomically to the anterior lobe is functionally quite separate and is mainly nervous tissue. Nerve fibers connect the hypothalamus to the posterior lo...
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This chapter discusses the location and function of ventricles within the brain. Within the substance of the brain are a series of four cavities of varying sizes called ventricles. The largest of these are the two C-shaped lateral ventricles, each of which lies deep in the cerebral hemispheres. Connecting the lateral ventricles to the third ventric...
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This chapter discusses the structure and function of the spinal nerves. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves that leave the spinal cord from each side through the openings or foramina between the vertebrae. There are eight pairs of cervical nerves, twelve pairs of thoracic, five pairs of lumbar, five pairs of sacral, and one coccygeal nerve. Apart f...
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This chapter discusses the pathology and nursing assessment for multiple sclerosis. Multiple sclerosis is a condition affecting the central nervous system in which there is patchy degeneration of the myelin sheath covering the nervous tissue. It is found that although the cause is unknown, certain facts are available that have given rise to various...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the different aspects of descending motor tracts. The purpose of the motor pathways is to initiate movement and the descending pathways responsible for initiating voluntary movements form the pyramidal system. Motor activity originates in the precentral gyrus of the cortex, situated in front of the central sulcus, where the m...
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This chapter discusses the basal nuclei in the cerebral hemisphere. The basal nuclei are masses of gray matter, not in the cortex but within the cerebral hemisphere, and separated from the thalami on each side by the internal capsule. They lie in close proximity to the lateral ventricles. They include the corpus striatum, the amygdaloid body, and t...
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This chapter discusses subacute peripheral and chronic peripheral neuritis. Peripheral neuritis is really a group of different disorders affecting the peripheral nerves. The spinal nerves are the main ones to be affected although the cranial nerves may also be involved. The peripheral nerve cell, the myelin sheath, or the Schwann cell may be affect...
Chapter
This chapter describes the neurological examination to test the functioning of the various nerve pathways. The patient's co-operation will be required with many of the tests and therefore, it is very important that he knows what is required of him. Much of the examination may appear irrelevant; therefore, a full explanation is given as to what is g...
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This chapter discusses the nerves of the lower limb. The fourth lumbar and the sacral spinal nerves form the sacral plexus that passes in front of the sacrum but then travels through the obturator foramen of the pelvis to the back. As it passes posteriorly, it becomes narrower to form the sciatic nerve. Branches are given off to form the gluteal ne...
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This chapter discusses the diagnosis and pathology of Minieres disease. This condition arises as a result of an intermittent increase in the endolymph which fills the labyrinth and the cochlea of the ear and damages the receptors in these two organs. Why it occurs is unknown but it may be due to some vascular disturbance. Gradually, the receptor or...
Chapter
This chapter describes the nursing care for the paralyzed patient. A patient may develop paralysis in any part of his body due to trauma, disease processes, or congenital abnormalities. The paralysis has a defined pattern according to which nerves are affected. One side of the body is affected, with weakness or complete paralysis. Cerebrovascular a...
Chapter
T Encephalitis is a severe, diffuse inflammation of the brain, and arises as a result of bacterial or viral infection. The latter is usually following a generalized disease such as measles, polio, or pneumonia. The virus herpes simplex that causes the cold sore commonly found on the lips has also been found to cause encephalitis. In the very young,...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the lesions of the spinal cord. The spinal cord may damage by trauma in the form of penetrating wounds or a whip-lash injury or it may be affected by disease, tumors, or an abscess. The effects of trauma depend on the severity of the lesion and the level at which it occurs. Trauma that does not sever the spinal cord but cause...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the nursing care of the unconscious patient. The unconscious patient is unable to maintain the normal activities of the body without assistance. The aim is to maintain life support and to prevent any complications arising. It is essential to check that there is no foreign body such as false teeth blocking the airway. The pati...
Chapter
This chapter describes the different aspects of neurological observations. Early assessment is vital to set a baseline, as prompt recognition of changes can prevent irreversible brain damage and death. A brief description of the exact response of the patient is better than vague terms such as semiconscious. It is found that if the eyes are closed,...
Chapter
This chapter presents an introduction to the peripheral nervous system. The peripheral nervous system is the part of the nervous system that links the central nervous system with the peripheral parts of the body. There are thirty one pairs of spinal nerves which enter and leave the spinal cord, one pair between each pair of vertebrae. They include...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the structure and function of the spinal cord. The spinal cord lies in the vertebral canal that is formed by the neural arches. It stretches from the foramen magnum in the base of the skull to the level of the second lumbar vertebra, where it is connected to the lower end of the vertebral canal by the fibrous filum terminate....
Chapter
This chapter describes the pathology and effects of epilepsy. Epilepsy is the name given to the condition in which an individual has recurring fits arising from a sudden abnormal activity of the brain. It is thought that this may be due to biochemical changes. Epilepsy is not a disease in the true sense, because it can only be said to be present wh...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the different aspects of neurological examination. The lumbar puncture is one of the first investigations likely to be performed. It is done to take a small specimen of cerebrospinal fluid to examine it for the presence of blood, microorganisms, and changes in its composition. It may also be used to introduce substances to en...
Chapter
This chapter describes the hypothalamus situated behind the optic chiasma and beneath the floor of the third ventricle. The function of hypothalamus includes the control of the posterior and anterior pituitary, the reticular formation, the autonomic nervous system, and body temperature. Secretory nerve cells within the hypothalamus produce the horm...
Chapter
This chapter describes the cerebral hemisphere and cerebral cortex. The forebrain consists of the two cerebral hemispheres, which almost fill the skull, the thalamus, and the hypothalamus, with associated nerve fibers. These are separated from one another by the median longitudinal fissure into which the dura mater dips. It is found that although a...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the appearance and conditions of Parkinson's disease. This disease is a degenerative disorder of the basal nuclei. The pigmented cells of the basal nuclei form a chemical transmitter substance, dopamine, which travels to the corpus striatum to act as an inhibitor. The excitatory transmitter substance is acetylcholine. These t...
Chapter
This chapter describes the venous drainage of the brain. Venous blood is drained by means of venous sinuses which lie between the two layers of the dura mater. Blood drains from the brain into the adjacent venous sinuses. There are many of these linking with each other. The most notable is the superior sagittal sinus which travels from the anterior...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the investigation and treatment of brain tumors. Tumors occur in the cerebellum in children and in this case are inoperable, being treated by radiotherapy. They may also arise in the ganglia of the autonomic nervous system and the medulla of the adrenal gland. These tumors developing in the central nervous system more commonl...
Chapter
This chapter describes the structure and function of eyes. The retina, the inner layer of the eye, is composed of specialized receptor cells called rods and cones that are sensitive to light. The rods are spread across the retina but are absent in the fovea centralis. They are sensitive to low levels of light but are not sensitive to color. The con...
Chapter
This chapter describes the causes of headaches and migraine. Headaches do not arise from the brain itself or the overlying skull but occur due to tension in the scalp muscles or changes in the caliber of the blood vessels. Less commonly, they occur as a result of increased intracranial pressure, arising from a space-occupying lesion, or lowered int...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the function of cerebrospinal fluid. In the roof of each of the ventricles are the tufts of capillaries covered by pia mater. These are the choroid plexuses and secrete the cerebrospinal fluid. From the ventricles, the cerebrospinal fluid passes through narrow channels into the subarachnoid space, so bathing the brain and spi...
Chapter
This chapter describes the relation between hearing and balance. Hearing and balance are very closely connected. The vestibular apparatus consists of the three semicircular canals, the utricle, and saccule. Each of the semicircular canals is in three different planes and contains the fluid endolymph. At the ends of the canals are enlarged areas cal...
Chapter
This chapter describes the structure and function of ascending sensory tracts. The sensations of pain, temperature, and touch are fed into the body from the environment by numerous receptors and nerve endings in the skin. Other sensations regarding position, vibration, discrimination of shape, size, and texture, and accurate localization of touch a...
Chapter
This chapter elaborates the midbrain, pons, and the medulla oblongata. The brain stem includes the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata. All the cranial nerves except the olfactory and optic rise in this area. The ascending reticular formation, a network of cells and fibers, is also found here. The latter stretches from the medulla oblongata to th...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the receptors for smell and taste. The receptors for smell are situated in a very small area of the mucous membrane in the upper part of the nose. The processes from these receptors pass up through tiny openings in the thin plate of bone immediately above and end in the olfactory bulb. Nerve fibers go from the olfactory bulb...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the structure and mechanism of hearing receptors. The receptors of hearing are found in the cochlea of the inner ear. The cochlea is a spiral tube, divided into three channels along its length by two membranes. They are the basilar and vestibular membranes. The basilar membrane is wider at one end than the other. In the centr...
Chapter
This chapter describes the nerves of the upper limb. The anterior branches of the spinal nerves in the lower cervical region leave the spinal cord at the level of the lower part of the neck. They link up together forming the brachial plexus, which travels through the axilla to supply the arm. Any pressure in the axilla, as from crutches, or the abn...
Chapter
This chapter reviews the diagnosis and pathology of spina bifida. This condition arises because of an abnormality in the development of the vertebral column. The spinal processes do not fuse together to form the neural arch. It most commonly occurs in the lumbar region but can be anywhere in the vertebral column. In this condition, there is nonfusi...
Chapter
This chapter describes the trigeminal and facial nerves. The fifth cranial nerve has three divisions supplying sensation to the head. The first division supplies the front two-thirds of the scalp and a part of the nose, the second division supplies cheeks, upper lips and nose, and the third division supplies the front of the lower jaw and the tempo...
Chapter
This chapter describes the pathology and nursing assessment of meningitis. Meningitis is the inflammation of the meninges due to the invasion of microorganisms. These organisms may be bacteria or viruses. The meningococcus, pneumococcus, and hemolytic streptococcus are all pyogenic bacteria capable of causing meningitis. In the newborn baby, E. col...
Chapter
This chapter describes the diagnosis and pathology of hydrocephalus. Hydrocephalus occurs as a result of deficient absorption of the cerebrospinal fluid. Obstruction in the exit from the fourth ventricle into the subarachnoid space is the most common reason. This may be present at birth, in which case there may be other associated congenital defect...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the structure and functions of neurons. The neuron or nerve cell is the functional unit of the nervous system. It consists of a cell body and a number of nerve fibers. The function of the neuron is to carry information in the form of nerve impulses from one point to another. As with any other cell in the body, cytoplasm forms...
Chapter
This chapter explains the extradural and subdural hemorrhage. Extradural hemorrhage likely to occur in the younger patient and is bleeding between the skull and the dura because of a ruptured middle meningeal artery, which is just inside the skull. It can extend quickly and if not treated will cause death. Casualties may or may not lose consciousne...
Chapter
This chapter describes different types of receptors for touch. The receptors for touch appear to be of two different types, bare nerve endings and Meissners corpuscles. The latter are coiled nerve endings containing little discs which are encapsulated. They are found in the fingers and other very sensitive areas. The Pacinian corpuscles are found u...
Chapter
This chapter describes the different aspects of the cerebral hemispheres. Within the substance of the cerebral hemispheres are groups of cells and their dendrites that form masses of gray matter, the thalamus, and basal nuclei. This consists of two oval masses of cells either side of the third ventricle. The lateral ventricles are just above. It is...
Chapter
This chapter describes the diagnosis and pathology of anterior poliomyelitis. Anterior poliomyelitis is a notifiable infectious disease affecting children and young adults. There are three different viruses causing the disease, each of which is capable of causing paralysis. It is found that although they all stimulate the production of antibodies,...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the central nervous system. The central nervous system consists of the brain, which is within the cranial cavity, and the spinal cord contained within the vertebral column. This includes the two cerebral hemispheres, the cerebellum, the thalamus, the basal ganglia, the hypothalamus, the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata....
Chapter
This chapter discusses the structure and function of the meninges. The brain and spinal cord are covered by four membranes called collectively the meninges. The dura mater, the outer covering, is a tough fibrous coat consisting of two layers. The outer layer lines the skull, the inner one loosely covering the brain and spinal cord. These two layers...
Chapter
This chapter describes the effects of cerebrovascular accident. From each of the three main cerebral arteries, there are branches to the deeper substance of the brain. It is found that if one of these ruptures or becomes blocked, oxygen cannot reach the part of the brain supplied by it which will therefore die or become infarcted. It is found that...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the arterial supply of the brain. It is absolutely vital that the brain receives a constant supply of oxygen and glucose through the circulatory system. It is found that if it is deprived of either of these substances for more than three to four minutes, as in cardiac arrest or hypoglycemia, cells will die. Anteriorly the blo...
Chapter
This chapter describes the structure and function of the cerebellum. This part of the brain is situated beneath the occipital lobe of the cerebrum and behind the midbrain. The fourth ventricle lies behind it. Separating the cerebellum from the cerebrum is a fold of dura mater called the tentorium cerebelli. There are two cerebellar hemispheres join...
Chapter
This chapter discusses the autonomic nervous system. The autonomic nervous system is in control of all those functions of the body that take place automatically, such as the secretions of glands and the constriction of smooth muscle in blood vessels and organs. The hypothalamus has a controlling influence over it as well as over the endocrine syste...

Citations

... The output from the heart is a function of heart rate and stroke volume; rate is set by the timing of pacemaker cell discharge, whereas stroke volume is set by the degree of filling of cardiac chambers and by the contractility of myocytes throughout the myocardium. In all gnathostome vertebrates, the autonomic nervous system (ANS) innervates the heart to provide fast, reflex-driven modulation of the activity of both pacemaker cells and myocytes (Nilsson, 1983(Nilsson, , 2011Donald, 1998;J€ anig, 2006) to maintain homeostasis. ...
... The temporal lobe posterior limit is indistinct and is conventionally represented by an arbitrary imaginary line drawn from the posterior end of the SF to another imaginary line connecting the posterior tip of the POS and the pre-occipital Ž . notch Martin, 1996 . This definition is not appropriate for precise parcellation, because it is difficult to identify the pre-occipital notch, which is seen only in the three-dimensional view. ...
... The role of the non-myelinating Schwann cell in defining the electrical environment of the unmyelinated axon is unresolved (17,22) and recent studies provide direct evidence that Remak Schwann cells are electrochemically responsive to C fiber action potentials (6,7). The electron microscopic appearance of Remak bundles prompted early concerns that unmyelinated axons were likely to interfere the function of one another (23). Detailed morphological analysis lead to the conclusion that the exchange of axons between Remak bundles was frequent enough to prevent adjacent axons from undergoing supra-threshold voltage changes in response to nearby action potentials. ...