J Alexander Navarro's research while affiliated with University of Michigan and other places

Publications (9)

Article
During the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States, many state governors faced an increasing number of acts of defiance as well as political and legal challenges to their public health emergency orders. Less well studied are the similar acts of protest that occurred during the 1918–1919 influenza pandemic, when residents, business...
Article
http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/166458/1/Michiganders Can Unite to Fight the Pandemic. We're Done it Before. Detroit Free Press November 12, 2020.pdf
Article
https://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/154812/1/WashPost - To Save Lives, Social Distancing Must Continue Longer Than We Expect - 08Apr2020.docx
Article
Applying qualitative historical methods, we examined the consideration and implementation of school closures as a nonpharmaceutical intervention (NPI) in thirty US cities during the spring 2009 wave of the pA(H1N1) influenza pandemic. We gathered and performed close textual readings of official federal, state, and municipal government documents; me...
Article
Full-text available
In June 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) released a request for applications to identify, improve, and evaluate the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza within communities and across international borders (RFA-CI06-010) (1). Eleven studies (Table 1) were funde...
Article
In June 2006, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention released a request for applications to identify, improve, and evaluate the effectiveness of nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs)-strategies other than vaccines and antiviral medications-to mitigate the spread of pandemic influenza within communities and across international borders (RFA...
Article
A critical question in pandemic influenza planning is the role nonpharmaceutical interventions might play in delaying the temporal effects of a pandemic, reducing the overall and peak attack rate, and reducing the number of cumulative deaths. Such measures could potentially provide valuable time for pandemic-strain vaccine and antiviral medication...
Article
Full-text available
We studied nonpharmaceutical interventions used to mitigate the second, and most deadly, wave of the 1918-1920 influenza pandemic in the United States. We conclude that several small communities implemented potentially successful attempts at preventing the introduction of influenza.

Citations

... This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved mortality double-humped curve of the Spanish flu pandemic in 1918; [22] Where the outbreak started to flatten and progress to end when social distancing was properly achieved but, when they ended social distancing process and resumed normal life early, another stronger pandemic with higher mortality occurs in Denver, the USA in 1918. [22] Moreover Our advice to reallocate the BCG vaccine for protection against COVID-19 is based on the capability of the BCG vaccine to induce non-specific innate immunity against various unrelated pathogens including viruses and parasites through an epigenetic reprogramming mechanism that recalls the innate immunity. ...
... Singapore, among other nations such as Taiwan and New Zealand, had been touted globally as a nation effective in its management of the pandemic. Singapore's success had been credited to early response, extensive testing, contact tracing, citizen's knowledge and awareness of the virus, and social distancing measures, against the backdrop of sociopolitical success [16][17][18][19][20]. Adoption of many COVID-19 safety measures does not come easily without sociopolitical success. ...
... Timely school closure and cancellation of public gatherings was significantly associated with reduced mortality related to influenza epidemics during the 1918 influenza epidemic in the United States (Chen et al., 2011) [19] . More than 1,300 publiccharter, and private schools in 240 communities across the United States closed during the spring wave of the 2009 pA (H1N1) pandemic (Navarro et al., 2016) [64] . School closure also raises a range of ethical and social issues, particularly since families from underprivileged backgrounds are likely to be disproportionately affected by the intervention (Cauchemez et al., 2009) [16] . ...
... Studies evaluating the effect of programs to improve immunization uptake in LMICs are very limited. Programs that create awareness, provide health education to the community, and teach preventive behaviours are found to help increase knowledge and change attitudes and behaviours of the community [20][21][22][23]. Specifically, targeted interventions such as community or facility-based educational programs to caregivers, providing reminder cards to mothers, home visits by ASHAs or ANMs, and integrating immunization with other primary health care services have been found to be somewhat effective in increasing immunization uptake in LMICs [24]. ...
... Emergent infectious diseases often have no effective medical treatment or preventive vaccine and as such require nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPI) as a public health intervention to reduce disease transmission, especially in the early stages of an outbreak (Aiello et al. 2010;Aledort et al. 2007;Nussbaumer-Streit et al. 2020). These interventions are commonly based on physical (also called social or spatial) distancing to minimize contact between individuals. ...
... The idea of protective sequestration as a preventive measure during a pandemic has been previously described by Markel et al. 9 During the influenza pandemic of 1918-1920, nonpharmaceutical interventions were effectively used in 6 unique geographic locations in the United States, including a military installation, a mountain town, a rural community, and a college campus. These areas actively protected the population using strict protocols for entering and leaving and a quarantine requirement for visitors. ...
... When the H1N1 pandemic erupted in 1918, nonpharmaceutical interventions were the only available resources to control the epidemic. These interventions include the notification of suspected cases to authorities, the isolation of infected individuals and a mandated quarantine for the contacts of infected individuals (Markel et al., 2007;Martini et al., 2019). Furthermore, the use of face masks, surveillance of communities, closure of meeting venues and hygienic measures were implemented to reduce transmissions (Markel et al., 2007;Humphreys, 2018;Martini et al., 2019). ...