J. A. Ratter's research while affiliated with Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and other places

Publications (42)

Article
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Less than half of the original two million square kilometers of the Cerrado vegetation remains standing, and there are still many uncertainties as to how to conserve and prioritize remaining areas effectively. A key limitation is the continuing lack of geographically-extensive evaluation of ecosystem-level properties across the biome. Here we sough...
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The Cerrado is a biodiversity hotspot in central Brazil that is the largest expanse of savanna in the Neotropics. Here, we aim to identify and delimit biogeographic districts within the Cerrado, to provide a geographic framework for conservation planning and scientific research prioritization. We used data from 588 sites with tree species inventori...
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In order to develop niche models for tree species characteristic of the cerrado vegetation (woody savannas) of central South America, and to hindcast their distributions during the Last Glacial Maximum and Last Inter-Glacial, we compiled a dataset of tree species checklists for typical cerrado vegetation (n=282) and other geographically co-occurrin...
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Sampling along a precipitation gradient in tropical South America extending from ca. 0.8 to 2.0 m a−1, savanna soils had consistently lower exchangeable cation concentrations and higher C / N ratios than nearby forest plots. These soil differences were also reflected in canopy averaged leaf traits with savanna trees typically having higher leaf mas...
Article
The Cerrado is a fire-dependent savanna requiring a clear and urgent fire management policy. The extensive misuse of fire for deforestation or pasture management in Brazil has created an overall perception that its use is always deleterious. This view, reinforced by threats of global warming and climatic change, has lead to current policies of fire...
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Full-text available
Sampling along a precipitation gradient in tropical America extending from ca. 0.8 to 2.0 m a−1, savanna soils had consistently lower exchangeable cation concentrations and higher C/N ratios than nearby forest plots. These soil differences were also reflected in canopy averaged leaf traits with savanna trees typically having higher leaf mass per un...
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Through interpretations of remote-sensing data and/or theoretical propositions, the idea that forest and savanna represent "alternative stable states" is gaining increasing acceptance. Filling an observational gap, we present detailed stratified floristic and structural analyses for forest and savanna stands located mostly within zones of transitio...
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This study describes the tree vegetation and soils occurring in a seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) and mesotrophic cerradão transition in southwestern Brazil. All trees ≥ 5 cm diameter were measured in 20 plots of 20 × 25 m, 10 in SDTF, and 10 in mesotrophic cerradão. Ten soil samples of 0−20 cm depth were made per plot and mixed in plot group...
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This study describes the influence of edaphic factors on the floristic composition of an area of cerradão (woodland savanna) in the city of Campo Grande, located in the Brazilian central-west. In 10 plots (5 × 20 m each), we evaluated all trees with a diameter at breast height > 4.77 cm. Soil samples were analyzed for each plot in order to determin...
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Lowland savannas, covering an area of 2,342 km2, form the third largest ecosystem in Belize yet are unevenly and therefore poorly represented in the country’s protected area system. Based on more than 5,700 herbarium collections, a checklist of 957 species of vascular plants is presented for this ecosystem representing ca. 28% of the Belizean flora...
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Background: There is no generally agreed classification scheme for the many different vegetation formation types occurring in the tropics. This hinders cross-continental comparisons and causes confusion as words such as ‘forest’ and ‘savanna’ have different meanings to different people. Tropical vegetation formations are therefore usually imprecise...
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The changes in floristic composition, richness, species diversity and ecological groups of a semideciduous seasonal forest located at 14°49′32″S 52°06′20″W in the Cerrado–Amazonian Forest transition, in the area of Nova Xavantina, eastern Mato Grosso, Brazil, were determined between 2003 and 2008. Sixty permanent plots of 10 × 10 m were established...
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This study describes the structure of the arboreal plant community in a cerradão fragment located at the Serra de Caldas Novas State Park, Goiás, central Brazil. It also compares the collected data with information from 10 other cerradão sites on dystrophic and mesotrophic soils. All trees of 4.77 cm or more diameter at breast height, in twenty-fiv...
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Two inventories in an area of cerrado stricto sensu of mesotrophic type, were carried out, the first in 1997 and the second in 2002. The data were collected in 28 contiguous permanent plots with an area of 15 x 15 m each (0.63 ha). All individuals with stems of diameter > 3 cm at 0.30 m above ground level were identified and measured. During the fi...
Article
Two inventories in an area of cerrado stricto sensu of mesotrophic type, were carried out, the first in 1997 and the second in 2002 . The data were collected in 28 contiguous permanent plots with an area of 15 x 15 m each (0.63 ha) . All individuals with stems of diameter > 3 cm at 0.30 m above ground level were identified and measured . During the...
Article
A study was made of the transition between the cerrado and Amazonian forest biomes on the Serra do Roncador in the northeast of Mato Grosso State, Brazil. The transition was sampled by recording the species and circumference at breast height (cbh) of all woody species [greater-than-or-equal] 15 cm cbh on five 20 × 10 m plots in each of the followin...
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Surveys over a period of 38 years have shown a rapid successional change in the remaining areas of cerrado vegetation in western São Paulo State. Cerradão (the dense, tall, forest form of cerrado (sensu lato)) and cerrado/Atlantic forest ecotonal vegetation have replaced more open forms (such as campo cerrado) during this period. An aerial photogra...
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From a total woody flora of ca. 1000 species, a suite of 121 species forms an oligarchy dominating the cerrado biome. This mirrors patterns of dominance described in western Amazonian rain forests. Widespread sampling shows that across the biome this suite of species contributes on average 66% of the total species composition, and 75% of the total...
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Natural cerrado vegetation in São Paulo State now covers less than 7% of its original area and exists only as isolated fragments. Eighty-six sites in these priority cerrado conservation areas were surveyed using a rapid assessment technique. A total of 554 species of vascular plants, belonging to 77 families, was recorded. The vegetation types enco...
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An analysis was made of the floristic composition of 376 areas of cerrado and Amazonian savanna, encompassing most of the area of such vegetation in Brazil. A total of 951 species of trees and large shrubs was recorded for these areas, of which 334 (35%) occurred at only a single locality (unicates). The core cerrado area and its outliers were stud...
Article
Between the late 1980s and early 1990s, significant sections of the Belizean coast came under escalating pressure from development. The resulting habitat loss highlighted the need for a comprehensive assessment of the extent, characteristics and use of the country’s remaining mangrove.This paper reports on the resulting study, and confirms the pres...
Article
Between the late 1980s and early 1990s, significant sections of the Belizean coast came under escalating pressure from development. The resulting habitat loss highlighted the need for a comprehensive assessment of the extent, characteristics and use of the country’s remaining mangrove.This paper reports on the resulting study, and confirms the pres...
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A floristic inventory and preliminary vegetation classification were made for the tracts of savanna and associated wetland vegetation in the Rio Bravo Conservation and Management Area (RBCMA) in Belize. A total of 258 species were recorded, representing c.7% of the Belizean flora. Of these, 148 species are characteristic of the drier savanna system...
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The paper reports the results of the vegetation survey of the Ilha de Maracá, which is situated at the junction of the Amazonian forest (Hylaea) and the great areas of dry savanna which lie to the south and east on the mainland, running through into the Rupununi savannas of Guyana. About 90% of the island is forested and dry savanna only occurs as...
Article
The Brazilian cerrado (savanna) biome covers 2 million km2representing 23% of the area of the country. It is an ancient biome with rich biodiversity, estimated at 160000 species of plants, fungi and animals. There are about 800 species of trees and large shrubs in the savanna vegetation and several times that number of ground species (herbs and sub...
Article
An analysis was made of the floristic composition of 98 areas of cerrado and Amazonian savanna, encompassing most of the area of such vegetation in Brazil. A total of 534 species of trees and large shrubs were recorded for these areas, of which 158 (30%) occurred at a single site only. Such unicates and taxa without determinations to specific level...
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The floristic nature of central Brazilian forests, as well as their links to other main forest formations of eastern tropical South America, is assessed by means of multivariate analyses of 106 existing floristic checklists and by the analysis of a series of dot-maps showing the distribution of 55 woody species. Most species of central Brazilian fo...
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1. Maraca, Brazil, is a large riverine island which is at the boundary between lowland evergreen rain forest and savanna. The island is now uninhabited but there is evidence that much of its forest (including the plots described in this paper) is secondary, dating from before 1880. 2. The mean annual rainfall is about 2300 mm and there is a dry sea...
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An analysis was made of the floristic composition of 26 cerrado areas in Brazil, encompassing most of the latitudinal and much of the longitudinal extension of this vegetation. A total of 485 species of trees and large shrubs occurred in these areas but those present at only one site were eliminated so that the number analysed was reduced to 255. N...
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Clearance of evergreen seasonal forest for cattle pasture is examined in an area of northern Roraima. Colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq.) and kikuyu grass (Brachiaria humidicola (Rendle) Schweik.) are commonly established on cleared forest land. Current rates of clearance are rather low as also is grazing intensity (1–2 animals ha−1), but soil physica...
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The Morro de Fumaca, Municipio de Torixoreu, Mato Grosso, Brazil, is a low hill characteristic of a range of similar topographic features in the region. It shows a suite of representative and rapidly disappearing vegetation types together with their associated soils. The upper slopes are clothed in deciduous forest, which is followed downslope by a...
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"Papers originally presented at a symposium held in Glasgow in January 1990" Incluye bibliografía e índice

Citations

... The most common phytophysiognomies of this biome are Cerrado sensu stricto, with shrubs, trees and grasses, and rocky fields, a herbaceous-shrub form, with the presence of undeveloped trees associated with rock outcrops (Ribeiro and Walter 1998;Coutinho 2000). Although there has been a growing interest in studying the Brazilian Cerrado in the last decades, the knowledge of its flora is still limited, and most works have focused on tree species (Ratter et al. 2003;Almeida et al. 2005;Françoso et al. 2020). In this biome, the herbaceous-shrub stratum is highly representative and can be used as a parameter to evaluate the degree of disturbance in this ecosystem (Appezzato-da-Glória et al. 2008), but little genetic information is available for herbaceous plants. ...
... The taxonomic implications of pollen variation in the vataireoid clade go beyond its utility in species or generic delimitation, thus merely assisting taxonomic classifications in the clade. For example, given the high ecological dominance of vataireoid species in savannas, Amazonian rain forests and dry forests and woodlands in caatinga (Ratter, Bridgewater & Ribeiro, 2006;Cardoso et al., 2014), the detailed pollen descriptions presented here will be important for identifying any vataireoid pollen type in studies aiming to identify the origin of beekeeping products (Oliveira, van den Berg & Santos, 2010;Rech & Absy, 2011;Souza, Abreu & Novais, 2018) or reconstructing the history of Neotropical palaeovegetation (Buso-Júnior et al., 2013;Cohen et al., 2014;Akabane et al., 2020). ...
... Overall, nutrient cycling in the Cerrado is controlled by warm temperatures and seasonal precipitation over highly weathered soils and nutrient constraints. These very specific pedoclimatic conditions of the Cerrado highlight the dichotomy in soil nutrient cycling in agrosystems, especially for C and N, as both input (C and N fixation) and output rates (decomposition of plant residues and soil organic matter (SOM)) are intensified (Lilienfein et al. 2001Lilienfein and Wilcke 2004;Bustamante et al. 2012;Morandi et al. 2020;Inkotte et al. 2022). Under degraded pastures, soil nutrient dynamics are biased toward C and N losses due to low inputs and high decomposition rates that lead to soil degradation de Oliveira et al. 2004;Wilcke and Lilienfein 2003). ...
... Our hypothesis for the speciation of Monospilus species in the Cerrado domain is related to the refuges theory and based on palynographic data. These data suggest that climatic events in the Pleistocene and Holocene disrupted the distribution ranges of species, resulting in high diversity and endemism in some morphoclimatic domains of South America (Ratter et al. 2006). The occupation of semiterrestrial habitats by M. macroerosus sp. ...
... Without wildfires, forests would expand into the present savanna areas (Bond et al., 2005;Hirota et al., 2010). In addition, edaphic conditions, periodic inundation, and livestock grazing also influence the vegetation transition of forests and savanna (Blydenstein, 1967;Lehmann et al., 2014;Lloyd et al., 2015;Skarpe, 1991). The disagreement among studies with respect to the potential vegetation in these regions suggests that these non-climatic factors contribute to global forest establishment. ...
... As famílias Anacardeaceae e Arecaceae, foram as mais características, representam 10 % das famílias encontradas na área. As subfamílias Mimosoideae e Caesalpinioideae ocorrem principalmente nas regiões tropicais e subtropicais, enquanto a subfamília Papilonoideae é mais amplamente distribuída (Polhill e Raven, 1981 A elevada β-diversidade do cerrado sensu lato vem sendo recentemente discutida, principalmente em alguns estudos de ampla escala, que demonstram ser este um padrão dominante neste bioma, onde há poucas espécies de ampla distribuição e uma maioria de espécies de ocorrência restrita (Ratter et al., 2003;Bridgewater et al., 2004). ...
... This intricate connection between climate and the biota underlies influential hypotheses regarding bioregionalization and diversification. In particular, alternation between glacial and interglacial periods of the Pleistocene played a key role in shaping current patterns of species and biome distribution (Bueno et al. 2017;Costa et al. 2017;Ledo and Colli 2017;Buzatti et al. 2018). ...
... As they are in an ecotone, they share some species, but have floristic differences and many different indicator species. Amongst the indicator species of the Cerrado Rupestre, we can highlight woody species, such as Mimosa setosissima Taub., Tibouchina papyrus (Pohl) Toledo, Wunderlichia mirabilis Riedel ex Baker, amongst others (Ratter et al. 2000;Ribeiro and Walter 2008;Pinto et al. 2009), while for the Campo Rupestre, we can highlight Coccoloba cereifera Schwacke, Comanthera elegantula (Ruhland) L.R.Parra & Giul., Paepalanthus bromelioides Silveira, amongst others (Brazilian Flora 2022). ...
... abandoned meander bends) during the Holocene are scarce in Brazil. Rivers represent the most frequent, significant, and dynamic agents in transport and deposition of sediments in areas covered by the transition from the Cerrado to the Seasonal Semidecidual Forest (Durigan, 1994;Durigan et al., 2003;Graham, 2011;Oliveira-Filho et al., 2013). However, one of the main obstacles to study flooded areas is its sedimentary record, due to temporal and spatial variations in river channels, and occurrences of high energy events that may affect stability on riverbanks. ...
... After some intermediate studies (Oliveira-Filho and Ratter, 1995;Ratter et al., 1996Ratter et al., , 2001, Ratter et al. (2003) evaluated 376 cerrado areas recording 951 tree species or large shrubs from campo cerrado to cerradão, excluding mesotrophic or gallery forests. In this study, Ratter et al. (2003) (Southern, Central South-eastern, Central-Western, North-eastern, Far Western, and Disjunct Amazonian), which each province characterized by a significant number of unique species (Ratter et al., 2003). ...