Izja Lederhendler's research while affiliated with National Institutes of Health and other places

Publications (28)

Article
Full-text available
The patch-clamp technique was used to study the effects of classical conditioning and protein kinase C (PKC) activation on K+ channels of identified neurons in the snail Hermissenda crassicornis. Here we present evidence that classical conditioning and PKC activation similarly modify the same K+ channel. K+ channels were recorded in cells from anim...
Article
We have found changes in the morphology of photoreceptor somata from the mollusc Hermissenda that are produced by application of 12,13-phorbol dibutyrate (PDBU), an activator of PKC, in combination with elevated intracellular Ca2+ levels. The changes in morphology were expressed as rapid and repetitive outgrowths and additionally as more general ch...
Article
Conditioned suppression of photokinesis by the marine mollusc Hermissenda was examined in 3 experiments. In each experiment, groups of animals received light (the conditioned stimulus, CS) that was paired with high-speed orbital rotation (the unconditioned stimulus, UCS), light and rotation explicitly unpaired, or no exposure to these stimuli. Twen...
Article
Full-text available
Neural and behavioral correlates of an associative memory in Hermissenda were examined during induction and/or formation of the memory. Hermissenda received either light (conditioned stimulus or CS) and rotation (unconditioned stimulus or US) paired (i.e., Pavlovian conditioning), light and rotation unpaired (pseudoconditioning), or no exposure to...
Article
Classical conditioning of the marine snail Hermissenda can be produced in a single session of 50 pairings of light and rotation stimuli. Voltage clamp measurements of two outward K+ currents, IA and ICa2(+)-K+ were obtained from medial Type B photoreceptors that were isolated from the nervous system 1 day after animals were exposed to paired light...
Article
Full-text available
Associative memory of the mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis, previously correlated with changes of specific K+ currents, protein phosphorylation, and increased synthesis of mRNA and specific proteins, is here shown to be accompanied by macroscopic alteration in the structure of a single identified neuron, the medial type B photoreceptor cell. Four t...
Article
We examined the role of the interstimulus interval for the conditioned association between light and rotation stimuli in the marine snail Hermissenda. This interval between the conditioned stimulus (CS) and the unconditioned stimulus (US) is an important and widespread property of vertebrate associative learning. We demonstrated that with a forward...
Article
Pavlovian conditioning of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis was previously shown to produce long-lasting reduction of two K+ currents measured across the Type B photoreceptor soma membrane (Alkon et al., 1982a; Alkon et al., 1985). Pavlovian conditioning of the rabbit was also shown to be followed by persistent K+ current reduction (D...
Article
When the nudibranch Hermissenda crassicornis encounters a shadow in an otherwise uniformly illuminated field, it stops and turns back into the light within seconds. Associative conditioning, with paired light and rotation stimuli, produces learned modifications of phototaxis in illumination gradients. This same training procedure significantly redu...
Article
Type B photoreceptors of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis receive excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) whose frequency is controlled by potential changes of a neighboring cell known as the S optic ganglion cell which is thought to be electrically coupled to the presynaptic source of these EPSPs, the E optic ganglion cell. The frequ...
Article
Type B photoreceptors of the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda crassicornis receive excitatory synaptic potentials (EPSPs) whose frequency is controlled by potential changes of a neighboring cell known as the S optic ganglion cell which is thought to be electrically coupled to the presyn-aptic source of these EPSPs, the E optic ganglion cell. The freq...
Article
Learning in the nudibranch mollusc Hermissenda shows many features of vertebrate associative conditioning. Pairings of light and rotation produce conditioned suppression of phototaxis, which is retained for days, shows savings, extinction, contingency sensitivity, and, recently, temporal specificity. In addition, specific features of the behavior h...
Article
Tsukahara creatively exploited the advantages of a "simple system" approach in a vertebrate context to gain cellular insights into the learning process. The molluscs Aplysia and Hermissenda have provided useful invertebrate examples of this approach. For classical conditioning of Hermissenda a temporal sequence of cellular transformations has been...
Article
Tsukahara creatively exploited the advantages of a “simple system” approach in a vertebrate context to gain cellular insights into the learning process. The molluscs Aplysia and Hermissenda have provided useful invertebrate examples of this aproach. For classical conditioning of Hermissenda a temporal sequence of cellular transformations has been f...
Article
Full-text available
Training of the marine snail Hermissenda crassicornis with paired light and rotation was previously shown to result in acquisition and retention of a behavioral change with many features characteristic of vertebrate associative learning. Here, this behavioral change is demonstrated to be classical, Pavlovian-like conditioning. A new response to lig...
Article
A single identified neuron, the medial type B photoreceptor, was isolated by axotomy from the nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs (Hermissenda) which had been exposed to three different training experiences. Paired animals had been trained with repeated paired presentations of light and rotation and random animals with randomized light and rotat...
Article
A single identified neuron, the medial type B photoreceptor, was isolated by axotomy from the nervous systems of nudibranch molluscs (Hermissenda) which had been exposed to three different training experiences. Paired animals had been trained with repeated paired presentations of light and rotation and random animals with randomized light and rotat...
Article
Full-text available
The effect of associative training on an identified putative motoneuron (MN1) in an identified visual input-output neural pathway was studied in Hermissenda crassicornis. The increased impulse frequency of the MN1 cell in response to a light step (MN1-LR) was found to be smaller up to 54 hr after associative training with paired light and rotation...
Article
A single identified neuron was repeatedly isolated by axotomy from the central nervous system of the nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis. An early voltage-dependent outward K+ current of this neuron was reduced and more rapidly inactivated for animals previously trained with paired but not randomized light and rotation. Since this current c...
Article
The behavior of individual nudibranchs (Hermissenda) in a light gradient was measured by the use of mucous trails and direct time-sampled observations. The trails permitted a detailed quantitative characterization of locomotion in terms of circular distributions, time spent in different zones of light intensity, and temporal change in the spatial r...
Article
Sixteen reproductively matureAplysia dactylomela were observed in a unidirectional stream under each of four conditions: sea water only, one sea hare, six sea hares, and a copulating sea hare pair. Streams containing conspecific stimulation were significantly more effective in eliciting a positive taxis towards the stimulus source. A copulating pai...

Citations

... In biological systems, a fundamental associative learning process -classical conditioning -can be described as the neural circuit in Fig. 1a (31,32). The unconditioned stimulus (UCS) is the input from a sensory neuron (blue) that naturally triggers the response from a motor neuron (green), while the neutral stimulus (NS) is the input from another sensory neuron (red) that does not normally trigger the response until it is 'associated' (or 'temporally paired') with the UCS. ...
... One manifestation of this is the increased latency to initiate locomotion toward the light source (Crow and Offenbach, 1983;Farley and Alkon, 1982). Even though the time to initiate locomotion (measured as a latency to reach a criterion distance) is on the order of several minutes, it is clear from other observations (Barnes and Lederhendler, 198 1;Lederhendler and Alkon, 1984;Lederhendler et al., 1983;I. Lederhendler and D. L. Alkon, unpublished observations) that some changes happen immediately on presentation of the light. ...
... In sensory systems of a number of invertebrate species, neuromodulators such as S-HT have pronounced effects on both behavior and the excitability of identified target neurons (Adolph and Tuan, 1972;Barlow et al., 1977;Gershon, 1977;Corrent et al., 1978;Klein and Kandel, 1978;Gelperin, 1981;Mackey and Carew, 1983;Crow and Bridge, 1985;Jacklet and Acosta-Urquidi, 1985;Ocorr and Byrne, 1985;Acosta-Urquidi et al., 1989;Dixon and Atwood, 1989;Farley and Wu, 1989;Hawkins, 1989;Hawkins and Schacher, 1989;Mackey et al., 1989). Application of 5-HT to the visual system of Hermissenda enhances both the amplitude and the duration of light-evoked generator potentials recorded from type-B photoreceptors (Crow and Bridge, 1985;Farley and Auerbach, 1986;Sakakibara et al., 1987). Biochemical studies have demonstrated that 5-HT is endogenous to the cerebropleural and pedal ganglia ofHermissenda (Heldman and Alkon, 1978). ...
... Locomotory and sensory systems have been studied in the opisthobranchs Aplysia spp. (e.g., Audesirk and Audesirk, 1977;Lederhendler et al., 1977;Fredman and Jahan-Parwar, 1980;Teyke et al., 1992;Levy et al., 1997), Navanax inermis (Paine, 1963;Susswein et al., 1982;Leonard, 1992), and Pleurobranchaea californica (Lee et al., 1974;Bicker et al., 1982aBicker et al., , 1982b, among others, and descriptions of field behaviors are also available for several species: Aplysia spp. (Kupfermann and Carew, 1974;Susswein et al., 1984;Leonard and Lukowiak, 1986), Bursatella leachii (Ramos et al., 1995), and Navanax inermis (Leonard and Lukowiak, 1984). ...
... A significant learning effect is also an increase in the input resistance of type B photoreceptors, an increase in the frequency of evoked spikes, and the duration of action potentials [45]. Both animal training and in vitro training produced a marked increase in voltage-and Ca 2+ -dependent K + currents across the membrane of the type B photoreceptors [46]. ...
... For example, some aposematic species have limited visual systems (e.g. nudibranch mollusks; Lederhendler et al. 1980;Serb and Eernisse 2008). However, warning signals have also evolved in groups with well-developed visual systems (e.g. ...
... The dependency of linalool-induced PDS on PKC activity raise the possibility that the enhancement of Ca 2+ currents by PKC may be involved in the development of epileptiform activity. Furthermore, PKC inhibits I K (Etcheberrigaray et al., 1992;Zhang et al., 2001) and suppresses Ca 2+ -activated K + current underlying slow AHP (Malenka et al., 1986) that can contribute to neuronal hyperexcitability and epileptiform activity in snail neuron (Tsai and Chen, 2007;Lin et al., 2010). It has been reported that linalool can activate 5-HT 1 , adenosine A 1 and A 2A G protein coupled receptors (Peana et al., 2006;Guzman-Gutierrez et al., 2015), which are able to stimulate PKC activity (Adayev et al., 2003;De Ponti et al., 2007;Kunduri et al., 2013). ...
... Presynaptically, calexcitin is thought to be a key constituent of terminal nerve endings ( Eyman et al., 2003) and to regulate retrograde axonal transport ( Moshiach et al., 1993). Furthermore, postsynaptically it may alter dendritic morphology upon phosphorylation ( Lederhendler et al., 1990) and can transform synaptic outputs from inhibitory to exci- tatory potentials (Sun et al., 1999). Noteworthy evidence has furthermore suggested that its postsynaptic effects could result from the modulation of intracellular Ca 2+ levels by direct interaction with the ryanodine receptor, facilitating Ca 2+ release from intracellular stores ( Nelson et al., 1999). ...
... The nudibranch mollusk Hermissenda crassicornis (H.c.) has proven to be an important model system for studying the cellular and molecular processes that underlie learning and memory because of its simple and tractable nervous system (∼20,000 neurons), capacity for associative learning (Alkon, 1974;Farley, 1985;Britton and Farley, 1999; see Blackwell and Farley, 2009 for review), and the ability to localize sites of neural plasticity that are causally related to memory acquisition and storage (Farley et al., 1983). H.c. exhibits several cardinal features of vertebrate associative conditioning, including excitatory classical/Pavlovian conditioning Alkon, 1980, 1982;Farley, 1987a), pairing-and stimulus-specificity (Farley and Alkon, 1982;, contingency learning and partial-reinforcement during acquisition (Farley, 1987a,b), potentiation of (excitatory) conditioning by discrete stimulus compounds Farley and Jin, 1997), superior learning for distributed vs. massed training trials (Farley and Alkon, 1987;Farley, 1987b;Rogers et al., 1994;Muzzio et al., 1999), sequential-and temporal-order sensitivity of CS-US pairings Matzel et al., 1990), conditioned inhibitory (CI) learning (Britton and Farley, 1999;Walker et al., 2010), partially distinct mechanisms for short-, intermediate-, and long-term forms of memory (Crow et al., 1997;Epstein et al., 2003), and savings effects and latent memory following forgetting (Matzel et al., 1992). However, despite the extensive research conducted using H.c., only one study has investigated the extinction of excitatory conditioning. ...
... Typically investigators attempt to optimize the conditioning procedures to produce the most robust learning and subsequent LTM formation and thereby enhance their chances of uncovering causal neuronal mechanisms of LTM formation. However, in most cohorts of experimental subjects, there is a subset of subjects that performs significantly better (or significantly worse) than the others in constructing LTM (e.g. Alkon et al., 1990; Ito et al., 1994; Spencer et al., 1999; Lukowiak et al., 2003; Rosenegger et al., 2004). The cause of this phenomenon is unclear. ...