Inge Schweiger Gallo's research while affiliated with Complutense University of Madrid and other places

Publications (38)

Article
The Spanish term grima refers to the aversive emotional experience typically evoked when one hears, for example, a scratch upon a chalkboard. Whereas Spanish speakers can distinguish between the concepts of grima and disgust, English and German speakers lack a specific word for this experience and typically label grima as disgust. In the present re...
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As anger can lead to aggressive behavior aiming at intentionally hurting somebody, the prevention of its destructive consequences with effective emotion regulation strategies is crucial. Two studies tested the idea that mental contrasting with implementation intentions (MCII) interventions would be effective in down-regulating anger. In Study 1, pa...
Article
Although almost everybody has experienced the unpleasant sensation evoked by hearing a scratch on a board or plate, surprisingly little research has been devoted to it. Whereas this emotional experience is known in Spanish as grima, it is typically labeled as disgust by English and German speakers. We hypothesized that grima and disgust would diffe...
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Self-continuity – the sense that one’s past, present, and future are meaningfully connected – is considered a defining feature of personal identity. However, bases of self-continuity may depend on cultural beliefs about personhood. In multilevel analyses of data from 7287 adults from 55 cultural groups in 33 nations, we tested a new tripartite theo...
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People experience an unpleasant sensation when hearing a scratch on a board or plate. The present research focuses on this aversive experience known in Spanish as ‘grima’ with no equivalent term in English and German. We hypothesized that this aversive experience constitutes a distinctive, separate emotional concept. In Study 1, we found that the a...
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Variations in acquiescence and extremity pose substantial threats to the validity of cross-cultural research that relies on survey methods. Individual and cultural correlates of response styles when using 2 contrasting types of response mode were investigated, drawing on data from 55 cultural groups across 33 nations. Using 7 dimensions of self-oth...
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Markus and Kitayama's (1991) theory of independent and interdependent self-construals had a major influence on social, personality, and developmental psychology by highlighting the role of culture in psychological processes. However, research has relied excessively on contrasts between North American and East Asian samples, and commonly used self-r...
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The relative importance of values is a central feature in Schwartz's value theory. However, instruments used for validating his theory did not assess relative importance directly. Rather, values were independently rated and scores then statistically centered, person-by-person. Whether these scores match those that result from explicitly comparing v...
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Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one’s surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for s...
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Several theories propose that self-esteem, or positive self-regard, results from fulfilling the value priorities of one's surrounding culture. Yet, surprisingly little evidence exists for this assertion, and theories differ about whether individuals must personally endorse the value priorities involved. We compared the influence of four bases for s...
Chapter
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Successful goal pursuit requires first selecting and strongly committing to desirable and feasible goals and then effectively implementing them. These two tasks are facilitated by two self-regulatory strategies: The first one, mental contrasting, promotes expectancy-dependent committing and striving for goals, and the second one, forming implementa...
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Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultura...
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Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultura...
Article
Full-text available
Beliefs about personhood are understood to be a defining feature of individualism-collectivism (I-C), but they have been insufficiently explored, given the emphasis of research on values and self-construals. We propose the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, as a facet of cultura...
Article
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The present review adopts an action control perspective on emotion regulation, contextualising the gap between emotion control goals (e.g., I want to remain calm) and emotional outcomes (e.g., anger, anxiety, and aggression) in terms of the broader literature on goal pursuit. We propose that failure to effectively regulate emotions can result from...
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The motive to attain a distinctive identity is sometimes thought to be stronger in, or even specific to, those socialized into individualistic cultures. Using data from 4,751 participants in 21 cultural groups (18 nations and 3 regions), we tested this prediction against our alternative view that culture would moderate the ways in which people achi...
Article
KEY WORDS: Physical exercise, Health, Well-being, Productivity. ABSTRACT: This study analyses a systematic physical activity programme carried out over one year. The study was conducted with 92 employees working in a consultancy company. A total of 53 employees agreed to participate in the programme, while the remaining 39 formed the control group....
Article
The present study considers the importance of analyzing what very powerful or influential people think about their employees. We assumed that belonging to a specific category has a differential effect on the perception of others' thoughts in the organization ("meta-representation"). Therefore, experts in organization and human resources from divers...
Article
Over the past few years, one of the most productive directions in the study of the activation and application of stereotypes has been provided by the essentialist concept of categorization. The research presented here studied the impact of two dimensions of essentialist beliefs--naturalism and entitativity-by using data collected from Brazil, Spain...
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Depression is the leading cause of deterioration in psychological well-being in the world. The present research aimed at analyzing depression from a socio-psychological perspective, focusing on the role of causal attributions on the origins of depressive disorders. Therefore, a model of depression is suggested in which the role of social factors su...
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En el presente estudio se plantea la relevancia de conocer cuál es la representación de quienes ostentan un rol de poder o experto respecto a la imagen que tienen los trabajadores de su organización. Se propone que la pertenencia a un determinado grupo de expertos ejerce un efecto diferencial sobre la representación de esta imagen (metarrepresentac...
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Este artigo aborda os impactos de fatores contextuais na atribuição de afetos a um supervisor e um empregado interagindo em uma situação rotineira de trabalho. Participaram do estudo 465 estudantes universitários de Salvador e Madri. O objetivo é apresentar uma análise qualitativa das respostas a uma questão aberta em que se pedia ao participante d...
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As implementation intentions are a powerful self-regulation tool for thought and action (meta-analysis by P. M. Gollwitzer & P. Sheeran, 2006), the present studies were conducted to address their effectiveness in regulating emotional reactivity. Disgust- (Study 1) and fear- (Study 2) eliciting stimuli were viewed under 3 different self-regulation i...
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A pesquisa tem como objetivo explorar a tendência de concordar com as ações do supervisor ao se analisar uma situação de interação no trabalho. Participaram do estudo 465 estudantes universitários de Salvador e de Madrid concluintes de cursos de administração e engenharia. Através de um diálogo por escrito entre um supervisor e um empregado, analis...
Article
This research aimed at exploring the tendency to agree with a supervisor's actions at a workplace interaction situation. 465 college students from Salvador and Madrid participated in this study, and all of them business administration and engineering seniors. A written dialogue between a supervisor and an employee was presented, concerning the agre...
Article
Resumo A pesquisa tem como objetivo explorar a tendência de concordar com as ações do supervisor ao se analisar uma situação de interação no trabalho. Participaram do estudo 465 estudantes universitários de Salvador e de Madrid concluintes de cursos de administração e engenharia. Através de um diálogo por escrito entre um supervisor e um empregado,...
Article
Full-text available
This research aimed at exploring the tendency to agree with a supervisor�s actions at a workplace interaction situation. 465 college students from Salvador and Madrid participated in this study, and all of them business administration and engineering seniors. A written dialogue between a supervisor and an employee was presented, concerning the agre...
Article
Full-text available
The cognitive consequences of forming implementation intentions in controlling fear were addressed in the present study. Participants with an intense fear of spiders evaluated pictures of spiders, pleasant pictures, and neutral pictures under cognitive load. Regulatory control was measured by participants' self-report ratings of the pictures on the...
Article
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Implementation intentions are if-then plans that spell out when, where, and how a set goal has to be put into action: If situation x is encountered, then I will perform behavior y!, thereby linking a critical situation with a goal-directed behavior. Over the last fifteen years, implementation intentions, as compared to simple goal intentions (I int...
Article
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Las intenciones de implementación: una mirada atrás a quince años de progreso. Las intenciones de implementación son planes si-entonces (if-then plans) que especifican cuándo, dónde y cómo se va a llevar a la acción una meta propuesta: (Si me encuentro con la situación x, entonces llevaré a cabo la conducta y!, ligando de esta manera una situación...

Citations

... Measure of Intergroup Emotions and Feelings. The measure of feelings in intergroup relations was based on previous studies on attributions of emotions between leaders and followers (Gondim, Álvaro-Estramiana, Schweiger-Gallo, Sá, & Rios, 2008). The measure has 28 items describing feelings and emotions present in group interactions, divided into two dimensions of 14 items each: positive sociability (e.g., friendship, solidarity, understanding) and negative sociability (e.g., insincerity, repulsion, superiority). ...
... Highly stressed individuals may use MCII to address their stress and smoking in tandem, as described earlier and supported by research finding that MCII helps individuals downregulate undesired emotions (Schweiger-Gallo et al., 2018). MCII also helps protect self-appraisals of competence considering setbacks (Kappes et al., 2012b), which could decrease reliance on smoking to manage stressful situations. ...
... Stories integrate identity in the present by reconciling the complexity of people's multiple identities (McConnell, 2011), and they integrate identity across time by connecting life's experiences and episodes into a narrative (McAdams, 2008). Stories hold identity together across time as they are a basis for self-continuity, feelings of personal sameness across time (Becker et al., 2018). Narratives also make life coherent by focusing attention (Hirsh et al., 2013), and enhancing goal pursuit and decision-making, by integrating cognitive, affective, and motivational systems (Singer & Blagov, 2004). ...
... Based on Fehr's (1988) procedure, which has been proven effective for coding features of everyday emotion concepts (e.g., Hurtado de Mendoza et al., 2010;Lambert et al., 2009;Schweiger Gallo et al., 2017), we performed a category analysis for each of the three questions: the definition, elicitors, and physical reactions of envy. ...
... Japan has a variety of traditional annual events that are held for each season throughout the year; there are also many annual events that, over time, have been adopted from other countries. Cultural experiences play an important role in fostering a child's identity and building self-esteem [12]. Researchers have noted the importance of annual events conducted at educational sites during early childhood and elementary school years. ...
... Future cross-cultural meta-analysis studies can be conducted within the framework of the Turkish national culture (Owe et al., 2013;Wasti, 2003), which is collectivistic, and the national culture of western countries that exhibit individualistic characteristics. Thus, it will be possible to obtain relatively universal and clearer results regarding the nature of the relationship between PsyCap and burnout. ...
... In addition to the already mentioned methodological problems of low internal consistencies and sample size, it is important to highlight possible biases occurring during self-reports of attitudes, gender typical behaviors, and stereotypes (Bartini, 2006;Schmitz et al., 2012) affecting the answers of participants, which could be further enhanced by the culture-specific response patterns (Lalwani et al., 2009;Smith et al., 2016). Additional information from parents or teachers on the preferred coping strategies of adolescents could broaden the understanding of gender differences. ...
... Findings from related fields suggest that such group variation in SECs is plausible. Studies have found that women and some ethnic groups tend, on average, to view themselves as highly interdependent with others, in comparison to men and non-Hispanic White individuals (Foels & Tomcho, 2007;Markus & Kitayama, 2010;Vargas & Kemmelmeier, 2013;Vignoles et al., 2016). Other research suggests that those with more interdependent identities tend to suppress their emotions, when needed, to appease a social situation (see Hecht & Shin, 2015). ...
... To the extent that we can use such laboratory studies to develop a nuanced understanding of brain participation in resisting temptations, we can shape strategic preventative activities to maximize an individual's ability to exert proactive or reactive self-control. For instance, implementation intentions are simple if-then contingency plans articulated in advance for dealing with temptations [51][52][53][54][55][56]; having individuals form these in advance to pre-empt temptations may augment the ability to translate intention into action for those with relatively weaker dlPFC function due to stress, sleep, or other lifestyle parameters [57,58], in part by automatizing goalstriving. Such strategies might supplement-or provide an alternative to-rTMS targeting the dlPFC. ...
... A study in a national sample of schools revealed greater collectivism than individualism among students, although being male, older, and living in Lima, the capital city, increased individualism ( Le on, 1996). Peruvian adolescents have achieved higher scores on collectivism than Finnish counterparts (Silfver, 2007) and, with respect to the construct of contextualism, referring to beliefs about the importance of context in understanding people, a facet of collectivism, Peru emerged above the median among 35 countries ( Owe et al., 2013). Moreover, Peru emerged with the highest score on entrepreneurship among 50 nations in a study which demonstrated that a country's entrepreneurship rate is negatively related to individualism when development is medium or low (Pinillos & Reyes, 2011). ...