Ian Gemmill's research while affiliated with Health Canada and other places

Publications (19)

Article
Full-text available
Background Despite widespread implementation of syndromic surveillance systems within public health agencies, previous studies of the implementation and use of these systems have indicated that the functions and responses taken in response to syndromic surveillance data vary widely according to local context and preferences. The objective of the Sy...
Article
Full-text available
Ontario has a single payer provincial health insurance program. Administrative data may provide a potentially robust source of information for post-marketing vaccine studies. Vaccine-specific immunization billing codes were introduced in 2011. Our objective was to validate Ontario's universal health care administrative datasets to assess infant imm...
Article
Full-text available
Ontario's 36 Public Health Units (PHUs) were responsible for implementing the H1N1 Pandemic Influenza Plans (PIPs) to address the first pandemic influenza virus in over 40 years. It was the first under conditions which permitted mass immunization. This is therefore the first opportunity to learn and document what worked well, and did not work well,...
Article
Building on previous research noting variations in the operation and perceived utility of syndromic surveillance systems in Ontario, the timeliness of these different syndromic systems for detecting the onset of both 2009 H1N1 pandemic (A(H1N1)pdm09) waves relative to laboratory testing data was assessed using a standardized analytic algorithm. Syn...
Article
Lyme disease results from the bite of a black-legged tick, populations of which have now become established in parts of Nova Scotia, southeastern Quebec, southern Ontario from the Thousand Islands through the geographic regions on the north shore of Lake Ontario and Lake Erie, southeastern Manitoba, and British Columbia's Lower Mainland, Fraser Val...
Article
Full-text available
Background Although an increasing number of studies are documenting uses of syndromic surveillance by front line public health, few detail the value added from linking syndromic data to public health decision-making. This study seeks to understand how syndromic data informed specific public health actions during the 2009 H1N1 pandemic. Methods Sem...
Data
Full-text available
Interview guide for syndromic surveillance users (SSUs) and non-syndromic surveillance users (NSUs). This file outlines the order and type of questions asked of study participants.
Article
In Canada, several new vaccines were recently approved for clinical use or are expected to be soon. Decision-makers are faced with the choice whether or not to include these vaccines in publicly funded vaccination programs. The aim of this study was to assess Canadian pediatricians' and family physicians' opinions regarding 7 new vaccines, and perc...
Article
Full-text available
Despite the growing popularity of syndromic surveillance, little is known about if or how these systems are accepted, utilized and valued by end users. This study seeks to describe the use of syndromic surveillance systems in Ontario and users' perceptions of the value of these systems within the context of other surveillance systems. Ontario's 36...
Article
Full-text available
Acute otitis media (AOM) is one of the most common bacterial infectious diseases among children and is a leading cause of child healthcare visits and antibiotic prescriptions. Few vaccines have the potential to prevent AOM. The newer pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCV) offer a larger spectrum of protection against AOM, as well as preventing sever...
Article
Full-text available
The recent Canadian experience with pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza in 2009 highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance at local and regional levels to support evidence-based decision making by physicians and public health. We describe the rationale, methodology, and provide preliminary findings from the implementation of an automated Mortality...
Article
Full-text available
One of the main determinants of public immunization success is health professionals' support and recommendations. Little is known about the physicians' level of support and intentions regarding A(H1N1) pandemic influenza vaccination. The aim of this survey was to document Canadian family physicians' and paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes and prac...
Article
The objective of this work was to assess the opinions of public health professionals (PHPs) about routinely recommended and new vaccines, and to evaluate the feasibility of using a modified Basic Priority Rating System (BPRS) approach to prioritize new immunization programs. One hundred and thirty six PHPs were invited to participate in the survey...
Article
We assessed Canadian obstetrician/gynaecologists', family physicians' and paediatricians' knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs about HPV infection and prevention, as well as factors associated with willingness to prescribe HPV vaccines. A self-administered, anonymous questionnaire was mailed to 2500 physicians. The participation rate was 51%. Overall,...

Citations

... Examples of public health process research (rather than data combining/sharing) were found across EDSyS in Canada [127][128][129]. Collaborative working across international borders was identified less often. ...
... In Ontario, immunizations for children under two years old are usually administered by primary care providers, including family physicians, during regular well-baby visits [22,32] and documented in the children's medical record. EMR data from family physicians' clinics has been previously used and validated to study childhood immunization coverage in Ontario [32][33][34]. Ontario's Publicly Funded Immunization Schedule [35] recommends six different vaccines in the first 24 months of life (Table 1), including diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) vaccine, pneumococcal conjugate (PCV13) vaccine, rotavirus (Rota) vaccine, meningococcal conjugate (Men-C-C) vaccine, measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, and varicella (Var) vaccine. ...
... One paper reported medical absences, which combined both illness and planned medical appointments [51]. Another reported data from across multiple health authorities, each of which had a different system in place, varying between all-cause absence, illness absence and respiratory absence [52]. The frequency of data submissions from schools varied between daily [39-41, 47, 49, 50] and weekly reports [21,[42][43][44][45]51]. ...
... GPs reported concerns about risk of infection (to staff and other patients), interruptions to regular health care delivery, lack of clear communication from public health authorities, and difficulty accessing personal protective equipment. [4][5][6] The Australian Government review of the 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pandemic found that general practice had a larger role than had been identified in planning. 7 Subsequently, in the context of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID- 19) pandemic, primary care was included as a major component of the Australian Government response. ...
... Tetracyclines are usually avoided, especially during the second half of the pregnancy, due to the risk of hepatotoxicity in the mother and permanent discoloration of bones and teeth in the fetus. In these cases, second-choice antibiotics such as macrolides are usually preferred [73], even if caution should be exercised due to the risk of QT interval prolongation [69]. ...
... This graph shows the epidemiological curve of lab-confirmed cases and deaths (recorded within 28 days of positive test) due to SARS-CoV-2 in England (30/01/2020-24/05/2020), showing the introduction of non-pharmaceutical interventions at three significant dates, which are used as reference points in subsequent Figs. 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 [9] awareness, and monitor the emergence and spread of common infectious diseases and the public health impact of non-infectious diseases through the population. The important role of syndromic surveillance has been demonstrated during both major emergencies and mass gathering events, e.g. the 2009 global influenza pandemic [13,14], during periods of extreme hot [15,16] and cold [17] weather, and events such as the London 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games [18]. COVID-19 has generated several new challenges for the syndromic surveillance systems, including: the impact of media reporting and social distancing measures on healthcareseeking behaviour, changes in healthcare system delivery, and an increased demand for rapid analysis and dissemination of findings [19]. ...
... 11 In high and upper-middle income countries the lack of serious sequelae causes a worrying underestimation of the potential risk of the disease that results from the infection, in both the population and the scientific community. [12][13][14][15] Moreover, although the efficacy and safety of this vaccine have been widely demonstrated, and several studies have shown that the risk of intussusception as a side effect is very low, the fear persists. [16][17][18][19][20] Both fear and underestimation of the risk resulted in a low vaccination coverage in several countries. ...
... Availability of surveillance data serves multiple purposes (43). The surveillance data described in this study are bi-weekly presented to the Ministry of Education and also included in the Sciensano weekly updates (14,15). ...
... (intent to recommend) [45,56,61,63,66,68,69,[73][74][75][76][77][78][79] perceived low or unclear efficacy [ Age and experience older or more experienced [49,73,81,111] older [65] Age [42,63,72,90,97,100,101,[104][105][106]108,109,112]; experience [54,63,87,113,114] Number of years practicing greater number [65,72,100,115]; recent graduates [46] year of graduation [47]; time practicing [56,71,82,116] History treating the disease [45,54,67,70,87,110,112] Number of patients seen greater number [49,117] [72] ...
... A large majority were quantitative studies conducted via email or online surveys with HCPs; four utilized qualitative interviews [35,36] and mixed methods [37,38]. A small number referenced extant models as research framework; most of these developed questionnaires based on the Health Belief Model [36,[39][40][41][42][43][44][45][46][47][48] and Theory of Planned Behavior [45,49,50], and one built upon the Cognitive Model of Empowerment [51]. Studies commonly recruited HCPs from hospital staff, medical associations or conferences, and provider databases. ...