Howard B. Roback's research while affiliated with Meharry Medical College and other places

Publications (40)

Article
Previously, researchers have compared homosexuals with transsexuals as if these were two homogenous groups. In the present study male to female transsexuals who had applied for sex reassignment surgery were divided into two groups: (a) those who reported either no history or irregular history of cross‐sex dressing initiating after age 20 and (b) th...
Article
In modern Western culture, "mass hysteria" has typically taken the form of an outbreak of a mysterious physical disorder among adolescent girls in whom no organic etiology or precipitant can be identified. If properly managed (i.e., diagnosis confirmed and publicly announced), the illness is usually of relatively short duration. This is a report of...
Article
The authors discuss the case of a mildly disfigured patient with Neurofibromatosis from the perspectives of his distorted body image, need to attribute problems in his social and work lives to unrealistic assessment of his disfigurement, changes in his self-concept following communication training, and the need for physicians and others working wit...
Article
The comparative self-esteem and psychological well-being of female-to-male transsexuals, homosexuals, and heterosexuals (patient and nonpatient) were studied. Results indicated that individual candidates for sex-change surgery varied appreciably in self-concept and adjustment, and as a group were indistinguishable from psychiatric controls. Nonpati...
Article
The relationship between insight and adjustment in schizophrenics was examined. Subjects who scored higher on a paper-and-pencil insight test were rated by hospital staff as better adjusted behaviourally but described themselves as more psychologically distressed than presumably less insightful subjects. Results were discussed in relation to the no...
Article
This paper develops the assumptions that underlie a transactional approach to psychotherapy by utilizing Bentley's ideas about the environed organism. It emphasizes that not only is interpersonal interaction significant therapeutically but the situational aspect of persons and behavior (living, working, neighborhood, and community circumstances) co...
Article
The case reported is unique in that an atropine-like substance was self-administered with the intention of producing dilated pupils to simulate a neurologic disorder. The result, which was not expected by the patient, was a psychiatric disorder (delirium).
Article
The impact of a consciousness-raising module offered in 50-minute class periods over 20 consecutive school days to junior and senior high school women was evaluated. Experimental and control groups were constituted randomly from a pool of volunteers. Subjects completed the attitudes toward women scale, the personal orientation inventory, and the Te...
Article
Tested hypotheses derived from W. Schutz's (1958) 3-dimensional theory of group process concerning the amount of trust shown by partners in dyads. A sociometric instrument, the Ohio Social Acceptance Scale, was administered to 89 10th-grade students to assess inclusion and affection. 24 of the resulting dyads were randomly selected for the study. C...
Article
Historically, genital exhibitionism has usually been regarded as an exclusively male phenomenon. The authors present a case study of a female exhibitionist which is at variance with that contention. They offer a formulation of the psychodymanics of female exhibitionism, focusing on its pregenital, attention-seeking purpose. The findings from this c...
Article
The present reanalysis was performed to extend the data base on the impact of group therapists' professional backgrounds on their clinical decisions. One hundred members of the American Group Psychotherapy Association classified according to professional discipline and experience rendered clinical reactions to a hypothetical group therapy outpatien...
Article
Self-concept and adjustment data from anatomical males seeking sexual reassignment surgery were compared with that from a male homosexual group. Findings indicated that the homosexual group had a better self-image and was better adjusted than the sex change group. Other findings are presented that reinforce the view that the norm violations in homo...
Article
MMPI data from persons seeking sexual reassignment surgery, jejunoileal bypass surgery and outpatient psychiatric care are compared. Results reinforce previous empirical evidence in failing to suggest that crossed gender identity and morbid obesity are symptomatic of psychiatric disorder.
Article
Investigated the psychological well-being of 10 transsexual females who sought sexual reassignment surgery to harmonize their anatomy with their male gender. MMPI data collected from applicants for this irreversible procedure were examined and compared with the averaged profiles from 2 control subsamples, 10 morbidly obese women who desired jejunoi...
Article
Examines the dynamics of the supervisor–supervisee relationship in psychotherapy training, utilizing an adaptation of B. I. Murstein's 3-stage theory of marital choice. Topics discussed include the role of interpersonal attraction and the psychotherapy supervision setting and the use of Murstein's concepts regarding stimulus, value, and role as sta...
Article
The authors examined the questions of sex-related countertransference and bias in psychotherapy by asking 65 male and 57 female experienced group therapists for clinical reactions to case materials of a bogus outpatient who was designated either male or female. They found that varying the patient's gender produced only small differences in the ther...
Article
Used a laboratory analog study to investigate the effects of supervisor skillfulness and supervisor-supervisee attitude similarity on the attraction of the supervisee to the supervisor, using 29 graduate students in counseling. The similarity of the supervisee to the supervisor was varied by means of an attitude scale purportedly filled out by the...
Article
Examines types and incidence of negative encounter-group outcome based on empirical findings in the literature. The member variable which most clearly is associated with negative outcome is psychiatric disturbance. Inability to abide by the rules of the group through being unable to express emotion or through taking attacks too seriously also contr...
Article
The authors present clinical and case material on two male triplets with aberrant gender identity. Their findings coincide with those of the few family studies reported in which there were two or more transsexual members; they also reveal patterns generally in keeping with the psychological determinants of transsexualism suggested by Stoller.
Article
A "life stress" scale is applied to the antecedent events motivating 179 patients to seek outpatient psychiatric help. Intake evaluation reports of patients who kept their appointments at the Adult Psychiatric Outpatient Clinic of Vanderbilt University Hospital over a three-month period were reviewed. Almost half of the consecutive new patients ind...
Article
Data from one psychological and one psychiatric agency were collected to determine if psychotherapists' treatment decisions about opposite-sex persons might be influenced by sex-role prescriptions for dealing with sexual impulses. Accordingly, male therapists were hypothesized to prolong and female therapists to avoid treatment situations likely to...
Article
This study attempted to show that a change in ethnocentrism could be accomplished through the use of behavior modification techniques. A total of 18 Caucasian subjects were divided into six groups: three control groups and three experimental groups. In one control and one experimental condition, Ss read statements printed on index cards. Experiment...
Article
Comments on the original article "The limitations of research: A viewpoint," by A. C. Ornstein . In that article, Ornstein suggested that social and policy-making circumstances have altered social scientists' freedom of inquiry and right to pursue research without political interference. The current authors have written the comment presented here i...
Article
Self-disclosure was investigated as a process variable in group psychotherapy with chronic schizophrenic patients. Consistent with previous data obtained from nonpsychotic populations, greater perceived therapist interpersonal facillitativeness was associated with higher levels of patient self-disclosure. In contrast to earlier findings, however, p...
Article
The authors of this report have reanalyzed earlier data to determine whether or not there was a relationship between perceived levels of therapist-offered conditions (e.g., favorableness of patient-therapist relationship) and therapeutic outcome. (Author)
Article
This case study supports the plea by a number of psychiatrists for thorough psychiatric and psychologic screening of all persons seeking sexual reassignment surgery. The patient, a female impersonator taking estrogen, was seriously considering such an operation in order to cope with identity problems and an inability to achieve gratification in lif...
Article
Tested the predictive utility of a Client * Modality interactive model for group psychotherapy outcome. 26 mildly distressed college student clients were assigned randomly to a nondirective or to 1 of 3 directive groups, all led by the same therapist. Belief in personal internal-external control (assessed with Rotter's Internal-External Control Sca...
Article
Administered the MMPI to 17 21-62 yr old male patients who did not pay their clinic bills and 17 patients who did pay their bills. MMPI and clinical data suggest greater reality disturbance and distortion for the non-fee paying group than for the fee-paying group, and that fee-payment behavior is situationally determined and not a generalized chara...
Article
This article reports the findings from studies investigating the relationship between: (a) sex of free choice figure drawings and sexual inversion and (b) sex of free choice figure drawings and gender identity. Both relationships were found to be statistically nonsignificant.
Article
Arm-chair theorizing and polemicizing has traditionally characterized discussions involving the concept of "insight" in psycho-therapy. This article attempts to examine some of the more controversial issues about "insight" in terms of relevant research studies. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared the effectiveness of (a) group therapy stressing interpretive procedures intended to bring about client insight, and (b) a form of group therapy experience encouraging client * client interaction without the intentional development of insight. A total of 24 male psychiatric inpatients (20 diagnosed schizophrenic) were randomly assigned to...
Article
Review studies of parental loss, conjugal loss, and predictors of unfavorable bereavement outcome. Several explanations proposed to account for the high mortality rates of widows and widowers are examined, including the selection hypothesis, which states that the observed high mortality rates for these groups are primarily artifactual because widow...

Citations

... Within the literature which discusses the consciousness raising process there is a wide variety of approaches: the anecdotal, descriptive, and those that view consciousness raising as a technique and test for differences in outcome. The research on consciousness raising includes mainly studies in which it was used as a dependent variable and the participants were tested for changes in behaviours and attitudes (Bailey, 1977; Abernathy et al., 1977; Follingstad, Robinson, & Pugh, 1977; Ballou, 1979). Other research focused on the demographics of the participants and their responses to questionnaires regarding personal significance of the process (Lieberman, 1976; Kincaid, 1977; Home, 1978). ...
... First, concerning sex, several studies showed female to male transsexuals (FtMs) function psychosocially better than male to female transsexuals (MtFs) (Fleming et al., 1981;Dixen et al., 1984;Kockott and Fahrner, 1988;Verschoor and Poortinga, 1988;De Cuypere et al., 1995;Cole et al., 1997;Haraldsen and Dahl, 2000;Smith et al., 2005a). In contrast, other studies failed to detect this difference (Hepp et al., 2005;Gomez-Gil et al., 2008) or studied MtFs only (Lutz et al., 1984;Mate-Kole and Freschi, 1988;Miach et al., 2000). Second, with regard to sexual orientation it is often proposed that a subdivision is made between the "homosexual" (sexually attracted to partners of the same biological sex) and "non-homosexual" (that is "heterosexual", asexual or bisexual) transsexual subtypes (Blanchard, 1985;Blanchard et al., 1987;Smith et al., 2005b) (for a review, see Lawrence (2010)). ...
... It is evident in the results of this study that counselors desire high levels of quality in the supervision they receive. Quality of supervision appears to involve two factors: expertise and support [Hester, Weitz, Anchor Roback, 1976; Zabel & Zabel, 1982]. The first factor, expertise, refers to familiarity with the knowledge base and skills of the counseling profession. ...
... De esta forma, las conductas anómalas, las significaciones que producen nuestros acting-out compulsivos e impulsivos, a 10s que 10s objetos externos responden con contra-acting-out dolorosamente vivenciados (Gear y Liendo, Roback (1974) 44 ha hecho una amplia revisión de las investigaciones experimentales sobre el insight y 10s problemas clásicos relacionados con el mismo. El resumen de su revisión es claro: <(Las investigaciones no arrojan mucha luz al respecto, (Roback, op. ...
... 17, NO. 3,1991 (Christie & Geis, 1970). Social desirability was measured with the seven Marlowe-Crowne scale items (Crowne & Marlowe, 1964) that were found to represent social desirability consistently, across four different methods (Ballard, Crino, & Rubenfeld, 1988). Expressed and wanted control, affection, and inclusion were measured with five items from each of the six FIRO-B scales (Schutz, 1958). ...
... For example, it followed the customary course of interviewing individuals after the death of their spouse. Thus, it continued to ignore the previously issued warning that the "recall of complex affectively laden events is more construction than reproduction" [51,52]. Furthermore, the socially constructed knowledge concerning anticipatory grief was drawn on in the development of the instrument. ...
... There is an established risk of mood changes as patients gain insight; that coming to an awareness of illness may involve a 'tragic and painful struggle' against the psychotic disturbance being experienced (David, 1990). Furthermore, it has been observed that, although insightful patients are better behaviourally adjusted while hospitalised, they experience higher levels of psychological distress (Roback & Abramowitz, 1979). Consistent with this model, studies have repeatedly demonstrated positive associations with depression and insight, (see Palmer et al., 2005, for a meta-analysis). ...
... To a great extent, transpeople in academic research have been relegated to the sidelines , appearing most often in clinical literature that constructs them as 'patients' who need a 'cure' for their 'disorder' (e.g. Strassberg et al., 1979; American Psychiatric Association, 1994). Many of these writings concentrate on those transsexuals for whom being trans is a problem, while ignoring transpeople who have smoothly incorporated a gender-variant identity into their lives (Cromwell, 1999). ...
... Limited research has been conducted on the body image of adult transgender individuals (Jones et al., 2016). Most existing studies have focused on overall body satisfaction in relation to medical interventions (Bodlund & Armelius, 1994;Fleming, MacGowan, Robinson, Spitz, & Salt, 1982;Kraemer, Delsignore, Schnyder, & Hepp, 2007;Kuiper & Cohen-Kettenis, 1988;Lindgren & Pauly, 1975;Wolfradt & Neumann, 2001) or in relation to people diagnosed with eating pathology (Ålgars, Santtila, & Sandnabba, 2010;Bandini et al., 2013;Vocks, Stahn, Loenser, & Legenbauer, 2009;Witcomb et al., 2015) and other control groups (Becker et al., 2016;Roback, Strassberg, McKee, & Cunningham, 1977). Other publications include personal experiences of transgender individuals (Atkins, 2012). ...
... Trabajos de revisión de resultados del tratamiento del homoerotismo muestran que ha tenido tanto éxito como el tratamiento de problemas psicológicos similares: alrededor del 30% se siente liberado de los síntomas y otro 30% se encuentra mejor. (66,67,68,69,70,71,72). ...