Henry Brodaty's research while affiliated with University of South Wales and other places

Publications (1,000)

Article
Prior to the usual clinical symptoms of dementia, there can be subtle changes in cognitive function that differ from the normal age-related cognitive decline, which has been termed mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The increase in the numbers of individuals with possible MCI presenting to health care professionals, notably, General Practitioners (GP...
Article
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Background Prioritizing the maintenance of healthy cognitive aging and personalizing preventive interventions to enhance their effectiveness is crucial as the global population ages. Systemic inflammation and depression in older people have been associated with decreased levels of cognition but results have been inconsistent. Aims To explore the i...
Article
Full-text available
Background Large-scale trials of multidomain interventions show that modifying lifestyle and psychological risk factors can slow cognitive decline. We aim to determine if a lower intensity, personally tailored secondary dementia prevention programme for older people with subjective or mild objective memory decline, informed by behaviour change theo...
Article
Full-text available
Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can boost risk prediction in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) beyond apolipoprotein E (APOE) but have not been leveraged to identify genetic resilience factors. Here, we sought to identify resilience-conferring common genetic variants in (1) unaffected individuals having high PRSs for LOAD, and (2) unaffected APOE-...
Article
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Objective Previous research shows that depression and personality are independently associated with self- and informant-reports of the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). However, less is known about the association between depression and personality and performance-based measures of IADLs. We aimed to determine how...
Article
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Resting state low-frequency brain activity may aid in our understanding of the mechanisms of aging-related cognitive decline. Our purpose was to explore the characteristics of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in different frequency bands of fMRI to better understand cognitive aging. Thirty-seven cognitively normal older individual...
Preprint
Full-text available
Healthcare datasets often contain groups of highly correlated features, such as features from the same biological system. When feature selection is applied to these datasets to identify the most important features, the biases inherent in some multivariate feature selectors due to correlated features make it difficult for these methods to distinguis...
Preprint
Healthcare datasets present many challenges to both machine learning and statistics as their data are typically heterogeneous, censored, high-dimensional and have missing information. Feature selection is often used to identify the important features but can produce unstable results when applied to high-dimensional data, selecting a different set o...
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Background Increasing both the frequency and quality of social interactions within treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in older adults may improve their mental health outcomes and quality of life. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost utility of an enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) plus social participati...
Article
Background Home-based dementia care is common in the Chinese-Australian community. However, dementia education programs for Chinese-Australians in the language of their choice are scarce. The World Health Organization has developed iSupport for Dementia, an online education program for informal caregivers. Cultural adaptation of the program for Chi...
Article
Objectives Prior work suggests that higher fruit and vegetable consumption may protect against depression in older adults. By better understanding the influence of genetic and environmental factors on fruit and vegetable intakes, more effective interventions could be designed to increase intakes in older adults to reduce and/or assist with the trea...
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Background The majority of people with dementia are cared for by their family members. However, family carers are often unprepared for their caring roles, receiving less education and support compared with professional carers. The consequences are their reduced mental and physical health and wellbeing, and that of care recipients. This study protoc...
Preprint
Dementia is a syndrome where the origins are not fully understood, and we have no cure. New thinking through exploration of paradigms beyond biological approaches has scope to improve knowledge about this complex condition. We aim to explore the role of social health in cognitive decline and the onset of dementia. We performed a scoping and a syste...
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Background Depression is a common psychological symptom associated with dementia. Pharmacological approaches are often used despite two large negative trials of efficacy. This meta-analysis examines nonpharmacological (i.e., psychosocial) approaches for symptoms of depression in people living with dementia and reports statistical and clinical signi...
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Objective Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and dementia. Fall risk is increased in this group, but there is limited literature exploring specific fall risk factors that may be addressed in fall prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for falls in o...
Preprint
Mechanisms underpinning neurotypical age-related variations in cortical thickness in the human brain remain insufficiently specified. Here we used cell-specific marker genes, followed by gene ontology and enrichment analyses, to quantify the association between gene-expression levels and inter-regional age-related variations in neurotypical cortica...
Article
Objectives: This paper aimed to review and synthesise the qualitative research evidence on the experiences and perceptions of dementia in Vietnam and among the Vietnamese diaspora.Methods: Systematic searches were conducted in June 2019 using Medline, Embase, Emcare, PsycINFO and Cochrane electronic databases, as well as grey literature. Keywords a...
Preprint
Polygenic risk scores (PRSs) can boost risk-prediction in late-onset Alzheimer’s disease (LOAD) beyond apolipoprotein E ( APOE) but have not been leveraged to identify genetic resilience factors. Here, we sought to identify resilience-conferring common genetic variants in 1) unaffected individuals having high PRSs for LOAD, and 2) unaffected APOE -...
Article
Full-text available
Aims To describe a nurse‐led multicentre randomized controlled trial protocol developed to evaluate the effectiveness and cost‐effectiveness of a Chinese iSupport for Dementia program in Australia and Greater China including mainland China, Taiwan, Hong Kong and Macau. Design A multicentre randomized controlled trial following the SPIRIT checklist...
Article
Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/'proxy' AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
Article
Full-text available
Characterization of the genetic landscape of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and related dementias (ADD) provides a unique opportunity for a better understanding of the associated pathophysiological processes. We performed a two-stage genome-wide association study totaling 111,326 clinically diagnosed/‘proxy’ AD cases and 677,663 controls. We found 75 ris...
Article
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Human brain structure changes throughout the lifespan. Altered brain growth or rates of decline are implicated in a vast range of psychiatric, developmental and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we identified common genetic variants that affect rates of brain growth or atrophy in what is, to our knowledge, the first genome-wide association...
Article
As depression is common in older people and confers significant risk for dementia, its accurate assessment is essential. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is a widely used assessment tool for measuring depression in aged populations, and its psychometric properties have been recently improved using Rasch analysis. However, its tempora...
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Background Growing evidence suggests that there is an association between poor oral health and cognitive function in late adulthood. However, most studies to date have relied on cross-sectional research methods that do not permit inferences about the temporality of any association. Moreover, the few longitudinal studies that do exist have typically...
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Objectives Disinhibited behaviors in dementia are associated with multiple negative outcomes. However, effective interventions are under-researched. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of intervention studies that report outcome measures of disinhibited behaviors in dementia. Design Systematic searches of the databases MEDLINE, EMBA...
Article
Introduction: Though consistent evidence suggests that physical activity may delay dementia onset, the duration and amount of activity required remains unclear. Methods: We harmonized longitudinal data of 11,988 participants from 10 cohorts in eight countries to examine the dose-response relationship between late-life physical activity and incid...
Article
Objective The aim was to investigate the association of cognitive trajectories and overnight surgical hospitalization in older adults, while controlling for and comparing with the association with acute medical hospitalizations. Design This is a secondary analysis of data from a population-based, longitudinal cohort study of older Australians. Se...
Preprint
Resting state low-frequency brain activity may aid in our understanding of the mechanisms of aging-related cognitive decline. Our purpose was to explore the characteristics of the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in different frequency bands of fMRI to better understand cognitive aging. Thirty-seven cognitively normal older individual...
Preprint
Full-text available
Degeneration and adaptation are two competing sides of the same coin called resilience in the progressive processes of brain aging or diseases. Degeneration accumulates during brain aging and other cerebral activities, causing structural atrophy and dysfunction. At the same time, adaptation allows brain network reorganize to compensate for structur...
Article
Objectives: This study aimed to identify the prevalence and correlates of depressive symptomatology among Vietnamese older people. Method: We used baseline survey data collected in 2018 from the Longitudinal Study of Ageing and Health in Vietnam (LSAHV) conducted across seven regions and comprising 6,050 people aged 60 years and over of whom 496...
Article
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Introduction: Harmonized neuropsychological assessment for neurocognitive disorders, an international priority for valid and reliable diagnostic procedures, has been achieved only in specific countries or research contexts. Methods: To harmonize the assessment of mild cognitive impairment in Europe, a workshop (Geneva, May 2018) convened stakeho...
Preprint
Background Largescale trials of multi-domain interventions show that modifying lifestyle and psychological risk factors can slow cognitive decline. We aim to determine if a lower intensity, personally tailored secondary dementia prevention programme for older people with subjective or mild objective memory decline, informed by behaviour change theo...
Article
Objectives Computerised neuropsychological assessments (CNAs) are proposed as an alternative method of assessing cognition to traditional pencil-and-paper assessment (PnPA), which are considered the “gold standard” for diagnosing dementia. However, limited research has been conducted with culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) individuals. Th...
Article
Hip fracture trajectories have not been examined for older adults in aged care or living in the community. Trajectories of health care use were defined by distinct predictive factors. These results can inform the development of targeted strategies to reduce health service use following hip fracture.Objective To examine hospital service use trajecto...
Article
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Changed behaviours associated with cognitive decline (also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), behavioural and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and responsive behaviours) occur in up to 90‐percent of people living with dementia (PLWD). They strongly correlate with functional and cognitive impairment and contribute to approximately 3...
Article
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Vietnam is facing rapid population ageing, with one in four Vietnamese citizens being over 60 years old by 2050. This has contributed to a boom of chronic and non‐communicable diseases, such as dementia. In order to develop a national dementia plan as recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) and increase the preparedness of the healthcare...
Article
Education and occupational status are expected to protect against dementia, but the research findings have been inconsistent. This project aimed to examine 1) the unique contributions of education and occupational status to incident dementia, and 2) the mediating effects of occupational status on the association between education and dementia acros...
Article
COGNISANCE is an international research programme (Australia, UK, Canada, Netherlands, and Poland). In partnership with people living with dementia, informal care partners, health and social care professionals and key national and international dementia organisations and researchers, we have co‐designed online toolkits aiming to improve post‐diagno...
Article
Recent literature calls for a focus on providing quality post diagnostic dementia care (Wong & Knapp, 2020). There is dissatisfaction among people with dementia (PwD) and care partners (CP) with post diagnostic dementia support (Hagan, 2020). To improve experiences of post diagnostic support for PwD and CP, it is vital to understand what factors in...
Article
Background: The COGNISANCE (Co-designing dementia diagnosis and post diagnostic support) project aims to co-design and produce resources that will improve communication of dementia diagnoses and support for people living with dementia (PLWD) and care partners following diagnosis. Internationally, dementia guidelines reinforce the need for post-dia...
Article
The Mediterranean‐style diet (MD) is promoted as one of the healthiest dietary patterns and has been shown to reduce cognitive decline in some randomised controlled trials (RCTs). This pattern is plant‐based with a focus on vegetables, legumes, fish, and olive oil, with low intake of red meats and foods high in sugar and saturated fats. The Maintai...
Article
Background: Dementia has no pharmacological cure. Therefore, lifestyle interventions targeting modifiable risk factors to reduce cognitive decline are of interest. This study examines the cross-sectional relationships between two potentially protective behaviours: Mediterranean diet (MediDiet) adherence and physical activity (PA). Method: Partic...
Article
Technology and web‐based approaches potentially provide scalable population‐based interventions to reduce modifiable risk factors for dementia. Key issues in online interventions are recruitment and retention. To devise strategies to improve population reach We investigated which factors influence recruiting and maintaining participants in such an...
Article
Background: As part of the effort to gather research evidence for the development of Vietnam's National Dementia Plan, a systematic review was conducted to map dementia research in Vietnam or among the Vietnamese diaspora. This paper aimed to report the qualitative research evidence on the life experiences of people with dementia in Vietnam and am...
Article
Vietnam, a country with a rapidly ageing population, is a member of the World Health Organization (WHO) and agreed to develop a national dementia plan consistent with the WHO’s guidelines in 2018. Recently, steps towards this plan have been implemented with national workshops and the development of research activities related to dementia. This pape...
Article
Consistent evidence suggested that physical activity (PA) may delay dementia onset. However, the dose‐response association between PA and dementia remains unclear. This study aimed to examine the association between the volume, duration, and intensity of PA and incident dementia among older adults across diverse geographic regions. We harmonized lo...
Article
Apathy is the most prevalent, stable and persistent neuropsychiatric symptom observed across the neurocognitive disorders spectrum and is linked to poorer disease outcome, reduced daily functioning and higher levels of caregiver distress, and an increased risk of mortality. Recent advances in understanding of phenomenology, neurobiology and interve...
Article
Purpose of review: Cell senescence is implicated in numerous age-related conditions. Antiageing therapies and nutritional approaches have been researched for purposes of removing senescent cells (senolytics) to treat or prevent age-related diseases, such as cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. In this updated review, we examined the evide...
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties and enhance precision of the 16-item Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE-16) up to interval-level scale using Rasch methodology. Design Partial Credit Rasch model was applied to the IQCODE-16 scores using longitudinal data spanning 10 years of biennia...
Article
Background and Purpose Poststroke cognitive impairment is common, but the trajectory and magnitude of cognitive decline after stroke is unclear. We examined the course and determinants of cognitive change after stroke using individual participant data from the Stroke and Cognition Consortium. Methods Nine longitudinal hospital-based cohorts from 7...
Article
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Background: Education and occupational complexity are main sources of mental engagement during early life and adulthood respectively, but research findings are not conclusive regarding protective effects of these factors against late-life dementia. Objective: This project aimed to examine the unique contributions of education and occupational co...
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In this research, we investigated the alterations in the directionality and strength of regional interactions within functionally changed brain networks and their relationship to cognitive decline during the aging process in normal elderly individuals. Thirty-seven cognitively normal elderly people received resting-state fMRI scans and cognitive as...
Article
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Recruiting participants for dementia research takes time. For those who are interested, opportunities to participate can be ad hoc. Delays in finding the right participants can result in studies taking longer to deliver, often requiring funding extensions, and ultimately increasing the cost and limiting the effectiveness of research and evaluation....
Article
Human longevity is moderately heritable and is hence influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. However, there remains considerable uncertainty regarding its relationship with brain ageing. Here, we used a discovery sample (N=19136, aged 45-81 years) from the UK Biobank and a replication sample (N=809, aged 66-93 years) from the Sydney M...
Preprint
Perivascular space burden (PVS) is an emerging and possibly the earliest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-marker of cerebral small vessel disease (cSVD), a leading cause of stroke and dementia. Its molecular underpinnings are unknown. Genome-wide and whole-exome association studies in 40,095 participants (21 population-based cohorts, 66.3±8.6 years...
Article
Background The relationship of dietary patterns to cognitive health in older adults has attracted much research attention. However, results from existing studies are inconclusive. Objective The aim of this study was to investigate the association between dietary patterns and overall cognitive performance and cognitive change over time. Design Thi...
Article
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This study investigated associations of adherence to the Australian Dietary Guidelines (ADG) with cognitive performance and cognitive decline over 6 years. We used longitudinal data from the Sydney Memory and Aging Study comprising 1037 community-dwelling non-demented participants aged 70–90 years. Dietary intake was assessed at baseline using the...
Article
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Objectives Identifying individuals at risk of developing dementia may be aided by early detection of functional impairments. The aims of the present study were to examine differences in informant-reported and performance-based measures of instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and to assess whether a performance-based IADL measure contribut...
Article
Objective: Lifespace, the physical area in which someone conducts life activities, indicates lived community mobility. This study explored the feasibility of technology-based lifespace measurement for older people with dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI), including the generation of a range of lifespace metrics, and investigation of relat...
Article
Background Dementia is a global public health priority with an estimated prevalence of 150 million by 2050, nearly two-thirds of whom will live in the Asia-Pacific region. Dementia creates significant care needs for people with the disease, their families, and carers. iSupport is a self-help platform developed by the World Health Organization (WHO)...
Preprint
BACKGROUND Dementia is a global public health priority with prevalence estimated to be 150 million by 2050; nearly two-thirds of whom will live in the Asia Pacific region. Dementia creates significant care needs for people with the disease, their families and carers. iSupport is a self-help platform developed by the World Health Organization to pro...
Article
Background A major issue in evaluating the cognitive status of ageing populations is a clear distinction between enduring and dynamic aspects of global cognition necessary for evaluating risks of dementia and effectiveness of preventive interventions. Materials and methods Generalizability Theory was applied to investigate dynamic and enduring asp...
Article
Background Longitudinal neuroimaging provides spatiotemporal brain data (STBD) measurement that can be utilised to understand dynamic changes in brain structure and/or function underpinning cognitive activities. Making sense of such highly interactive information is challenging, given that the features manifest intricate temporal, causal relations...
Article
Background: This study examined the risk of mortality in older adults with newly detected cognitive impairment or dementia. Methods: Data from the Australian cohort of the ASPirin in Reducing Events in the Elderly (ASPREE) trial were examined. The ASPREE clinical trial compared daily low-dose aspirin to a placebo and involved 16,703 individuals...
Preprint
Association of adherence to Australian Dietary Guidelines with cognitive performance and cognitive decline in the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study: a longitudinal analysis
Article
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Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), changed behaviors and responsive behaviors), occur in up to 90 percent of people living with dementia (PLWD). These symptoms and behaviors strongly correlate with functional and cognitive impairment and contribute to ~30% of overall d...
Article
The cover image is based on the Original Article Sex differences in risk factors for cognitive decline and dementia, including death as a competing risk, in individuals with diabetes: Results from the ADVANCE trial by Jessica Gong et al., https://doi.org/10.1111/dom.14391.
Article
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DNA methylation, which is modulated by both genetic factors and environmental exposures, may offer a unique opportunity to discover novel biomarkers of disease-related brain phenotypes, even when measured in other tissues than brain, such as blood. A few studies of small sample sizes have revealed associations between blood DNA methylation and neur...
Conference Paper
The SHARED project is an international collaboration designed to investigate the role of social factors in the onset and course of dementia across the lifespan. We investigated the impact of social health on cognition throughout the clinical phase of dementia – an area that remains vastly under‐researched. We harmonised data from 12 international l...