Henry Brodaty's research while affiliated with UNSW Sydney and other places

Publications (227)

Article
Full-text available
Background Feature selection is often used to identify the important features in a dataset but can produce unstable results when applied to high-dimensional data. The stability of feature selection can be improved with the use of feature selection ensembles, which aggregate the results of multiple base feature selectors. However, a threshold must b...
Article
Objectives This study investigated the views of people living with dementia and their families/care partners on (i) what they find helpful or unhelpful regarding behavioral changes, i.e. which coping strategies they used for themselves and/or which responses from others, and (ii) what they consider to be appropriate terminology to describe behavior...
Article
Full-text available
The heterogeneous and multi-factorial nature of dementia requires the consideration of all health aspects when predicting the risk of its development and planning strategies for its prevention. This systematic review of reviews provides a comprehensive synthesis of those factors associated with cognition in the context of dementia, identifying the...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Previous research shows that depression and personality are independently associated with self- and informant-reports of the ability to perform instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs). However, less is known about the association between depression and personality and performance-based measures of IADLs. We aimed to determine how...
Article
Full-text available
Background Increasing both the frequency and quality of social interactions within treatments for anxiety and depressive disorders in older adults may improve their mental health outcomes and quality of life. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and cost utility of an enhanced cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) plus social participati...
Article
Full-text available
Background Depression is a common psychological symptom associated with dementia. Pharmacological approaches are often used despite two large negative trials of efficacy. This meta-analysis examines nonpharmacological (i.e., psychosocial) approaches for symptoms of depression in people living with dementia and reports statistical and clinical signi...
Article
Full-text available
Objective Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is considered an intermediate stage between normal cognitive function and dementia. Fall risk is increased in this group, but there is limited literature exploring specific fall risk factors that may be addressed in fall prevention strategies. The aim of this study was to examine risk factors for falls in o...
Article
Full-text available
Background Growing evidence suggests that there is an association between poor oral health and cognitive function in late adulthood. However, most studies to date have relied on cross-sectional research methods that do not permit inferences about the temporality of any association. Moreover, the few longitudinal studies that do exist have typically...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Disinhibited behaviors in dementia are associated with multiple negative outcomes. However, effective interventions are under-researched. This systematic review aims to provide an overview of intervention studies that report outcome measures of disinhibited behaviors in dementia. Design Systematic searches of the databases MEDLINE, EMBA...
Article
Hip fracture trajectories have not been examined for older adults in aged care or living in the community. Trajectories of health care use were defined by distinct predictive factors. These results can inform the development of targeted strategies to reduce health service use following hip fracture.Objective To examine hospital service use trajecto...
Article
Objective This study aimed to investigate psychometric properties and enhance precision of the 16-item Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE-16) up to interval-level scale using Rasch methodology. Design Partial Credit Rasch model was applied to the IQCODE-16 scores using longitudinal data spanning 10 years of biennia...
Article
Full-text available
Recruiting participants for dementia research takes time. For those who are interested, opportunities to participate can be ad hoc. Delays in finding the right participants can result in studies taking longer to deliver, often requiring funding extensions, and ultimately increasing the cost and limiting the effectiveness of research and evaluation....
Article
Full-text available
Background: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD, also known as neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS), changed behaviors and responsive behaviors), occur in up to 90 percent of people living with dementia (PLWD). These symptoms and behaviors strongly correlate with functional and cognitive impairment and contribute to ~30% of overall d...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Subjective cognitive complaints (SCCs) are a risk factor for dementia; however, little is known about their trajectories. Method: Participants were 873 older adults (Mage = 78.65 years; 55% females) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study that were followed-up biennially. SCCs were measured using the six-item Memory Complaint Questio...
Article
Empathy is essential for navigating complex social environments. Prior work has shown associations between rs53576, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) located in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR), and generalized empathy. We undertook a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of rs53576 on subdomains of empathy, specifically c...
Article
Objective: Results from studies investigating life satisfaction, positive affect and happiness of near-centenarians (95+) and centenarians are inconsistent. This is the first systematic review to summarise the extant literature on the subjective well-being of this unique age group. Method: Seven electronic databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, Psy...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has posed unique risks to people with Alzheimer disease and dementia. Research from 2020 has shown that these people have a relatively high risk of contracting severe COVID-19, and are also at risk of neuropsychiatric disturbances as a result of lockdown measures and social isolation. People with dementia are at high risk of S...
Presentation
Observational findings suggest that a third of dementia cases are attributable to modifiable risk factors (Livingston et al, 2017). However, we are still unclear on what non‐pharmacological interventions should look like or what a manualised dementia prevention programme might include. PubMed, EMBASE (Ovid), PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, and re...
Article
Background This study aimed to develop cut-points for the 30-item and 10-item Iconographical Falls Efficacy Scale (IconFES) in community-dwelling older people and evaluate the psychometric properties, including construct and predictive validity with respect to falls and reduced physical activity over 1 year. Methods Eight hundred and one participa...
Article
Background While midlife hypertension is deleterious, late-life hypertension has been associated with better cognitive outcomes in several studies. Many questions remain, including the relative benefit or harm of a blood pressure (BP) target and antihypertensive therapy of <120 in very old individuals. Methods The Sydney Memory and Aging Study (n...
Article
Full-text available
Early investigations of the neuroticism by conscientiousness interaction with regards to health have been promising, but to date, there have been no systematic investigations of this interaction that account for the various personality measurement instruments, varying populations, or aspects of health. The current study – the second of three – uses...
Article
Full-text available
Individual differences in the Big Five personality traits have emerged as predictors of health and longevity. Although there are robust protective effects for higher levels of conscientiousness, results are mixed for other personality traits. In particular, higher levels of neuroticism have significantly predicted an increased risk of mortality, no...
Article
Full-text available
Current literature suggests that neuroticism is positively associated with maladaptive life choices, likelihood of disease, and mortality. However, recent research has identified circumstances under which neuroticism is associated with positive outcomes. The current project examined whether "healthy neuroticism", defined as the interaction of neuro...
Article
Background We examined how the relationship between education and latelife cognitive impairment (defined as a Mini Mental State Examination score below 24) is influenced by age, sex, ethnicity, and Apolipoprotein E epsilon 4 (APOE*4). Methods Participants were 30,785 dementia-free individuals aged 55-103 years, from 18 longitudinal cohort studies,...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dementia is under-diagnosed in primary care. Timely diagnosis and care management improve outcomes for patients and caregivers. This research evaluated the effectiveness of a nationwide Continuing Medical Education (CME) program to enhance dementia-related awareness, practice, knowledge and confidence of general practitioners (GPs) in...
Article
Full-text available
Subjective Cognitive Complaints (SCCs) may represent one of the earliest stages of preclinical dementia. The objective of the present study was to extend previous work by our group to examine the relationship between participant-reported and informant-reported memory and non-memory SCCs, cognitive decline and incident dementia, over a six-year peri...
Article
Full-text available
Aging is associated with changes in brain functional patterns as well as cognition. The present research sought to investigate longitudinal changes in whole brain functional connectivity strength (FCS) and cognitive performance scores in very old cognitively unimpaired individuals. We studied 34 cognitively normal elderly individuals at both baseli...
Article
Full-text available
Background and aims: Among older adults, olfactory dysfunction is associated with cognitive impairment, lower quality of life, and increased mortality. While age is a risk factor for olfactory dysfunction, other risk factors are less well understood, and may vary between ethno-regional groups. This study investigated how associations between odour...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives Use of antipsychotic drugs in long-term aged care (LTC) is prevalent and commonly exceeds the recommended duration, but contributors to this problem are not well understood. The objective of this study is to provide a snapshot of the features of and contributors to prolonged use of antipsychotic medications (>12 weeks) among a sample of...
Article
Full-text available
Dementia affects 47 million individuals worldwide, and assuming the status quo is projected to rise to 150 million by 2050. Prevention of age-related cognitive impairment in older persons with lifestyle interventions continues to garner evidence but whether this can combat underlying neurodegeneration is unknown. The Study of Mental Activity and Re...
Article
Background Depression is a common problem in older adults. The 15-item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS-15) is a widely used psychometric tool for measuring depression in the elderly, but its psychometric properties have not been yet rigorously investigated. The aim was to evaluate psychometric properties of the GDS-15 and improve precision of the...
Article
Full-text available
Background: With no effective treatments for cognitive decline or dementia, improving the evidence base for modifiable risk factors is a research priority. This study investigated associations between risk factors and late-life cognitive decline on a global scale, including comparisons between ethno-regional groups. Methods and findings: We harm...
Article
Full-text available
In previous studies, resting-state functional connectivity (FC) metrics of specific brain regions or networks based on prior hypotheses have been correlated with cognitive performance. Without constraining our analyses to specific regions or networks, we employed whole-brain voxel-based weighted degree (WD), a measure of local FC strength, to be co...
Article
Dementia is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality without pharmacologic prevention or cure. Mounting evidence suggests that adherence to a Mediterranean dietary pattern may slow cognitive decline, and is important to characterise in at-risk cohorts. Thus, we determined the reliability and validity of the Mediterranean Diet and Culinary Index (...
Article
Depression and a number of other psychiatric conditions can impair cognition and give the appearance of neurodegenerative disease. Collectively, this group of disorders is known as ‘pseudodementia’ and are important to identify given their potential reversibility with treatment. Despite considerable interest historically, the longitudinal outcomes...
Article
Full-text available
To examine neural, physiological and cognitive influences on gait speed under single and dual-task conditions. Sixty-two community-dwelling older people (aged 80.0 ± 4.2 years) participated in our study. Gait speed was assessed with a timed 20-meter walk under single and dual-task (reciting alternate letters of the alphabet) conditions. Participant...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: While obesity has been linked with lower quality of life in the general adult population, the prospective effects of present obesity on future quality of life amongst the elderly is unclear. This article investigates the cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships between obesity and aspects of quality of life in community-dwelling...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Dementia is the second leading cause of death in Australia. Over half of patients with dementia are undiagnosed in primary care. This paper describes the development, implementation and initial evaluation of the first national continuing medical education program on the timely diagnosis and management of dementia in general practice in...
Article
Full-text available
Emerging evidence from lesion-symptom mapping (LSM) studies suggested that regional white matter lesions (WML) on strategic white matter (WM) fiber tracts are significantly associated with specific cognitive domains, independent of global WML burden. However, previous LSM investigations were mostly carried out in disease cohorts, with little eviden...
Article
Full-text available
Antipsychotic and other tranquilising medicines are prescribed to help care staff manages behaviour in one-quarter of older people living in Australian long-term care homes. While these medicines pose significant health risks, particularly for people with dementia, reliance on their use occurs when staff are not educated to respond to resident beha...
Article
Full-text available
Background: The protective, custodial, task-oriented care provided in residential aged care facilitates decreases health and wellbeing of residents. The aim of the study was to conduct a feasibility study of LifeFul - a 12 month reablement program in residential aged care. Methods: LifeFul was developed based on systematic reviews of reablement...
Article
Lewy body dementia (consisting of dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson’s disease dementia) is a common neurodegenerative disease characterised by visual hallucinations, fluctuating attention, motor disturbances, falls, and sensitivity to antipsychotics. This combination of features presents challenges for pharmacological management. Given this,...
Article
Full-text available
Amnestic MCI (aMCI) and non-amnestic MCI (naMCI) are considered to differ in etiology and outcome. Accurately classifying MCI into meaningful subtypes would enable early intervention with targeted treatment. In this study, we employed structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for MCI subtype classification. This was carried out in a sample of 184...
Article
Background Prescribed Disengagement ® is the description of the post-diagnostic advice given to people after a diagnosis of dementia, which explicitly or implicitly suggests that the person should be slowing down or pulling back from activities. This results in isolation, loss of hope, self-esteem and self-identity, and threatens social health. Thi...
Article
Full-text available
Background The prevalence of dementia varies around the world, potentially contributed to by international differences in rates of age-related cognitive decline. Our primary goal was to investigate how rates of age-related decline in cognitive test performance varied among international cohort studies of cognitive aging. We also determined the exte...
Article
In old age, a relationship has been reported between intraindividual variability (IIV) in reaction time and white matter integrity as evidenced by white matter hyperintensities (WMH). However, it is unclear how far such associations are due to incipient neurodegenerative pathology in the samples investigated. The present study examined the relation...
Article
Objective: To explore the validity of the Large Allen's Cognitive Level Screen-5 (LACLS-5) as a performance-based measure of functional cognition, representing an ability to perform complex everyday activities in older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and mild dementia living in the community. Methods: Using cross-sectional data from...
Article
Background: The nature and commonality of late-life risk factors for mild cognitive impairment (MCI), dementia, and mortality remain unclear. Our aim was to investigate potential risk factors, simultaneously in a single cohort including many individuals initially with normal cognition and followed for 6 years. Methods: We classified 873 communit...
Article
Objectives: To determine whether improvements in aerobic capacity (VO2peak ) and strength after progressive resistance training (PRT) mediate improvements in cognitive function. Design: Randomized, double-blind, double-sham, controlled trial. Setting: University research facility. Participants: Community-dwelling older adults (aged ≥55) with...
Article
Full-text available
Access full text: http://rdcu.be/kQqv Increasing recognition that apathy is one of the most prevalent behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and causes substantial caregiver distress has led to trials evaluating psychosocial and pharmacological treatments of apathy in dementia. We evaluated evidence of the efficacy of pharmacotherapies...
Article
Objectives: The distinction between dementia and mild cognitive impairment (MCI) relies upon the evaluation of independence in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL). Self- and informant reports are prone to bias. Clinician-based performance tests are limited by long administration times, restricted access, or inadequate validation. To clo...
Article
Full-text available
Apolipoprotein H (ApoH) is a multi-functional plasma glycoprotein that has been associated with negative health outcomes. ApoH levels have high heritability. We undertook a genome-wide association study of ApoH levels using the largest sample to date and replicated the results in an independent cohort (total N = 1,255). In the discovery phase, a me...
Article
Full-text available
Physical and cognitive exercise may prevent or delay dementia in later life but the neural mechanisms underlying these therapeutic benefits are largely unknown. We examined structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) brain changes after 6 months of progressive resistance training (PRT), computerized cognitive training (CCT) or combin...
Article
Background: Concern about falling is common in older people. Various related psychological constructs as well as poor balance and slow gait have been associated with decreased gray matter (GM) volume in old age. The current study investigates the association between concern about falling and voxel-wise GM volumes. Methods: A total of 281 communi...
Article
Successful brain aging in the oldest old (≥90 years) is under-explored. This study examined cross-sectional brain morphological differences from eighth to eleventh decades of life in non-demented individuals by high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging. 277 non-demented community dwelling participants (71-103 years) from Sydney Memory and Ageing S...
Article
Unlabelled: Underpinnings of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) change with increasing age. We hypothesize that MRI signatures of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) would be different at a higher age compared to younger elders. Methods: 244 participants (71-103 years) from the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study and the Sydney Centenarian Study were catego...
Article
Objectives: Determine whether (1) a relationship exists between plasma amyloid-β (Aβ)1- 40 and 1-42 peptide levels, brain volumetrics and cognitive performance in elderly individuals with and without amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), (2) plasma Aβ peptide levels differ between apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carriers and non-carriers and (3) l...
Article
Ageing is characterized by chronically elevated inflammatory markers (IMs). Peripheral IM levels have been found in negative correlations with brain structural measures including global and lobar volumes and the hippocampus. This study investigated the relationship between 10 peripheral IMs and voxel-based gray matter (GM) volumes in nondemented ol...
Article
Aim: To answer questions on the essential components (services, operations and resources) of a person-centered aged care home (iHome) using computer simulation. Materials & methods: iHome was developed with AnyLogic software using extant study data obtained from 60 Australian aged care homes, 900+ clients and 700+ aged care staff. Bayesian analy...
Article
The variability of episodic memory decline and hippocampal atrophy observed with increasing age may partly be explained by genetic factors. KIBRA (kidney and brain expressed protein) and CLSTN2 (calsyntenin 2) are two candidate genes previously linked to episodic memory performance and volume of the hippocampus, a key memory structure. However, whe...
Article
Full-text available
Medicinal substances have been identified as common agents of both unintentional and intentional poisoning among older people, including those with dementia. This study aims to compare the characteristics of poisoning resulting in hospitalization in older people with and without dementia and their clinical outcomes. A retrospective cohort study inv...
Article
Full-text available
Using circulating inflammatory markers and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), recent studies have associated inflammation with brain volumetric measures. Macrophage Inhibitory Cytokine-1 (MIC-1/GDF15) is a divergent transforming growth factor - beta (TGF-beta) superfamily cytokine. To uncover the underlying mechanisms of the previous finding of a ne...
Article
Full-text available
Hand grip strength (GS) is a predictor of mortality in older adults and is moderately to highly heritable, but no genetic variants have been consistently identified. We aimed to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with GS in middle-aged to older adults using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). GS was measured using handhe...
Article
Full-text available
Background: DNA methylation variation has been implicated in memory, cognitive performance, and dementia. Plasma apolipoprotein-A1 (ApoA1) levels may act as a biomarker of age-associated cognitive performance and decline. Objectives: To estimate the heritability of plasma ApoA1 protein levels; to examine DNA methylation variation within the APOA...
Article
Full-text available
To unlock the full potential of disease modifying treatments, it is essential to develop early biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD). For practical reasons, blood-based markers that could provide a signal at the stage of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or even earlier would be ideal. Using the proteomic approach of isobaric tagging for relative a...
Article
To determine whether obesity, estimated according to body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and body fat and abdominal fat assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA), was associated with cognitive performance. Cross-sectional. Community based. Individuals aged 74-94 (N = 406). BMI, waist circumference, body fat, and abdominal fat w...
Article
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disorder for which environmental factors influence disease risk and may act via an epigenetic mechanism. The microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) is a susceptibility gene for idiopathic PD. Methylation levels were determined by pyrosequencing of bisulfite-treated DNA in a leukocyte cohort (358 PD...
Article
Background: Service planning for people with younger onset dementia (YOD; an onset of symptoms before the age of 65 years) relies on prevalence estimates, with existing models based upon older people. This pilot study investigated the prevalence and causes of YOD in a defined catchment area of Eastern Sydney, Australia. Methods: The study was co...
Article
AimTo evaluate the anthropometric indices in community-dwelling people aged 70–90 years in Sydney, Australia.Method Cross-sectional data were collected during the Sydney Memory and Ageing Study from two federal government electoral areas from 2005–2007. Participants with no dementia were recruited to the study (n = 1037). The anthropometric paramet...
Article
Depressive symptoms and antidepressant use are associated with greater fall risk in older people. This prospective study investigated interactions between depressive symptoms, antidepressant use and physical and cognitive function measures in relation to injurious or multiple falls in a large sample of community-living older people. Four-hundred an...
Article
Full-text available
Background Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is considered to be a transitional stage between healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and consists of two subtypes: single-domain aMCI (sd-aMCI) and multi-domain aMCI (md-aMCI). Individuals with md-aMCI are found to exhibit higher risk of conversion to AD. Accurate discrimination among aMC...