Henrik N. Latter's research while affiliated with University of Cambridge and other places

Publications (105)

Article
The vertical shear instability (VSI) is a robust phenomenon in irradiated protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The majority of previous numerical simulations have focused on the turbulent properties of its saturated state. However, the saturation of the VSI manifests as large-scale coherent radially travelling inertial waves. In this paper, we study inerti...
Preprint
The vertical shear instability (VSI) is a robust phenomenon in irradiated protoplanetary disks (PPDs). The majority of previous numerical simulations have focused on the turbulent properties of its saturated state. However, the saturation of the VSI manifests as large-scale coherent radially travelling inertial waves. In this paper, we study inerti...
Preprint
The turbulence driven by gravitational instabilities (GIs) can amplify magnetic fields in massive gaseous disks. This GI dynamo may appear in young circumstellar disks, whose weak ionization challenges other amplification routes, as well as in active galactic nuclei. Although regarded as a large-scale dynamo, only local numerical simulations have y...
Article
Determining the origin of turbulence in galaxy clusters, and quantifying its transport of heat, is an outstanding problem, with implications for our understanding of their thermodynamic history and structure. As the dilute plasma of the intracluster medium (ICM) is magnetized, heat and momentum travel preferentially along magnetic field lines. This...
Article
In the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxies, exchanges of heat across magnetic field lines are strongly suppressed. This anisotropic heat conduction, in the presence of a large-scale temperature gradient, destabilizes the outskirts of galaxy clusters via the magneto-thermal instability (MTI), which could drive observed ICM turbulence. In this pape...
Article
The vertical shear instability (VSI) is a robust and potentially important phenomenon in irradiated protoplanetary disks (PPDs), yet the mechanism by which it saturates remains poorly understood. Global simulations suggest that the non-linear evolution of the VSI is dominated by radially propagating inertial wavetrains (called ‘body modes’), but th...
Preprint
The vertical shear instability (VSI) is a robust and potentially important phenomenon in irradiated protoplanetary disks (PPDs), yet the mechanism by which it saturates remains poorly understood. Global simulations suggest that the non-linear evolution of the VSI is dominated by radially propagating inertial wavetrains (called `body modes'), but th...
Article
Protoplanetary discs should exhibit a weak vertical variation in their rotation profiles. Typically this ‘vertical shear’ issues from a baroclinic effect driven by the central star’s radiation field, but it might also arise during the launching of a magnetocentrifugal wind. As a consequence, protoplanetary discs are subject to a hydrodynamical inst...
Preprint
Full-text available
Protoplanetary discs should exhibit a weak vertical variation in their rotation profiles. Typically this `vertical shear' issues from a baroclinic effect driven by the central star's radiation field, but it might also arise during the launching of a magnetocentrifugal wind. As a consequence, protoplanetary discs are subject to a hydrodynamical inst...
Article
The classical alpha-disc model assumes that the turbulent stress scales linearly with – and responds instantaneously to – the pressure. It is likely, however, that the stress possesses a non-negligible relaxation time and will lag behind the pressure on some timescale. To measure the size of this lag we carry out unstratified 3D magnetohydrodynamic...
Preprint
The classical alpha-disc model assumes that the turbulent stress scales linearly with -- and responds instantaneously to -- the pressure. It is likely, however, that the stress possesses a non-negligible relaxation time and will lag behind the pressure on some timescale. To measure the size of this lag we carry out unstratified 3D magnetohydrodynam...
Preprint
Full-text available
In the intracluster medium (ICM) of galaxies, exchanges of heat across magnetic field lines are strongly suppressed. This anisotropic heat conduction, in the presence of a large-scale temperature gradient, destabilizes the outskirts of galaxy clusters via the magneto-thermal instability (MTI), and thus supplies a source of observed ICM turbulence....
Preprint
Full-text available
Determining the origin of turbulence in galaxy clusters, and quantifying its transport of heat, is an outstanding problem, with implications for our understanding of their thermodynamic history and structure. As the dilute plasma of the intracluster medium (ICM) is magnetized, heat and momentum travel preferentially along magnetic field lines. This...
Article
Full-text available
Protoplanetary discs at certain radii exhibit adverse radial entropy gradients that can drive oscillatory convection (‘convective overstability’; COS). The ensuing hydrodynamical activity may reshape the radial thermal structure of the disc while mixing solid material radially and vertically or, alternatively, concentrating it in vortical structure...
Article
In their early stages, protoplanetary discs are sufficiently massive to undergo gravitational instability (GI). This instability is thought to be involved in mass accretion, planet formation via gas fragmentation, the generation of spiral density waves, and outbursts. A key and very recent area of research is the interaction between the GI and magn...
Preprint
In their early stages, protoplanetary discs are sufficiently massive to undergo gravitational instability (GI). This instability is thought to be involved in mass accretion, planet formation via gas fragmentation, the generation of spiral density waves, and outbursts. A key and very recent area of research is the interaction between the GI and magn...
Article
Convection has been discussed in the field of accretion discs for several decades, both as a means of angular momentum transport and also because of its role in controlling discs’ vertical structure via heat transport. If the gas is sufficiently ionized and threaded by a weak magnetic field, convection might interact in non-trivial ways with the ma...
Preprint
Convection has been discussed in the field of accretion discs for several decades, both as a means of angular momentum transport and also because of its role in controlling discs' vertical structure via heat transport. If the gas is sufficiently ionized and threaded by a weak magnetic field, convection might interact in non-trivial ways with the ma...
Article
Context. Gravitational instabilities can drive small-scale turbulence and large-scale spiral arms in massive gaseous disks under conditions of slow radiative cooling. These motions affect the observed disk morphology, its mass accretion rate and variability, and could control the process of planet formation via dust grain concentration, processing,...
Preprint
Gravitational instabilities can drive small-scale turbulence and large-scale spiral arms in massive gaseous disks under conditions of slow radiative cooling. These motions affect the observed disk morphology, its mass accretion rate and variability, and could control the process of planet formation via dust grain concentration, processing and colli...
Article
High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) observed in the emission of black hole X-ray binary systems promise insight into strongly curved spacetime. ‘Discoseismic’ oscillations with frequencies set by the intrinsic properties of the central black hole, in particular ‘trapped inertial waves’ (r modes), offer an attractive explanation for...
Article
Trapped inertial oscillations (r modes) provide a promising explanation for high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) observed in the emission from black hole X-ray binary systems. An eccentricity (or warp) can excite r modes to large amplitudes, but concurrently, the oscillations are likely damped by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence...
Preprint
Trapped inertial oscillations (r-modes) provide a promising explanation for high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) observed in the emission from black hole X-ray binary systems. An eccentricity (or warp) can excite r-modes to large amplitudes, but concurrently the oscillations are likely damped by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence d...
Article
The vertical temperature structure of a protoplanetary disc bears on several processes relevant to planet formation, such as gas and dust grain chemistry, ice lines, and convection. The temperature profile is controlled by irradiation from the central star and by any internal source of heat such as might arise from gas accretion. We investigate the...
Article
Gravitational instability (GI) controls the dynamics of young massive protoplanetary discs. Apart from facilitating gas accretion on to the central protostar, it must also impact on the process of planet formation: directly through fragmentation, and indirectly through the turbulent concentration of small solids. To understand the latter process, i...
Preprint
The vertical temperature structure of a protoplanetary disk bears on several processes relevant to planet formation, such as gas and dust grain chemistry, ice lines and convection. The temperature profile is controlled by irradiation from the central star and by any internal source of heat as caused by gas accretion. We investigate the heat and ang...
Article
In the early stages of a protoplanetary disk, turbulence generated by gravitational instability (GI) should feature significantly in the disk's evolution. At the same time, the disk may be sufficiently ionized for magnetic fields to play some role in the dynamics. In this paper, we report on global three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical simulation...
Preprint
Gravitational instability (GI) controls the dynamics of young massive protoplanetary discs. Apart from facilitating gas accretion on to the central protostar, it must also impact on the process of planet formation: directly through fragmentation, and indirectly through the turbulent concentration of small solids. To understand the latter process, i...
Preprint
In the early stages of a protoplanetary disk, when its mass is a significant fraction of its star's, turbulence generated by gravitational instability (GI) should feature significantly in the disk's evolution. At the same time, the disk may be sufficiently ionised for magnetic fields to play some role in the dynamics. Though usually neglected, the...
Preprint
High-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) observed in the emission of black hole X-ray binary systems promise insight into strongly curved spacetime. `Discoseismic' modes with frequencies set by the intrinsic properties of the central black hole, in particular `trapped inertial waves' (r-modes), offer an attractive explanation for HFQPOs....
Article
The excitation of trapped inertial waves (r-modes) by warps and eccentricities in the inner regions of a black hole accretion disc may explain the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations observed in the emission of Galactic X-ray binaries. However, it has been suggested that strong vertical magnetic fields push the oscillations’ trapping region...
Article
The origin of large-scale and coherent magnetic fields in astrophysical discs is an important and long-standing problem. It is common to appeal to a turbulent dynamo sustained by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) to supply the large-scale field. But research over the last decade, in particular, has demonstrated that various non-ideal magnetoh...
Preprint
The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is one of the most important processes in sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks. Grid-based simulations, especially those using the local shearing box approximation, provide a powerful tool to study the ensuing nonlinear turbulence. On the other hand, while meshless methods have been widely used in both c...
Article
The magneto-rotational instability (MRI) is one of the most important processes in sufficiently ionized astrophysical disks. Grid-based simulations, especially those using the local shearing box approximation, provide a powerful tool to study the ensuing nonlinear turbulence. On the other hand, while meshless methods have been widely used in both c...
Preprint
The excitation of trapped inertial waves (r-modes) by warps and eccentricities in the inner regions of a black hole accretion disc may explain the high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) observed in the emission of Galactic X-ray binaries. However, it has been suggested that strong vertical magnetic fields push the oscillations' trappin...
Preprint
The origin of large-scale and coherent magnetic fields in astrophysical discs is an important and long standing problem. Researchers commonly appeal to a turbulent dynamo, sustained by the magneto-rotational instability (MRI), to supply the large-scale field. But research over the last decade in particular has demonstrated that various non-ideal MH...
Preprint
Full-text available
The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability has been proposed as a mechanism to extract energy from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in flux tubes, and to drive dissipation of this wave energy through turbulence. It is therefore a potentially important process in heating the solar corona. However, it is unclear how the instability is influenced by the osc...
Article
Full-text available
The Kelvin–Helmholtz instability has been proposed as a mechanism to extract energy from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) kink waves in flux tubes, and to drive dissipation of this wave energy through turbulence. It is therefore a potentially important process in heating the solar corona. However, it is unclear how the instability is influenced by the osc...
Preprint
The prevalence and consequences of convection perpendicular to the plane of accretion discs have been discussed for several decades. Recent simulations combining convection and the magnetorotational instability have given fresh impetus to the debate, as the interplay of the two processes can enhance angular momentum transport, at least in the optic...
Article
Spiral density waves dominate several facets of accretion disc dynamics - planet-disc interactions and gravitational instability (GI) most prominently. Though they have been examined thoroughly in two-dimensional simulations, their vertical structures in the non-linear regime are somewhat unexplored. This neglect is unwarranted given that any stron...
Article
The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations that punctuate the light curves of X-ray binary systems present a window on to the intrinsic properties of stellar-mass black holes and hence a testbed for general relativity. One explanation for these features is that relativistic distortion of the accretion disc's differential rotation creates a trap...
Article
Via the process of accretion, magnetorotational turbulence removes energy from a disk's orbital motion and transforms it into heat. Turbulent heating is far from uniform and is usually concentrated in small regions of intense dissipation, characterised by abrupt magnetic reconnection and higher temperatures. These regions are of interest because th...
Article
Full-text available
Spiral density waves dominate several facets of accretion disc dynamics --- planet-disc interactions and gravitational instability (GI) most prominently. Though they have been examined thoroughly in two-dimensional simulations, their vertical structures in the non-linear regime are somewhat unexplored. This neglect is unwarranted given that any str...
Article
The high-frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HFQPOs) that punctuate the light curves of X-ray binary systems present a window onto the intrinsic properties of stellar-mass black holes and hence a testbed for general relativity. One explanation for these features is that relativistic distortion of the accretion disc's differential rotation create...
Article
If sufficiently irradiated by its central star, a protoplanetary disks falls into an equilibrium state exhibiting vertical shear. This state may be subject to a hydrodynamical instability, the `vertical shear instability' (VSI), whose breakdown into turbulence transports a moderate amount of angular momentum while also facilitating planet formation...
Article
Full-text available
Though usually treated in isolation, the magnetorotational and gravitational instabilities (MRI and GI) may coincide at certain radii and evolutionary stages of protoplanetary discs and active galactic nuclei. Their mutual interactions could profoundly influence several important processes, such as accretion variability and outbursts, fragmentation...
Article
Local models of gaseous accretion discs have been successfully employed for decades to describe an assortment of small-scale phenomena, from instabilities and turbulence, to dust dynamics and planet formation. For the most part, they have been derived in a physically motivated but essentially ad hoc fashion, with some of the mathematical assumption...
Article
Full-text available
Young protoplanetary discs and the outer radii of active galactic nuclei may be subject to gravitational instability and, as a consequence, fall into a ‘gravitoturbulent’ state. While in this state, appreciable angular momentum can be transported; alternatively, the gas may collapse into bound clumps, the progenitors of planets or stars. In this pa...
Article
Full-text available
Young protoplanetary discs and the outer radii of active galactic nucleii may be subject to gravitational instability and, as a consequence, fall into a `gravitoturbulent' state. While in this state, appreciable angular momentum can be transported. Alternatively, the gas may collapse into bound clumps, the progenitors of planets or stars. In this p...
Article
Z Cam variables are a subclass of dwarf nova that lie near a global bifurcation between outbursting ("limit cycle") and non-outbursting ("standstill") states. It is believed that variations in the secondary star's mass-injection rate instigate transitions between the two regimes. In this paper we explore an alternative trigger for these transitions...
Article
A long-standing puzzle in the study of black-hole accretion concerns the presence or not of thermal instability. Classical theory predicts the encircling accretion disk is unstable, as do some self-consistent MHD simulations of the flow. Yet observations of strongly accreting sources generally fail to exhibit cyclic or unstable dynamics on the expe...
Article
This chapter explores the physics shared by planetary rings and the various disks that populate the Universe. It begins with an observational overview, ranging from protoplanetary disks to spiral galaxies, and then compares and contrasts these astrophysical disks with the rings of the Solar System. Emphasis is placed on fundamental physics and dyna...
Article
In protoplanetary discs the aerodynamical friction between particles and gas induces a variety of instabilities that facilitate planet formation. Of these we examine the so-called ‘secular gravitational instability’ (SGI) in the two-fluid approximation, deriving analytical expressions for its stability criteria and growth rates. Concurrently, we pr...
Article
Recently it has been proposed that the zombie vortex instability (ZVI) could precipitate hydrodynamical activity and angular momentum transport in unmagnetized regions of protoplanetary discs, also known as ‘dead zones’. In this Letter we scrutinize, with high-resolution 3D spectral simulations, the onset and survival of this instability in the pre...
Article
In protoplanetary disks the aerodynamical friction between particles and gas induces a variety of instabilities that facilitate planet formation. Of these we examine the so-called `secular gravitational instability' (SGI) in the two-fluid approximation, deriving analytical expressions for its stability criteria and growth rates. Concurrently, we pr...
Article
Recently it has been proposed that the zombie vortex instability (ZVI) could precipitate hydrodynamical activity and angular momentum transport in unmagnetized regions of protoplanetary discs, also known as ‘dead zones’. In this Letter we scrutinize, with high-resolution 3D spectral simulations, the onset and survival of this instability in the pre...
Article
Full-text available
Jets, from the protostellar to the AGN context, have been extensively studied but their connection to the turbulent dynamics of the underlying accretion disc is poorly understood. Following a similar approach to Lesur et al. (2013), we examine the role of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in the production and acceleration of outflows from di...
Article
Debris discs are commonly swathed in gas which can be observed in UV, in fine structure lines in FIR, and in resolved maps of CO emission. Carbon and oxygen are overabundant in such gas, but it is severely depleted in hydrogen. As a consequence, its ionisation fraction is remarkably high, suggesting magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) processes may be import...
Article
Recently it has been proposed that the zombie vortex instability (ZVI) could precipitate hydrodynamical activity and angular momentum transport in unmagnetised regions of protoplanetary discs, also known as "dead zones". In this letter we scrutinise, with high resolution 3D spectral simulations, the onset and survival of this instability in the pre...
Article
Full-text available
Gravitational instability (GI) features in several aspects of protostellar disk evolution, most notably in angular momentum transport, fragmentation, and the outbursts exemplified by FU Ori and EX Lupi systems. The outer regions of protostellar discs may also be coupled to magnetic fields, which could then modify the development of GI. To understan...
Article
This paper explores the driving of low-level hydrodynamical activity in protoplanetary-disc dead zones. A small adverse radial entropy gradient, ordinarily stabilized by rotation, excites oscillatory convection (‘convective overstability’) when thermal diffusion, or cooling, is neither too strong nor too weak. I revisit the linear theory of the ins...
Article
We determine how MRI (magnetorotational instability)-turbulent stresses depend on gas pressure via a suite of unstratified shearing box simulations. Earlier numerical work reported only a very weak dependence at best, results that call into question the canonical α-disc model and the thermal stability results that follow from it. Our simulations, i...
Article
We revisit the linear magnetorotational instability (MRI) in a cylindrical model of an accretion disc and uncover a number of attractive results overlooked in previous treatments. In particular, we elucidate the connection between local axisymmetric modes and global modes, and show that a local channel flow corresponds to the evanescent part of a g...
Article
Full-text available
We explore the linear stability of astrophysical discs exhibiting vertical shear, which arises when there is a radial variation in the temperature or entropy. Such discs are subject to a "vertical-shear instability", which recent nonlinear simulations have shown to drive hydrodynamic activity in the MRI-stable regions of protoplanetary discs. We fi...
Article
In protoplanetary disks, the inner boundary between the turbulent and laminar regions is a promising site for planet formation because solids may become trapped at the interface itself or in vortices generated by the Rossby wave instability. The disk thermodynamics and the turbulent dynamics at that location are entwined because of the importance o...
Article
The ejecta discharged by impacting meteorites can redistribute a planetary ring's mass and angular momentum. This `ballistic transport' of ring properties instigates a linear instability that could generate the 100--1000-km undulations observed in Saturn's inner B-ring and in its C-ring. We present semi-analytic results demonstrating how the instab...
Article
Saturn's inner B-ring and its C-ring support wavetrains of contrasting amplitudes but with similar length scales, 100-1000 km. In addition, the inner B-ring is punctuated by two intriguing `flat' regions between radii 93,000 km and 98,000 km in which the waves die out, whereas the C-ring waves coexist with a forest of plateaus, narrow ringlets, and...
Article
In protoplanetary disks, the inner boundary between the turbulent and laminar regions could be a promising site for planet formation, thanks to the trapping of solids at the boundary itself or in vortices generated by the Rossby wave instability. At the interface, the disk thermodynamics and the turbulent dynamics are entwined because of the import...
Article
In protoplanetary disks, the inner boundary between an MRI active and inactive region has recently been suggested to be a promising site for planet formation. A set of numerical simulations (Dzyurkevich et al. 2010, Lyra et al. 2012) has indeed shown that vortex formation mediated by the Rossby wave instability is a natural consequence of the disk...
Article
Warped astrophysical discs are usually treated as laminar viscous flows, which have anomalous properties when the disc is nearly Keplerian and the viscosity is small: fast horizontal shearing motions and large torques are generated, which cause the warp to evolve rapidly, in some cases at a rate that is inversely proportional to the viscosity. Howe...
Article
Astrophysical discs are warped whenever a misalignment is present in the system, or when a flat disc is made unstable by external forces. The evolution of the shape and mass distribution of a warped disc is driven not only by external influences but also by an internal torque, which transports angular momentum through the disc. This torque depends...
Article
The aim of this paper is to investigate the properties of accretion disks threaded by a weak vertical magnetic field, with a particular focus on the interplay between MHD turbulence driven by the magnetorotational instability (MRI) and outflows that might be launched from the disk. For that purpose, we use a set of numerical simulations performed w...
Article
We present results from large-scale particle simulations of the viscous overstability in Saturn's rings. The overstability generates a variety of structure on scales covering a few hundred metres to several kilometres, including axisymmetric wavetrains and larger-scale modulations. Such patterns have been observed in Saturn's rings by the Cassini s...
Article
The viscous over-stability is thought to be responsible for coherent structures observed in Saturn's rings with typical wavelength of a few hundred meters. We present results from new large scale non-linear particle simulation of the over-stability. These are the largest direct N-body simulations of the viscous over-stability that have ever been pe...
Article
Planetary rings sustain a continual bombardment of hypervelocity meteoroids that erode the surfaces of ring particles on time scales of 10^5 - 10^7 years. The debris ejected from such impacts re-accretes on to the ring, though often at a slightly different orbital radius from the point of emission. This `ballistic transport' leads to a rearrangemen...
Article
Satellites that are formed inside the corotation radius of a planet migrate slowly inwards as a result of tidal dissipation in the central body. Eventually they are tidally disrupted and form planetary rings. We use N-body simulations of gravitational aggregates (rubble piles) to study the tidal disruption of both homogeneous satellites and differe...
Article
We take a fresh look at the dynamics of the ballistic transport instability, as first proposed by Durisen (1995), and consider its role in the formation of 100 km radial wavetrains and `flat' zones in the inner B-ring and 100 km plateaus and low-amplitude 1000 km undulations in the C-ring. The physical problem is reformulated so as to apply to a lo...
Article
We aim to understand axisymmetric structure formation in Saturn's A and B-rings on scales of 100 m to several kms through nonlinear hydrodynamical and N-body simulations of the viscous overstability. The viscous overstability is a robust generator of structure on short scales, as witnessed by previous hydrodynamical and N-body simulations (Schmidt...
Article
The recurrent outbursts that characterise low-mass binary systems reflect thermal state changes in their associated accretion discs. The observed outbursts are connected to the strong variation in disc opacity as hydrogen ionises near 5000 K. This physics leads to accretion disc models that exhibit bistability and thermal limit cycles, whereby the...
Article
In this paper, we investigate the formation of narrow planetary rings such as those found around Uranus and Saturn through the tidal disruption of a weak, gravitationally bound satellite that migrates within its Roche limit. Using N-body simulations, we study the behaviour of rubble piles placed on circular orbits at different distances from a cent...
Article
In protoplanetary disks, the inner radial boundary between the MRI turbulent (`active') and MRI quiescent (`dead') zones plays an important role in models of the disk evolution and in some planet formation scenarios. In reality, this boundary is not well-defined: thermal heating from the star in a passive disk yields a transition radius close to th...
Article
We describe the dynamics of a stream of equally spaced macroscopic particles in orbit around a central body (e.g. a planet or star). A co-orbital configuration of particles may be subject to gravitational instability, which takes the system to a spreading disordered and collisional state. We detail the linear instability’s mathematical and physical...
Article
In this paper we investigate how convective instabilities influence heat conduction in the intracluster medium (ICM) of cool-core galaxy clusters. The ICM is a high-beta, weakly collisional plasma in which the transport of momentum and heat is aligned with the magnetic field. The anisotropy of heat conduction, in particular, gives rise to instabili...
Article
The isorotation contours of the solar convective zone (SCZ) show three distinct morphologies, corresponding to two boundary layers (inner and outer), and the bulk of the interior. Previous work has shown that the thermal wind equation together with informal arguments on the nature of convection in a rotating fluid could be used to deduce the shape...
Article
We revisit, via a very simplified set of equations, a linear streaming instability (technically an overstability), which is present in, and potentially important for, dusty protoplanetary disks (Youdin & Goodman 2005). The goal is a better understanding of the physical origin of such instabilities, which are notoriously subtle. Rotational dynamics...
Article
Simulations of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in ‘unstratified’ shearing boxes exhibit powerful coherent flows, whereby the fluid vertically splits into countermoving planar jets or ‘channels’. Channel flows correspond to certain axisymmetric linear MRI modes, and their preponderance follows from the remarkable fact that they are approxima...
Article
In this paper, we present a model for the effects of the tachocline on the differential rotation in the solar convection zone. The mathematical technique relies on the assumption that entropy is nearly constant (‘well mixed’) in isorotation surfaces both outside and within the tachocline. The resulting solutions exhibit non-trivial features that st...
Article
We outline a novel linear instability that may arise in the dead zones of protostellar discs, and possibly the fluid interiors of planets and protoplanets. In essence it is an axisymmetric buoyancy instability, but one that would not be present in a purely hydrodynamical gas. The necessary ingredients for growth include a negative radial entropy gr...
Article
We perform axisymmetric hydrodynamical simulations that describe the nonlinear outcome of the viscous overstability in dense planetary rings. These simulations are particularly relevant for Cassini observations of fine-scale structure in Saturn’s A and B-ring, which take the form of periodic microstructure on the 0.1 km scale, and irregular larger-...