Henrik Kessler's research while affiliated with LWL-Universitätsklinikum Bochum and other places

Publications (131)

Article
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a serious mental health condition thought to be mediated by a dysregulated stress response system. Stress, especially chronic stress, affects mitochondrial activity and their efficiency in duplicating their genomes. Human cells contain numerous mitochondria that harbor multiple copies of their own genome, wh...
Article
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DNA methylation patterns can be responsive to environmental influences. This observation has sparked interest in the potential for psychological interventions to influence epigenetic processes. Recent studies have observed correlations between DNA methylation changes and therapy outcome. However, most did not control for changes in cell composition...
Article
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Background Social and emotional deficits are assumed to be involved in the development and maintenance of internet gaming disorder (IGD). Alexithymia refers to a personality construct, which is characterized by deficits in emotional awareness and processing. The constructs of alexithymia and depression share similarities, and depression is a common...
Chapter
Im Hinblick auf das Körpergewicht und somatische Folgeerkrankungen ist die Effektivität der bariatrischen Chirurgie bei Patienten mit morbider Adipositas gut belegt. Im Verlauf der letzten Jahrzehnte konnte das Operationsrisiko stetig gemindert werden, und der Eingriff hat sich im Hinblick auf eine signifikante und anhaltende Gewichtsreduktion bewä...
Article
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Introduction Evidence from clinical studies on quality of life (QoL) in patients suffering from internet use disorders (IUD) is still limited. Furthermore, the impact of additional mental comorbidities on QoL in IUD patients has rarely been investigated yet. Materials and Methods In a cross-sectional clinical study 149 male subjects were analyzed...
Article
Introduction: Dysfunctional appraisals about traumatic events and their sequelae are a key mechanism in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Experimental studies have shown that a computerized cognitive training, cognitive bias modification for appraisals (CBM-APP), can modify dysfunctional appraisals and reduce analogue trauma symptoms amongst h...
Preprint
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Background DNA methylation patterns can be responsive to environmental influences. This observation has sparked interest in the potential for psychological interventions to influence epigenetic processes. Recent studies have observed correlations between DNA methylation changes and therapy outcome. However, most did not control for changes in cell...
Article
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BACKGROUND: The concept of acute stress disorder (ASD) was introduced as a diagnostic entity to improve the identification of traumatized people who are likely to develop posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Neuroanatomical models suggest that changes in the prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus play a role in the development of PTSD. METHO...
Article
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Introduction: The aim of this study is to investigate the diagnostic accuracy, psychometric properties, and clinical utility of the German version of the clinician-administered post-traumatic stress disorder scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5) in routine clinical settings. Methods and analysis: This study is a non-interventional, multitrait-multimethod design...
Article
Zusammenfassung Dieser Artikel gibt einen Einblick in neue Ansätze und Perspektiven bei der Behandlung von Traumafolgestörungen unter Einsatz digitaler Medien. Ausgangslage ist die unzureichende flächendeckende Versorgung bei Traumafolgestörungen und die Suche nach neuen, spezifischen Behandlungsstrategien. Zunächst werden exemplarisch digitale Ans...
Article
Intrusive memories are a key symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), a prevalent condition causing considerable personal suffering, and entailing large direct and indirect societal costs. While effective treatment options for PTSD exist, on a global scale they are not readily available to many patients in need. In the last years, several s...
Article
Does the pre-treatment profile of individuals with persistent depressive disorder (PDD) moderate their benefit from disorder-specific Cognitive Behavioral System of Psychotherapy (CBASP) versus supportive psychotherapy (SP)? We investigated this question by analyzing data from a multi-center randomized clinical trial comparing the effectiveness of...
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Background: Dissociative seizures (DS) are brief episodes of disrupted awareness and behavioural control that may resemble epileptic seizures. They are thought to arise in the context of impaired emotion processing and disinhibition. In a multi-perspective neuropsychological study, we aim to assess specific metacognitive traits and behavioural fea...
Poster
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Background: Dissociative seizures (DS) are thought to arise in the context of impaired emotion processing and disinhibition. Still, despite a wealth of theoretical considerations and pathophysiological models, experimental behavioural evidence of these critical affective and cognitive underpinnings of dissociative seizures is still scarce. In a mul...
Article
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Intrusive re-experiencing is a hallmark symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to prominent models of intrusive phenomena, intrusive memories may result from impairments in the efficiency of working memory capacity (WMC), more specifically proactive interference control. Yet, experimental research is scarce. Therefore, the prese...
Article
Objective: The experience of intrusive memories is a core clinical symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and can be distressing in its own right. Notions of dual task interference and reconsolidation-update mechanisms suggest novel approaches to target intrusive memories. This study tested the hypothesis that a single-session cognitive...
Article
Full-text available
Intrusive re-experiencing is a hallmark symptom of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD). According to prominent models of intrusive phenomena, intrusive memories may result from impairments in the efficiency of working memory capacity (WMC), more specifically proactive interference control. Yet, experimental research is scarce. Therefore, the prese...
Chapter
Im Hinblick auf das Körpergewicht und somatische Folgeerkrankungen ist die Effektivität der bariatrischen Chirurgie bei Patienten mit morbider Adipositas gut belegt. Im Verlauf der letzten Jahrzehnte konnte das Operationsrisiko stetig gemindert werden, und der Eingriff hat sich im Hinblick auf eine signifikante und anhaltende Gewichtsreduktion bewä...
Article
Objective: The core clinical feature of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is recurrent intrusive memories of trauma. This study aimed to test a novel and simple intervention, inspired by the concepts of concurrent task interference and memory reconsolidation, to reduce the occurrence of intrusive memories among inpatients with complex PTSD. Me...
Article
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Background: The concept of psychodynamic conflict is essential to psychodynamic theory and therapy. In classical psychodynamic therapy, unconscious conflict themes need to be identified by the therapist and brought to the patient’s awareness, in order to work through and ultimately solve them. According to theory, touching upon conflict-related top...
Poster
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Dissoziative Anfälle sind in ihrer Ätiologie noch nicht vollständig verstanden. Als Schlüsselpunkte in der Krankheitsentstehung werden in aktuellen Modellen unter anderem Veränderungen in Emotionserkennen und Emotionsverarbeitung hervorgehoben; insbesondere sind hohe Alexithymie-Werte bei Patienten mit dissoziativen Anfällen typisch. Alexithymie be...
Article
Forgetting does not necessarily reflect failure to encode information but can, to some extent, also be voluntarily controlled. Previous studies have suggested that voluntary forgetting relies on active inhibition of encoding processes in the hippocampus by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) [1-4]. During attentional and sensorimotor process...
Article
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Introduction Influential theories of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) suggest that dysfunctional appraisals of trauma play a key role in the maintenance of symptoms, and this suggestion is increasingly supported by research. Experimental studies have indicated that a simple computerised cognitive training procedure, here termed cognitive bias...
Article
Zusammenfassung Theoretischer Hintergrund Die Abklärung, ob eine psychische Störung bei Suizidanten vorgelegen hat, stellt im Rahmen der psychologischen Autopsie ein besonderes diagnostisches Problem dar und wird kontrovers diskutiert. Fragestellung Inwieweit stimmen patienten- und angehörigengenerierte DSM-5®-Diagnosen überein? Methode Mit 20 Pati...
Article
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Subject: In view of the epidemic increase in severe obesity and the ineffectiveness of conservative weight-loss interventions, bariatric surgery delivers compelling results for patients with class II (BMI ≥ 35 kg/m²) and class III obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m²), not only in reducing weight over the long term, but also in reducing obesity-related somatic...
Chapter
Emotions form a major part of humans’ day-to-day lives, especially in the areas of communication and interaction with others. They modify our gesture or facial expression and therefore serve as an additional communication channel. Furthermore, they have an impact on decision-making. This has two possible implications for computer science in the fie...
Article
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Background: Repression is considered as a central defense mechanism in psychodynamic theory. It refers to the process by which “unbearable” mental contents (e.g., those related to internal conflicts) are kept out of consciousness. The process of repression is probably closely related to concepts of emotion regulation derived from a different theore...
Chapter
This chapter highlights how advances in reconsolidation research could lead to the development of novel treatments to influence traumatic memories. Patients with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) suffer from recurrent intrusive memories of the traumatic event(s). The concept of reconsolidation implies that already consolidated memories can be ch...
Chapter
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Emotional inhibition constitutes a dysfunctional verbal and nonverbal interaction between individuals. Emotional inhibition may be classified into genetic, repressive, suppressive, and deceptive inhibition, and the extreme form, emotional implosion. Overt emotional inhibition is characterized by reduced expressiveness, unemotional language, and shy...
Article
Besides its relevance for declarative memory functions [1-5], hippocampal activation has been observed during disambiguation of uncertainty and conflict [6, 7]. Uncertainty and conflict may arise on various levels. On the perceptual level, the hippocampus has been associated with signaling of contextual deviance [8-10] and disambiguation of similar...
Article
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Die Fähigkeit, über sich und andere auf der Grundlage einer psychologischen Theorie zu reflektieren, wird als Mentalisierung bezeichnet und ist von großer Bedeutung im psychotherapeutischen Kontext. Inwieweit Mentalisierungsfähigkeit in einem Zusammenhang mit Therapieeffekten bei Depression steht, wird in der vorliegenden Studie betrachtet. Zwanzig...
Article
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Objective Neurobiological models of depression posit limbic hyperactivity that should normalize after successful treatment. For psychotherapy, though, brain changes in patients with depression show substantial variability. Two critical issues in relevant studies concern the use of unspecific stimulation experiments and relatively short treatment pr...
Article
Introduction Cleft lip and palate (CLP) represent the most common congenital malformations of the midfacial region. Although these patients show differences in their facial appearance, we hypothesize that CLP-affected individuals do not show an alteration in their emotion regulation abilities compared to unaffected individuals. This is because of t...
Article
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The Research Topic “Psychoanalytical neuroscience: Exploring psychoanalytic concepts with neuroscientific methods” was cross-linked in two Frontiers journals, Frontiers in Human Neuroscience and Frontiers in Psychoanalysis and Neuropsychoanalysis. Thus, contributing authors could choose to submit to either of those two journals. Among the 16 finall...
Article
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Objective: The heterogeneity between patients with depression cannot be captured adequately with existing descriptive systems of diagnosis and neurobiological models of depression. Furthermore, considering the highly individual nature of depression, the application of general stimuli in past research efforts may not capture the essence of the diso...
Article
The assessment of facial expression is an important aspect of a clinical neurological examination, both as an indicator of a mood disorder and as a sign of neurological damage. To date, although studies have been conducted on certain psychosocial aspects of myasthenia, such as quality of life and anxiety, and on neuropsychological aspects such as m...
Article
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This theoretical article makes a contribution to the field of "psychoanalytically informed neuroscience". First, central characteristics of psychoanalysis and neuroscience are briefly described leading into three epistemic dichotomies. Neuroscience versus psychoanalysis display almost opposing methodological approaches (reduction vs. expansion), te...
Article
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Psychodynamic conflicts form an important construct to understand the genesis and maintenance of mental disorders. Conflict-related themes should therefore provoke strong reactions on the behavioral, physiological, and neural level. We confronted N = 18 healthy subjects with a vast array of sentences describing typical psychodynamic conflict themes...
Data
Instructions to Experiment 1 (free association phase, retrieval phase, rating phase). (DOC)
Data
Instructions to Experiment 2 (free association phase, retrieval phase). (DOC)
Article
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The psychodynamic theory of repression suggests that experiences which are related to internal conflicts become unconscious. Previous attempts to investigate repression experimentally were based on voluntary, intentional suppression of stimulus material. Unconscious repression of conflict-related material is arguably due to different processes, but...
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Rationale Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the acoustic startle response, a measure of sensorimotor gating, can be enhanced by nicotine. Moreover, the TT genotype of the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) α3-subunit (CHRNA3) rs1051730 polymorphism has previously been associated with diminished PPI and nicotine dependence. Objectives We tested whe...
Article
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Nicotine has been proposed to be a cognitive enhancer, particularly in schizophrenia patients. So far, the published studies of nicotine effects on antisaccade performance in schizophrenia patients only tested participants who were deprived smokers. Thus, we aimed to test both smoking and non-smoking patients as well as healthy controls in order to...
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For the presentation of facially expressed emotions in experimental settings a sound knowledge about stimulus properties is pivotal. We hence conducted two experiments to investigate the influence of temporal (static versus dynamic) and spatial (upper versus lower half of the face) properties of facial emotion stimuli on recognition accuracy. In th...
Article
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The goal of this research was to examine the measurement invariance of the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (ERQ; Gross & John, 2003) across two European nations. Participants were Italian and German undergraduate students. First, confirmatory factor analysis was used to test for the two-factor structure of the ERQ; subsequently, measurement invari...
Conference Paper
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A critical task in Affective Computing is the reliable assessment of emotional states. The two most prominent approaches to classify emotions are categorical concepts of discrete emotions (e.g. OCC) and dimensional models typically using the pleasure – arousal – dominance space (PAD). In current research and applications, however, there is little o...
Article
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Neuroimaging studies of depression have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioral psychotherapy. The effect of long-term, psychoanalytic treatment has not been assessed so far. In this study (Buchheim et al. 2012, PLoS One 7:e33745) recurrently depressed (DSM-IV) unmedicated outpatients (n= 16) and control participant...
Article
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Neuroimaging studies of depression have demonstrated treatment-specific changes involving the limbic system and regulatory regions in the prefrontal cortex. While these studies have examined the effect of short-term, interpersonal or cognitive-behavioural psychotherapy, the effect of long-term, psychodynamic intervention has never been assessed. He...
Article
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Nicotinergic agents are currently examined as possible pro-cognitive drugs for a variety of clinical conditions marked by cognitive deficits, such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) or schizophrenia. The response to acute nicotine is heterogeneous across subjects and samples; however, only a few reliable predictors of response have...
Article
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Although remarkable progress has been made in the search for the brain correlates of depression with neuroimaging methods, we still find a heterogeneity of results and lack of consensus. This short commentary proposes a theoretical reason for this situation linking it to the methods of conducting neuroimaging studies of depression and the ways to i...
Data
Video 2: The average ratings of the pictures from the Category 6 (negative pleasure/high arousal/low dominance) for the variable of neuroticism (low: green vs. high: red) was individually represented in 3D.