Henri Tajfel's research while affiliated with University of Bristol and other places

Publications (30)

Article
Full-text available
In a previous study, conducted in several European countries with children between the ages of 6 and 11, it was found that the subjects expressed a preference for people whom they assumed to be nationals of their own country in a photograph-sorting task. One exception to the general pattern of results was found in the data obtained with Scottish ch...
Article
A test of factual knowledge of about 10 nations was developed and applied to 96 Oxford children aged from 7 to 11, whose preferences for these nations had already been determined. The relationship between preference for and knowledge about other nations was found to be curvilinear in form and did not seem to be accountable for in terms of a similar...
Chapter
“The strenght of (social psychology) and the main feature distinguishing it from other social sciences were traditionally seen in its use of experimental methods of research. The aim was, some forty years ago, to create a reliably scientific approach to human social behaviour. This developed in due course into experimental social psychology which o...
Article
D. Taylor and R. Brown (see record 1980-27904-001) have argued that, although research in social psychology needs to take into account the social context of social behavior, the theories should aim at the explanation of individual behavior. This view is argued against as it applies to some important issues in social psychology: (1) It is contended...
Article
Studied the effects of reward magnitude and comparability of the outgroup on minimal intergroup discrimination where self-interest was related to ingroup profit. Favouritism towards own group is hypothesized to arise from intergroup comparisons to enhance self-esteem as well as instrumental rivalry for group and self-interest. Sixty-two fourteen to...
Article
The Psychological Basis of Ideology. Edited by H. J. Eysenck and G. D. Wilson. Lancaster: MTP Press. 1978. Pp 312. £12.95. - Volume 134 Issue 4 - Henri Tajfel
Article
Extends consideration of "exit" and "voice" to intergroup contexts and points out that voice may support the status quo as well as advocate change. 4 classes of problems are discussed: (a) individual psychological processes in social behavior; (b) development within a social environment; (c) relations between individuals, including small groups; an...
Chapter
If you customarily buy a certain brand of toothpaste, and its price goes up or its quality deteriorates, you will change—without much difficulty or conflict—to another brand. If you discover that the car you have just bought has certain features you dislike, you may decide to sell it and buy one of another manufacture; but if you cannot very well a...
Article
Several studies have shown that social categorization into groups, unaffected by other variables such as own interest, interpersonal relations, conflict of interests, previous hostility, etc., was a sufficient condition to induce discrimination against an outgroup. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that the subjects' uncer...
Article
The study was designed, using the ‚matched-guise' technique, to determine how different groups of Welshmen perceive members of their own national group who use various linguistic codes. Three matched groups of adult Welsh Ss were used: Bilinguals, those who were learning Welsh and those who could not speak Welsh and were not learning it either. The...
Article
The present study is one of a series exploring the role of social categorization in intergroup behaviour. It has been found in our previous studies that in ‚minimal' situations, in which the subjects were categorized into groups on the basis of visual judgments they had made or of their esthetic preferences, they clearly discriminated against membe...
Article
The present study consists of three related experiments which are concerned with the development of national attitudes in children between the ages of seven and twelve. It was predicted on the basis of a structural interpretation of Allport's three-stage developmental theory of prejudice that national attitudes will increase at first due to increas...
Article
21 pairs of undergraduates participated in a dyadic game-type experiment, in which they were required to send each other 24 "messages" consisting of colored cards from a choice of 5 colors. Depending on its color, each message sent cost the sender a given number of points and was worth a given number of points to the recipient. Ss were told how muc...
Article
The aim of the studies was to assess the effefcs of social categorization on intergroup behaviour when, in the intergroup situation, neither calculations of individual interest nor previously existing attitudes of hostility could have been said to have determined discriminative behaviour against an outgroup. These conditions were satisfied in the e...
Article
6-12 yr. Old ss from oxford, glasgow, leyden, louvain, naples, and vienna, varying in numbers from 110-418, sorted photographs into "liked" and "disliked" categories, then sorted them into what they considered to be members and nonmembers of their respective national groups. Results reveal (except for the glasgow sample) a significant tendency to a...
Article
The purpose of the study was to investigate the joint effects of the child's level of intellectual maturity and of his system of preferences on his ability to understand that people other than himself (nationals of his own and of other countries that he ‘liked’ or ‘disliked’) would behave on the basis of principles guiding his own behaviour. The de...
Article
The aim of this paper was to stress the importance of the adaptive cognitive functioning of man in the causation of prejudice. It was felt that this approach has the merits of economy, credibility and testability of explanation which are not always shared by views seeking the psychological causes of intergroup tensions in the evolutionary past of t...
Article
The hypothesis: that judged differences between members of an ethnic group are smaller for traits which are part of the stereotype concerning that group than for traits which are not relevant to such a stereotype. S made judgments in a free and natural setting. The hypothesis was confirmed for Canadian Ss judging 2 Indian Nationals; distinct eviden...
Article
The investigation is concerned with the effects on judgement of some relations between the manner in which stimuli of a series are classified and the magnitudes of the stimuli. It is shown that when the classification stands in a direct and predictable relation to a physical scale, the stimuli belonging to different classes are judged as farther ap...

Citations

... As Tajfel (1979) pointed out in his review of Eysenck and Wilson's (1978) book on ideology, most social psychologists treat ideology as an individual difference variable that is predicted by or can predict other psychological factors, but very few actually consider ideology as a superordinate factor that shapes and informs the (physical and social) environment within which we live, as well as a way in which we interact with and within it (see also Weiss & Miller, 1987). Although there have been attempts (described below) to move away from this approach, we argue that this still applies to a significant portion of the literature. ...
... Most methods currently used to identify social spammers are based on variables extracted from user activity and social network data [35; 95; 33; 34]. Because social bots automatically retweet items without vetting the content for accuracy, their prevalence has accelerated the spread of false information [23]. ...
... Umorea da gizateriaren bereizgarri nobleenetakoa; onarpena, sinpatia eta tolerantzia adierazten ditu (McComas, 1923;Eastman, 1936 (Tajfel eta Turner, 1986;Bourhis, Gadfield, Giles eta Tajfel, 1977). ...
... Social Identity Theory (SIT), as developed by Tajfel (1982), states that individuals use their understanding of belonging to a particular social group to inform how they view themselves and how to behave as an in-group member (Cox and Gallois 1996;Flanders 2016). According to SIT, individuals first engage in social self-categorisation as a particular social group member, which includes self-labelling, as well as the adoption of in-group normative values and behaviours (Cox and Gallois 1996). ...
... Positive evaluations of in groups and lack of positive affect towards outgroups lead to prejudice. 19 In examining intergroup attitudes, social comparison forms an important aspect and there are several reasons for the evaluation of other groups. 20 Social Identity Theory perceives it as a way of acquiring a high social status and positive social identity. ...
... The current crisis is reminiscent of another crisis in psychology that took place in the 1970s, which, in fact, has been called the 'original' crisis (Faye, 2012;Hogg & Williams, 2000;Hornsey, 2008;Strickland, Aboud, Gergen, Jahoda, & Tajfel, 1976). 2 Originally spotlighted by Elms (1975), the crisis of the 1970s came on the heels of rapid growth in social psychology after World War II. ...
... Dentre os autores desse período está Henri Tajfel, que, na década de 1960, publicou um ensaio dedicado ao tema em que fornece diversos contributos importantes para o estudo dos estereótipos.Interessado sobretudo na influência dos estereótipos nas relações intergrupais, a obra de Tajfel discorre não só sobre as funções cognitivas dos estereótipos, mas também as suas funções sociais, tornando-se então os estereótipos sociais. Um dos pontos de destaque da sua obra sobre a questão é o fato de transferir o foco do conteúdo dos estereótipos para os processos por meio dos quais eles surgem, se uma forma de promover a manutenção de hierarquias sociais entre os diferentes grupos sociais.Muitos estudos sobre os estereótipos sociais surgiram apósTajfel (1963). Sendo assim, é pelo fato de se fazerem presentes de forma tão incisiva nos processos de categorização social nas relações ...
Citing article
... The listed basic needs of a person are usually contradictory, since the processes of identification and individualization are unified (Fromm, 1993) Ethnic identity is a special sociocultural and socio-psychological phenomenon, as a result of which a person goes through a process of complex self-determination in the surrounding society in relation to many other ethnic groups. Ethnic self-determination is not only awareness and understanding, but also perception, emotional evaluation of one's involvement in an ethnic group (Tajfel, 1971;Stolin, 1993;Shpet, 1996;Tiedt & Tiedt, 1999;Stefanenko, 2002). ...
... Autores que se centram nos estudos das relações intergrupais destacam que nos processos de identificação com os grupos sociais (Tajfel, 1974) e na autocategorização 1 (ver Capítulo 10) (Turner, Hogg, Oakes, Reicher, & Wetherell, 1987), as emoções grupais são fundamentais, pois motivam e orientam os pensamentos e as ações dos membros do grupo. Quando essas emoções estão ajustadas e compatíveis com o prescrito nas normas grupais, mostram-se mais funcionais contribuindo para a qualidade das interações sociais (Smith, 1993;. ...
... Social identity refers to an individual's knowledge about his belonging to a certain social group and the emotional/value significance brought by the role as a group member (Tajfel, 1972(Tajfel, , 1974. According to the theory of social identity, if people are dissatisfied with their current social identity in the group, people will try to leave the group and join a more favorable one (Brown et al., 1980;Tajfel, 1982), and higher sense of identity also indicates stronger sense of belonging. The latest research has found that minority students often make false internal attributions-they are not good at learning sciencebecause of their ethnic identity and thus reduce participation in science classes (Chen et al., 2021). ...