Henny M. W. Bos's research while affiliated with National Institute of Public Co-operation and Child Development and other places

Publications (54)

Article
Helicopter parents are highly involved parents who hover over and around their child, applying developmentally inappropriate levels of control and tangible assistance. Previous research with different-sex parent families indicates that helicopter parenting is particularly problematic in emerging adulthood as it may indirectly affect the offspring’s...
Article
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Objective: This study examined associations of minority stressors (i.e., victimization, internalized homonegativity, and stigma consciousness), and coping styles (i.e., active, avoidant, and passive) with suicidal ideation and suicide attempts (suicidality) among sexual and gender minority (SGM) young adults, and whether coping style moderated the...
Article
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Same-sex parents face substantial stressors due to their sexual orientation, such as experiences of prejudice and prohibitive legal environments. This added stress is likely to lead to reduced physical and mental health in same-sex parents that, in turn, may translate into problematic behavioral outcomes in their children. To date, there are only a...
Article
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Background: Gender incongruent children report lower self-perception compared to the norm population. This study explored differences in self-perception between children living in their gender role assigned at birth and children living in their experienced gender role. Method: The self-perception questionnaire was administered to 312 children refer...
Article
Purpose: This meta-analytic study examined associations between minority stressors and suicidal ideation and suicide attempts among LGBT adolescents and young adults (aged 12-25 years). Methods: Identified studies were screened using the inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies had to include an association between a minority stressor and a suicid...
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This questionnaire-based study compared 36 Israeli lesbian mother families (n = 72 lesbian mothers) formed by donor insemination, 39 Israeli gay father families (n = 78 gay fathers) formed by gestational surrogacy, and 36 Israeli heterosexual parent families (n = 72 heterosexual parents) formed by assisted reproduction (without donated gametes), al...
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The goal of our study was to examine whether differences in the sensitivity and intrusiveness of fathers and mothers from gay-, lesbian-, and heterosexual-parent families (57 French couples, 47 Dutch couples, and 31 British couples) with their first-born infants were explained by gender or caregiver role, while controlling for nesting within famili...
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Research Question : Are unmet needs for psychosocial counselling, peer support and friends/family support in parents directly and/or indirectly related to mental health of parents and their donor-children? Design : A cross-sectional sample of 214 parents participated in this quantitative study via an online questionnaire. The sample comprised moth...
Article
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Introduction Little is known about whether sexual and gender minority (SGM) youth and young adults with suicidal ideation receive adequate mental healthcare in the Netherlands. The aim of this study was to examine healthcare experiences and needs of SGM young adults and how formal and informal mental healthcare can be improved to support SGM youth...
Technical Report
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Bi+ people may face various challenges throughout their lives, including heteronormative assumptions, binary frames and monosexual norms. They often experience negative associations, prejudices and discrimination from their (direct) environment concerning being bi+ (Doan Van et al., 2019; Feinstein et al., 2020). These experiences and social norms...
Article
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Studies have compared sexual minority mothers (mostly lesbian) to heterosexual mothers on mental health, but little research has compared sexual minority women with and without children. This was the first study to compare sexual minority women who did or did not have children, using a population-based sample with three age cohorts. Unlike prior co...
Article
Objective To study differences by sperm donor type in the psychological adjustment of the U.S. National Longitudinal Lesbian Family Study (NLLFS) offspring across three time periods from childhood to adulthood. Design U.S.-based prospective cohort study. Setting Paper-and-pencil questionnaires and protected online surveys. Patient(s) A cohort of...
Article
Nonrepresentative estimates indicate that 25%–50% of transgender people are parents. Yet very little is known about their demographic characteristics and health outcomes. The present study compared the quality of life and several mental health (i.e., psychological distress, life satisfaction, happiness, social well-being) and health (i.e., physical...
Article
We explored the associations of gender expression with childhood gender expression, sexual identity, and demographic characteristics in a representative sample of the U.S. population aged 18 to 65 years (N = 1277), using data from the 2015 National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior. As expected, gay men were less gender conforming than heterosex...
Article
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Lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) adolescents experience elevated levels of internalizing problems and use more substances than heterosexual adolescents. The minority stress and psychological mediation framework are complementary theoretical frameworks that were developed to explain these disparities. However, limited empirical research has integrat...
Article
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Research Question What are the unmet needs after psychosocial counselling and mental health of women who opt for donor sperm treatment (DST) and are unmet counselling needs related to their mental health? Design We conducted a quantitative study and included women in a heterosexual relationship (n = 19), women in a lesbian relationship (n = 25) an...
Article
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Background: The division of non-paid labor in heterosexual parents in the West is usually still gender-based, with mothers taking on the majority of direct caregiving responsibilities. However, in same-sex couples, gender cannot be the deciding factor. Inspired by Feinberg’s ecological model of co-parenting, this study investigated whether infant t...
Article
Purpose Transgender adolescents are at risk for internalizing and externalizing problems, along with high suicidality rates, and poor peer relations. The present study compared transgender adolescents before and after gender-affirmative care with a sample of nonclinical age-equivalent cisgender adolescents from the general population on psychologic...
Article
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IntroductionThere is a growing interest in the parenting intentions of gay men. Prior research has found that gay men are less likely to become parents compared to their heterosexual and lesbian peers, but we know very little about why this discrepancy exists. Our first aim was to investigate whether the strength of parenting intentions is similar...
Article
Objective: To examine whether the gender development of 120 Italian children (40 born to gay fathers [GFs] through surrogacy, 40 born to lesbian mothers [LMs] through sperm donation, and 40 born to heterosexual parents [HPs] through sexual intercourse) aged 3 to 9 years differed as a function of family type and/or child gender. Methods: Children t...
Article
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Objective: This study aimed to explore which topics intended parents who opt for donor sperm treatment find relevant to discuss in psychosocial counselling. Background: The choice for donor sperm treatment has psychosocial implications for intended parents and therefore psychosocial counselling is advised as an integral part of DST. To date, little...
Article
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Sexual minority youth report poorer mental health than heterosexual youth. According to the minority stress framework, this results from sexual minority individuals being societally marginalized, which for sexual minority youth may include being poorly integrated in the peer context. A sociometric approach was used to test whether peer relationship...
Chapter
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Having children is important to most people. Nevertheless, fertility care for involuntarily childless couples is not a high priority for governments in developing countries. Governments and Non-governmental Organizations (NGOs) in these countries give more urgency and money to programs which support contraception and safe abortions, because of conc...
Article
The current study examined whether attachment avoidance mediates the association between being a sexual minority (gay men or lesbian women) and poorer mental health outcomes. For this purpose a community-dwelling sample of 350 gay men and lesbian women (M = 30.39, SD = 6.82) and 445 heterosexual men and women (M = 26.95, SD = 3.11) completed measur...
Article
Many individuals experience shifts in their friendship networks after becoming parents. The current study investigated the narratives of how a sample of sixty-six sexual minority women, most of whom do not yet have children but who expect to be parents in the future, perceive the changes in friendship networks following becoming parents. A thematic...
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Over the past few years, international organisations have advanced Comprehensive Sexuality Education (CSE) as a global policy to promote sexual and reproductive health and rights (SRHR) and address gender-based violence in schools. This paper analyses policy adoption, transfer mechanisms, and reformulation of CSE in Ethiopia, a late adopter of the...
Article
Among 2,185 Dutch adolescents (ages 11 to 18), we assessed whether the association among gender nonconformity, homophobic name-calling, and other general peer victimization differs for boys and girls and for youth with and without same-sex attraction (SSA). We also examined whether sex and sexual attraction differences in the association between ge...
Article
Objective: We explored the desire to be a parent, attachment avoidance and their associations in a sample of gay men and lesbians and their heterosexual counterparts. Background: Previous research suggested a link between minority stress and higher attachment avoidance. However, the association between attachment avoidance and parenthood desires as...
Article
Being a donor-child: wishes for parental support, peer support and counseling Most studies on donor-conceived offspring have shown that secrets in families about the genetic origin of the child can harm the parent-child relationship and as a consequence early disclosure of donor conception is recommended. Data on whether donor-conceived offspring a...
Article
The effectiveness of education programmes, including comprehensive sexuality education (CSE), to address gender-based violence in schools is under increasing scrutiny. Explanations for the persisting challenges with these programmes have so far typically pointed towards ‘culture’. Drawing on a qualitative case study in Ethiopia, this paper analyses...
Article
In this letter, the authors report no differences in the mental health of 25-year-olds conceived through donor insemination and enrolled prenatally in a large, prospective study of children of sexual-minority parents, as compared with an age-matched normative sample.
Article
For many individuals, becoming a parent is an important milestone. The current study examined attitudes and beliefs about parenting among a sample of 196 self-identified bisexual, lesbian, and heterosexual women. Results showed no differences by sexual orientation for women’s desires and intentions to have children, their idealization of parenthood...
Article
Little research has focused on the emotions felt during pregnancy and early parenthood as well as the initial quality of parenting displayed by first-time parents who conceived using assisted reproduction technologies (surrogacy, donor insemination, and in vitro fertilization). Research on primary and secondary caregivers in gay, lesbian, and heter...
Article
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This study aimed to validate a Religious Collective Self-Esteem Scale (RCSES) that assesses children’s evaluations and judgments about their belonging to a religious group. The RCSES includes 3 subscales: Private Religious Self-Esteem (PrRSE), Public Religious Self-Esteem (PuRSE), and Importance to Religious Identity (RI). Data were gathered from s...
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Objectives: We aimed at exploring the wishes of Dutch donor-conceived offspring for parental support, peer support and counseling and sought to contribute to the improvement of health care for all parties involved with assisted reproductive technologies. Methods: We held semi-structured in-depth interviews with 24 donor-conceived offspring (Mage...
Article
Using a national sample of Dutch (N = 5,854) individuals in same-sex and mixed-sex relationships we explored the associations between relationship dynamics, both positive (partner support) and negative (conflict), and life satisfaction. We found that individuals in same-sex relationships reported lower life satisfaction compared with their peers in...
Article
Purpose: We know very little about how transgender people create their families and the issues involved in these decisions. This qualitative study explored the parenting intentions and desires of 32 self-identified transgender individuals who want to become parents in the future. Methods: Data were collected using an open-ended survey with 32 tr...
Article
en This investigation compared Dutch same‐sex parent and different‐sex parent households on children's psychological well‐being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing. It was also assessed whether associations among children's well‐being, parenting stress, and support in child rearing were different in the two household types. Data were ba...
Article
Samenvatting—Beslissingen over of de baten voor deelnemers aan studies groter zijn dan de kosten moeten gebaseerd zijn op empirische data en niet op subjectieve oordelen. Helaas zijn data van deelname effecten op jongeren schaars en ontbreken data voor seksuele minderheidsjongeren. De huidige studie brengt de effecten van deelname seksuele minderhe...
Article
Full-text available
Objective: Using the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health data set, we compared spouse/partner relationships and parent-child relationships (family relationships), parenting stress, and children's general health, emotional difficulties, coping behavior, and learning behavior (child outcomes) in households of same-sex (female) versus diff...
Article
The present study examined whether the relationship between childhood gender nonconformity and sexual victimization in adulthood among lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) same-sex attracted men and women is mediated by experiences with childhood trauma experiences by an adult family member. Data are based on a survey among same-sex attracted individua...
Article
Individuals mostly attracted to other-sex but also to same-sex partners are a distinct and common sexual orientation group with possibly increased levels of health problems. The current study examined whether mostly heterosexual individuals differed in mental health and substance use from lesbian/gay individuals and whether sexual minority risk and...
Article
School vormt voor lesbische, homoseksuele, biseksuele en transgender (LHBT) leerlingen vaker een onveilige schoolomgeving dan voor niet- LHBT-leerlingen. Hun psychologisch welzijn en academische prestaties lijden hieronder. Sommige leerlingen komen echter op voor elkaar via Gay-Straight Alliances (GSA’s), schoolgroepen voor LHBT-leerlingen. Het is...
Chapter
This chapter presents a literature review of empirical findings on lesbian-mother families in which all children were conceived through donor insemination (planned lesbian-mother families). Major findings are discussed, clustered into three categories, namely (a) comparisons between planned lesbian-mother families and two-parent heterosexual famili...
Article
Samenvatting In deze studie werd onderzocht of er verschillen zijn tussen homovader gezinnen (n=36) and heteroseksuele gezinnen (n=36) met betrekking tot de vader-kind relatie, ervaringen van ouderlijke stress door vaders en met betrekking tot het welzijn van hun kinderen. De homovaders in deze studie zijn allemaal vader geworden tijdens hun homose...

Citations

... Gaining a better knowledge of gender identity is particularly important in the case of adolescents who identify as non-binary, a-gender, or genderqueer, as little is known about them (Jones et al. 2016), or their experiences of schooling (Paechter et al. 2021). Most studies about non-binary adolescents focus on social background and mental health and indicate that they are particularly vulnerable, with high rates of depression, anxiety, and suicidal ideation, and risk of experiencing more abuse and victimization than cisgender people (Chew et al. 2020;Jackson et al. 2022;Van der Vaart et al. 2022;Pullen Sansfaçon et al. 2020;Richards et al. 2016). On the other hand, gender self-acceptance (i.e., being satisfied with one's self-defined gender identity) is negatively associated with stress and positively associated with life satisfaction and perceived academic achievement, which confirms the importance of the recognition of gender diversity and of cultivating genderidentity safe school environments (Day et al. 2018;Watson et al. 2021). ...
... 1), die vom Geheimhalten der eigenen Identität sowie Diskriminierung im familiären und schulischen Umfeld bis hin zu Gewalterfahrungen reichen [1]. Basierend auf internationalen Befunden [2,3] und theoretischen Annahmen [4,5] ist davon auszugehen, dass diese Stressoren zu einer erhöhten psychischen Belastung führen. ...
... Research on associations between minority stress and the mental health of LGBTQ+ parents is scarcer. Well-documented mental health disparities within LGB+ populations [44] are, with exceptions [45], typically not found in LGB+ parent populations [46][47][48][49], with some studies even documenting better psychological adjustment [50,51]. The few studies that investigated associations between minority stress and mental health yielded mixed results: in studies with LG parents, internalized homonegativity was unrelated to anxiety [7,52] as well as to several indicators of physical health [5] when considered as a main effect and only inconsistently related to depression [5,7,52]. ...
... Although healthcare professionals working with these offspring should be aware that they can experience homophobic stigmatization because of their mothers' lesbianism or growing up in a heteronormative society, the impact of such stigmatization may vary with the individual. Support networks for prospective sexual minority parents have been shown to be very helpful in providing information and allaying anxiety about raising children in different family types (Leal et al., 2021;Schrijvers et al., 2021). ...
... Interestingly, studies in adoptive families have mainly focused on mother-child dyads and rarely on the father-child dyad (see for exceptions [55]). Studies of the father-child dyad in non-adoptive families are also scarce (see for exceptions [71,72]). Accordingly, little is known about the relationship between EA and attachment within the father-child dyadic interaction. ...
... Also, regarding donor anonymity, there is no scientific evidence that an identifiable donor benefits the children. A longitudinal study among donor offspring of lesbian couples up to the age of 18 years has shown that the type of donor (anonymous, identifiable or known) had no effect on the wellbeing of the donor offspring (Carone et al., 2021). ...
... Parenthood is common among nonbinary 1 and binary 2 transgender 3 people: current estimates suggest that 19-50% of transgender adults (Grant et al., 2011;Stotzer et al., 2014;Carone et al., 2021) and roughly 25% of nonbinary adults (Carone et al., 2021) are parents. Moreover, many childless transgender people are interested in becoming parents in the future (Tornello and Bos, 2017;Pang et al., 2020;Tasker and Gato, 2020;Guss et al., 2021). ...
... Four studies described heteronormative assumptions within perinatal care, 32,43,51,53 and two studies described cisnormativity. 43,48 As such, several studies described methods of disrupting heteornormative and cisnormative paradigms in delivering perinatal care. ...
... A further recent cross-cultural study with first-time lesbian, gay, and heterosexual parents through assisted reproduction found that parents' paid work outside the home was the most important determinant of the division of non-paid tasks during the first year of parenthood (van Rijn-van Gelderen et al. 2020). Across all family types, parents who were not working (or were working part-time) performed more childcare tasks when infants were 4 months old; this pattern remained stable when infants were 12 months old. ...
... 4 GACM integrates medical, mental health (MH) and social services, resulting in improvement in the psychological functioning of TGD youth. [7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23] These improvements are especially important because TGD youth experience higher rates of MH issues, such as depression, anxiety, self-harm, suicidal ideation and suicide compared to cisgender youth. [24][25][26][27][28] Unfortunately, many TGD youth do not receive appropriate care due to multiple barriers, including lack of accessible pediatric providers with sufficient knowledge about TGD people and gender-affirming health care, lack of protocols that are applied consistently, uncoordinated care, inadequate MH resources, insurance exclusions, and financial or socioeconomic limitations. ...