Helena Siipi's research while affiliated with University of Turku and other places

Publications (31)

Article
Full-text available
While nudging has garnered plenty of interdisciplinary attention, the ethics of applying it to climate policy has been little discussed. However, not all ethical considerations surrounding nudging are straightforward to apply to climate nudges. In this article, we overview the state of the debate on the ethics of nudging and highlight themes that a...
Technical Report
Full-text available
CRISPR/Cas9 teknologian soveltaminen genomieditointiin on saanut valtavasti huomiota ja sitä on pidetty mullistavana teknologiana, jonka vaikutukset ja mahdollisuudet ovat paljon laajemmat kuin perinteisten geenimuuntelumenetelmien. Tässä julkaisussa, joka on valmisteltu geenitekniikan lautakunnan pyynnöstä keväällä 2018 valmistuneen muistion p...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, we discuss the following four alternative ways of understanding the outcomes of resurrection biology (also known as de-extinction). Implications of each of the ways are discussed with respect to concepts of species and extinction. (1) Replication: animals created by resurrection biology do not belong to the original species but are c...
Article
Assisted migration is a controversial conservation measure that includes moving species threatened by climate change beyond their indigenous range. Sandler argues that assisted migration exhausts most of the value of the species moved and that assisted migration, thus, fails to be a workable conservation measure. We show how accepting the moral rel...
Article
This paper argues for the following four claims: (a) the terms “natural” and “unnatural” are ambiguous. (b) Genetically modified food is unnatural in some senses of the term “unnatural”. (c) Natural food should be favored over unnatural food in some senses of the terms “natural” and “unnatural”. (d) Genetically modified food is not necessarily unna...
Article
An introduction to the special issue, by the guest editors
Article
Full-text available
Intentional moving of species threatened by climate change is actively being discussed as a conservation approach. The debate, empirical studies, and policy development, however, are impeded by an inconsistent articulation of the idea. The discrepancy is demonstrated by the varying use of terms, such as assisted migration, assisted colonisation, or...
Book
Would it be cool to see woolly mammoth alive one day? Disappeared species have always fascinated the human mind. A new discussion of using genomic technologies to reverse extinction and to help in conservation has been sparked. This volume studies the question philosophically.
Chapter
Bringing extinct species back to life may be possible in the near future. If researchers are successful, this would challenge the basic tenet of conservation, and extinction need no longer be forever. As revolutionary as the idea of reversibility of extinction may sound, the idea of extinction itself – the possibility of species dying out and disap...
Chapter
Is a passenger-pigeon-like bird that has come into existence through de-extinction procedures an authentic passenger-pigeon? A similar question can be asked about all animals produced by the three methods of de-extinction: back-breeding, cloning and genetic engineering (Sherkow and Greely 2013, p. 32). The question of authenticity also concerns end...
Article
Full-text available
Genetically modified (GM) food is discussed as an example of the controversial relation between the intrinsic uncertainty of the scientific approach and the demand of citizen-consumers to use products of science innovation that are known to be safe. On the whole, peer-reviewed studies on GM food safety do not note significant health risks, with a f...
Chapter
People commonly value and want to eat authentic food. In this paper I ask: (1) what different meanings 'authentic' has in the context of food; and (2) which, if any, of the identified meanings offer good justifications for individual food choices and for local and global food policies. The following three senses of authenticity are distinguished: a...
Article
Is food’s naturalness conceptually connected to its healthiness? Answering the question requires spelling out the following: (1) What is meant by the healthiness of food? (2) What different conceptual meanings the term natural has in the context of food? (3) Are some of those meanings connected to the healthiness of food? In this paper the healthin...
Article
Full-text available
microRNAs (miRNAs), short RNAs of 21-25 nucleotides, are implied in gene expression and regulation, in biological processes and in human pathologies including cancer. Since miRNAs of plant origin can survive digestion and cooking and enter in animal (including human) sera and tissues, their intervention in mammalian gene expression and regulation m...
Article
The European Union's policies regarding genetically modified food (GMF hereafter) are based on the precautionary principle and the requirement of respecting consumers' autonomy. We ask whether the requirement of respecting consumers' autonomy regarding GMF implies that both GMF and non-GMF products should be available in the market. According to on...
Article
Neuro-enhancement refers to the use of applications of modern neurosciences to make people better – smarter, happier, more sociable etc. This paper consists of analyses on claims concerning unnaturalness of neuro-enhancement. In what sense, if any, is neuro-enhancement unnatural? If neuro-enhancement is unnatural, is its unnaturalness morally notew...
Article
GM-kasveihin ja niiden viljelyyn kohdistuu voimakkaita asenteita, joista osa pohjautuu viimekädessä eettisiin arvoihin. Kuluttajien eettisten arvojen vaikutusta heidän suhtautumiseensa muuntogeenisiinkasveihin on tutkittu selvästi enemmän kuin viljelijöiden. Ehkä siksi, että muuntogeenimyönteistenviljelijöiden katsotaan olevan tästä teknologiasta p...
Article
European citizens are quite happy to use genetically modified medicine, while they are rather critical towards genetically modified food. In this paper, we analyse philosophical and conceptual reasons for and against this asymmetry in the attitudes of Europeans. Moreover, we consider the justifiability of this difference in attitudes. We conclude t...
Article
Full-text available
The role of intrinsic and extrinsic ethical values as determinants of farmers' adoption decisions of genetically modified (GM) crops is reviewed based on 17 scientific papers publish between 1999 and 2006 in nine countries. In these studies, intrinsic values received less attention than extrinsic values as contributors to adoption decisions. The na...
Article
Full-text available
The paper highlights shortcomings in the public consultation practices on the deliberate release and placing on the market of GMOs in the European Union and in one of its member countries, Finland. It is argued that current GMO consultation practices do not meet the aims and objectives on which their introduction is typically justified. Specificall...
Article
This paper presents a way of classifying different forms of naturalness and unnaturalness. Three main forms of (un)naturalness are found as the following: history- based (un)naturalness, property-based (un)naturalness and relation-based (un)naturalness. Numerous subforms (and some subforms of the subforms) of each are presented. The subforms differ...
Article
Individuals’ food choices are intimately connected to their self-images and world views. Some dietary choices adopted by consumers pose restrictions on their use of genetically modified food (GMF). It is quite generally agreed that some kind of labeling is necessary for respecting consumers’ autonomy of choice regarding GMF. In this paper, we ask w...
Article
Besides pedagogical challenges, teachers of university ethics courses have to meet ethical questions related to the teaching of ethics. Two such questions are considered. First, I analyse objectives of ethics teaching in general and in Finland in particular. It is argued that usually the main aims of ethics courses should be purely intellectual. Ho...
Article
Conservation scientists are arguing whether naturalness provides a reasonable imperative for conservation. To clarify this debate and the interpretation of the term natural, I analyze three management strategies – ecosystem preservation, ecosystem restoration, and ecosystem engineering – with respect to the naturalness of their outcomes. This analy...
Article
[D]iversity is rather like an optical illusion. The more it is looked at, the less clearly defined it appears to be and viewing it from different angles can lead to different perceptions of what is involved Magurran (1988), The complexity of the biodiversity concept does not only mirror the natural world it supposedly represents; it is that plus th...
Article
The concept of an artefact is central to several bioethical arguments. In this paper, I analyse this concept with respect to living and also non-living entities. It is shown that a close relationship between bringing an entity into existence and its intentional modification is necessary for its artefactuality. The criterion is further improved by a...

Citations

... However, the application of ARTs in biodiversity conservation opens up new ethical scenarios that have not yet been fully explored. Like any other technology capable of redefining the boundaries of extinction (6), ARTs question the very idea of conservation we want to pursue and the values it needs to convey. Moreover, ART applications may have ethically relevant consequences-on conservation projects, on the people involved or otherwise affected, and on the animals on which they are performed-that should be carefully discussed. ...
... De-extinction raises some conceptual questions as well as ethical ones. For example, it puts some pressure on our intuitions about the meaning of 'extinction' (Delord 2007(Delord , 2014Siipi and Finkelman 2017). Is it an analytic truth that extinction is irreversible? ...
Reference: Rewilding
... Two over-riding human impacts have already taken place: habitat destruction and global climate change. Rather than restoring a previous condition, community-level assisted migration restores the natural process that occurred in response to past episodes of more gradual climate change in a continuous landscape (Rohwer & Marris 2016;Siipi & Ahteensuu 2016). Given the severe conservation challenges for the tallgrass prairie community, the cost of inaction is greater than the comparatively minor risks associated with assisted migration. ...
... Normatively, de-extinction is considered in three broad forms of bringing aspects of extinct biota back: cloning, back-breeding, and genetic engineering (Corlett, 2017;Fletcher, 2020;Jørgensen, 2013;Seddon, Griffiths, et al., 2014;Seddon & King, 2019;Seddon, Moehrenschlager, & Ewen, 2014;Sherkow & Greely, 2013;Thiele, 2020). These techniques rely on the creation of organisms which resemble extinct biota; whether these animals are authentic proxies for absent ecologies is a matter of intense philosophical and scientific debate (Campbell, 2017;Novak, 2018;Siipi, 2014;Siipi & ...
... Setting aside these and other related issues in the philosophy of biology, philosophers have also begun to explore questions about the ethics of de-extinction (Salsberg 2000;Sherkow and Greely 2013;Oksanen and Siipi 2014;Gamborg 2014;Sandler 2017;Kasperbauer 2017;Minteer 2019). Two of the more serious problems with de-extinction have to do with animal welfare and resource allocation. ...
Reference: Rewilding
... « Si nous ne savons pas quelles espèces nous avons, nous n'avons pas moyen d'établir leur rôle dans les dynamiques écosystémiques », lit-on sur le site web de Harvard Forest 22 . À l'intérieur de la taxinomie nous pouvons citer au moins un nouveau programme [21] Voir par exemple Koricheva & Siipi (2004), Maris (2010), Meinard & Quétier (2013), Sarkar (2012 Barcoding of Life -selon son fondateur -augmentera l'échelle et le succès de la science de la biodiversité tout en augmentant amplement l'accès à l'identification des espèces » (Hebert & Gregory 2005). Il faut inévitablement y ajouter les deux disciplines sur lesquelles nous nous sommes penché-e-s dans cet essai : l'écologie et la biologie de la conservation. ...
... Plants are the primary energy source and essential nutritional components in the agri-food systems. Breeding crops often involves using chemical inputs that can negatively impact the environment and human and animal health, resulting in lower system resilience and increased concerns about the sustainability of the production systems (Phelps et al., 2013;Pretty et al., 2018;Rasmussen et al., 2018;Siipi, 2015;Tilman, 1999). In addition, climatic changes and increasingly extreme weather conditions reduce crop resilience and farm output (Bebber et al., 2013;Chaloner et al., 2021;Nelson et al., 2009;Rosenzweig & Parry, 1994;Tobey et al., 1992). ...
... sometimes the speed of change in the climate in a particular region is faster than the speed of the natural movement of some species or their ability to adapt to the changing climate (Hällfors et al. 2018, pp. 301-305;Hällfors et al. 2014). Against this backdrop, a complex set of measures is required to enable various species to adapt to climate change including assisted migration (AM)-a translocation of the representatives of species to areas outside, and sometimes far beyond, their natural habitats (see, e.g., Hällfors et al. 2018;Camacho 2010, pp. ...
... C. Smith 2007;Scruton 2010), or the sociological and political factors influencing food research (Nestle 2007;Orland and Spary 2012;Scrinis 2013). Some have attempted to bring epistemology and philosophy of science to bear on concepts such as 'nutrient' (Cardenas 2016), 'naturalness' (Chadwick 2000;Siipi 2013), 'food' (Borghini and Piras 2021;Borghini et al. 2021), the 'molecularization' of nutrition (Ströhle and Döring 2010), as well as historical debates in the life sciences (Bognon-Küss 2019), the use of evidential standards (Jukola 2019a, b) and how to communicate scientific uncertainty . While all important questions, they leave aside many conceptual and empirical challenges facing the nutrition sciences. ...
... According to such approaches, medicine should stick to the treatment of disease (and abstain from enhancement of health) in order to (re-)establish natural human functioning (and abstain from improvement). However, naturalness can mean many things [94][95][96] and reference to nature may not provide robust normative guidance [97,98]. The same problem occurs when we try to use the therapy-enhancement distinction to restrict the moral expansion of medicine. ...