Helen R. P. Phillips's research while affiliated with Natural History Museum, London and other places

Publications (78)

Article
Full-text available
Soil microorganisms are central to sustain soil functions and services, like carbon and nutrient cycling. Currently, we only have a limited understanding of the spatial-temporal dynamics of soil microorganisms, restricting our ability to assess long-term effects of climate and land-cover change on microbial roles in soil biogeochemistry. This study...
Article
While mature forests are declining worldwide, tree plantations could provide habitats of conservation value for forest-adapted species. However, to what degree the fauna in tree plantations matches the diversity and composition of mature forest communities is still debated. In this meta-analysis, we used beetle species (Coleoptera) as biodiversity...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
Earthworms are an important soil taxon as ecosystem engineers, providing a variety of crucial ecosystem functions and services. Little is known about their diversity and distribution at large spatial scales, despite the availability of considerable amounts of local-scale data. Earthworm diversity data, obtained from the primary literature or provid...
Article
Full-text available
For decades, scientists have known where the highest numbers of species that live aboveground are found. So, they made maps of the world showing these patterns. For most of the aboveground groups, the highest numbers of species occur in the tropics and numbers decrease toward the poles. However, until recently, we did not understand such global pat...
Article
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Soils harbour highly‐diverse invertebrate communities that play important roles for ecosystem services, including the mitigation of environmental pollution. Chemical stressors, such as pesticides, pharmaceuticals and metals, are being increasingly spread into ecosystems due to human activities. While it is crucial to predict the consequences of che...
Article
James et al . claim that there are areas of concern in our work. We believe that they have misunderstood the methods behind our paper and that differences in scale have been overlooked. Once those misunderstandings have been resolved, their remaining criticisms are either not sustained or agree with our statements. To advance the field, we recommen...
Article
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Soil is one of the most biodiverse terrestrial habitats. Yet, we lack an integrative conceptual framework for understanding the patterns and mechanisms driving soil biodiversity. One of the underlying reasons for our poor understanding of soil biodiversity patterns relates to whether key biodiversity theories (historically developed for aboveground...
Article
Full-text available
Aim Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity vary across the globe, and considerable effort has been made to describe their relationships. Biodiversity and ecosystem functioning research has traditionally focused on how experimentally controlled species richness affects net primary productivity (S → NPP) at small spatial grains. In contrast, the inf...
Article
Full-text available
Soils harbor a substantial fraction of the world’s biodiversity, contributing to many crucial ecosystem functions. It is thus essential to identify general macroecological patterns related to the distribution and functioning of soil organisms to support their conservation and consideration by governance. These macroecological analyses need to repre...
Article
Full-text available
Following our participation in the first World Biodiversity Forum in Davos, Switzerland, we provide a summary of the main themes of the conference, as well as an overview of the session that was focused on soil biodiversity. One of the main themes of the conference was the valuation of biodiversity and what contributes to the value of biodiversity....
Article
Full-text available
Motivation and aim Soil biodiversity is central to ecosystem function and services. It represents most of terrestrial biodiversity and at least a quarter of all biodiversity on Earth. Yet, research into broad, generalizable spatial and temporal patterns of soil biota has been limited compared to aboveground systems due to complexities of the soil s...
Article
A correction has been made for the article: "Global distribution of earthworm diversity", which is freely available at https://science.sciencemag.org/content/369/6503/eabd9834
Article
Full-text available
Ecologists have had a very good foundational knowledge of the global distribution of plants and aboveground animals for many decades. But despite the immense diversity of soil organisms, our knowledge of the global distribution, drivers and threats to soil biodiversity is very limited. In this issue of Molecular Ecology, Bastida et al. (2020) produ...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Article
Full-text available
Soil organisms, including earthworms, are a key component of terrestrial ecosystems. However, little is known about their diversity, their distribution, and the threats affecting them. We compiled a global dataset of sampled earthworm communities from 6928 sites in 57 countries as a basis for predicting patterns in earthworm diversity, abundance, a...
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Data
This PDF file includes: Materials and Methods Supplementary Text Figs. S1 to S6 Tables S1 to S4 References
Preprint
Full-text available
Aim Biodiversity and ecosystem productivity vary across the globe and considerable effort has been made to describe their relationships. Biodiversity-ecosystem functioning research has traditionally focused on how experimentally controlled species richness affects net primary productivity (S→NPP) at small spatial grains. In contrast, the influence...
Article
Full-text available
Human impacts are causing an unprecedented change of biodiversity across scales. To quantify the nature and degree of the biodiversity change, there have been a number of meta-analysis studies investigating the effects of global change drivers (land use, climate, etc.). However, these studies include few primary literature studies of soil biodivers...
Article
Most current research on land‐use intensification addresses its potential to either threaten biodiversity or to boost agricultural production. However, little is known about the simultaneous effects of intensification on biodiversity and yield. To determine the responses of species richness and yield to conventional intensification, we conducted a...
Article
Human activities are accelerating global biodiversity change and have resulted in severely threatened ecosystem services. A large proportion of terrestrial biodiversity is harbored by soil, but soil biodiversity has been neglected from many global biodiversity assessments and conservation actions, and our understanding of global patterns of soil bi...
Chapter
A growing human population coupled with increasing per capita consumption, changing diets, increasing food waste, and ineffective regulation, have led to rising demands on ecosystems for the services they supply [1].
Data
Correspondence between estimates of RCAR based on different estimates of species’ range size. Estimates of range occupancy derived from records in the GBIF database were gridded at spatial resolutions of 110 km × 110 km, 55 km × 55 km, and 11 km × 11 km (A–C). A measure of range extent (a conceptually different measure of range size compared with t...
Data
Effects of land use on RCAR, estimated based on GBIF-based measures of range size gridded at different resolutions. Effects of land use and land-use intensity using RCAR based on range occupancy using GBIF records, gridded at a spatial resolution of 110 km × 110 km (A), 55 km × 55 km (B), and 11 km × 11 km (C). Based on range extent using GBIF reco...
Data
Locations of surveys, and taxonomic and geographic representativeness of the data. The location of each survey whose data were included in the analysis (A), shown in the Lambert cylindrical equal area projection. Point diameters are proportional to the (loge) number of sites sampled by each survey and are translucent so areas of opaque color indica...
Data
Locations of sites for subsets of the data of increasing stringency in terms of the quality of underlying range-size estimates. Data quality reflected variation in the quality of species’ range-size estimates and was measured as the estimated inventory completeness of GBIF records for each of 4 taxonomic groups (trachaeophytes, amphibians, mammals,...
Data
Statistics explaining geographical variation in the strength of the response of RCAR to human land use. Linear models were used to explain the strength of the response of RCAR as a function of variables hypothesized to drive observed tropical-temperate differences. Variables considered were geographic zone (tropical versus temperate) itself, and 3...
Data
Spatial autocorrelation in the model residuals. A Moran’s I test was applied to the residuals from the final models, dividing the residuals into the individual underlying surveys. The distribution of P values across the tests for each of the surveys is shown here, for measures of RCAR and RAR based on different underlying estimates of range size—ra...
Data
Spatial patterns in the residuals of the final model of RCAR as a function of human pressures. A map of each site included in the final model, where point colours represent the value of the model residuals for each site (blue = low; red = high), showing no discernible spatial pattern (A). The outline map is based on the World Bank map of river basi...
Data
Statistics explaining geographical variation in the strength of the response of RAR to human land use. Linear models were used to explain the strength of the response of RAR as a function of variables hypothesized to drive observed tropical-temperate differences. Variables considered were geographic zone (tropical versus temperate) itself, and 3 mo...
Data
List of all references for underlying community data. These references are a subset of those in the PREDICTS database [21]. (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
Human use of the land (for agriculture and settlements) has a substantial negative effect on biodiversity globally. However, not all species are adversely affected by land use, and indeed, some benefit from the creation of novel habitat. Geographically rare species may be more negatively affected by land use than widespread species, but data limita...
Data
Effects of proximity to roads, human population density, and length of landscape use by humans on RCAR. Separate effects are shown for each land use because interaction terms were significant (all P < 0.05). For clarity, shading shows ±0.5 × standard error rather than the 95% confidence interval. Distance to the nearest road is shown here as the ra...
Data
Sensitivity of the estimated effect of land use on RCAR to variation in quality of underlying range-size estimates. Because sample size was much reduced in the most stringent subsets of the data, land use in these models was classified more coarsely than in the main models into primary vegetation, secondary vegetation, and human land uses (combinin...
Data
Comparison of the effects of human land use on RCAR and on species richness, for individual underlying studies. Separate models were fitted for species richness and RCAR as a function of land use. For these models, land use was classified coarsely as either natural (primary or secondary vegetation) or human (plantation forests, croplands, pastures,...
Data
Sensitivity of the estimated effect of land use on the abundance of widely and narrowly distributed species to variation in quality of underlying range-size estimates. Because sample size was much reduced in the most stringent subsets of the data, land use in these models was classified more coarsely than in the main models, into primary vegetation...
Data
Criteria used to classify land use and land-use intensity. The classification was made based on the description of the habitat given in the underlying papers from which the data were obtained (see S1 Text). (DOCX)
Data
Definitions of the major land-use classes. Each site was classified into one of these classes based on the description of the habitat where the biodiversity sample was taken, as given in the underlying papers from which the biodiversity data were obtained (see S1 Text). (DOCX)
Chapter
Full-text available
The PREDICTS project (Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems) has collated ecological survey data from hundreds of published biodiversity comparisons of sites facing different land-use and related pressures, and used the resulting taxonomically and geographically broad database (abundance and occurrence data fo...
Article
Full-text available
Background With the increase in human population, and the growing realisation of the importance of urban biodiversity for human wellbeing, the ability to predict biodiversity loss or gain as a result of land use change within urban settings is important. Most models that link biodiversity and land use are at too coarse a scale for informing decisio...
Article
Habitat fragmentation accompanies habitat loss, and drives additional biodiversity change; but few global biodiversity models explicitly analyse the effects of both fragmentation and loss. Here we propose and test the hypothesis that, as fragment area increases, species density (the number of species in a standardised plot) will scale with an expon...
Article
Full-text available
Land-use change is one of the greatest threats to biodiversity, especially in the tropics where secondary and plantation forests are expanding while primary forest is declining. Understanding how well these disturbed habitats maintain biodiversity is therefore important—specifically how the maturity of secondary forest and the management intensity...
Article
Full-text available
To the Editor — It has recently been announced that for the first time the Federal Agency for Nature Conservation (BfN) Red List (a regional red list of threatened species in Germany) includes groups of soil invertebrates, namely earthworms, millipedes and centipedes 1 .
Article
Full-text available
The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used t...
Data
The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used t...
Article
The PREDICTS project—Projecting Responses of Ecological Diversity In Changing Terrestrial Systems (www.predicts.org.uk)—has collated from published studies a large, reasonably representative database of comparable samples of biodiversity from multiple sites that differ in the nature or intensity of human impacts relating to land use. We have used t...
Article
Land use and related pressures have reduced local terrestrial biodiversity, but it is unclear how the magnitude of change relates to the recently proposed planetary boundary (“safe limit”). We estimate that land use and related pressures have already reduced local biodiversity intactness—the average proportion of natural biodiversity remaining in l...
Technical Report
A dataset of 3,250,404 measurements, collated from 26,114 sampling locations in 94 countries and representing 47,044 species. The data were collated from 480 existing spatial comparisons of local-scale biodiversity exposed to different intensities and types of anthropogenic pressures, from terrestrial sites around the world. The database was assemb...
Article
Full-text available
Land use has large effects on the diversity of ecological assemblages. Differences among land uses in the diversity of local assemblages (alpha diversity) have been quantified at a global scale. Effects on the turnover of species composition between locations (beta diversity) are less clear, with previous studies focusing on particular regions or g...
Article
Full-text available
Biodiversity conservation and agricultural production are often seen as mutually exclusive objectives. Strategies for reconciling them are intensely debated. We argue that harmonization between biodiversity conservation and crop production can be improved by increasing our understanding of the underlying relationships between them. We provide a gen...
Article
Full-text available
Human activities, especially conversion and degradation of habitats, are causing global biodiversity declines. How local ecological assemblages are responding is less clear[mdash]a concern given their importance for many ecosystem functions and services. We analysed a terrestrial assemblage database of unprecedented geographic and taxonomic coverag...
Article
Full-text available
Remotely sensed data - available at medium to high resolution across global spatial and temporal scales - are a valuable resource for ecologists. In particular, products from NASA's MODerate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), providing twice-daily global coverage, have been widely used for ecological applications. We present MODISTools,...