Heikki Kyröläinen's research while affiliated with National Defence University and other places

Publications (330)

Article
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Physical activity (PA) has been shown to associate with many health benefits but studies with metabolome-wide associations with PA are still lacking. Metabolome studies may deepen the mechanistic understanding of PA on the metabolic pathways related to health outcomes. The aim of the present study was to study the association of accelerometer based...
Article
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Purpose: To assess the reliability of nocturnal heart rate (HR) and HR variability (HRV) and to analyze the sensitivity of these markers to maximal endurance exercise. Methods: Recreational runners recorded nocturnal HR and HRV on nights after 2 identical low-intensity training sessions (n = 15) and on nights before and after a 3000-m running te...
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The operation of naval vessels involves watchkeeping 24 h per day, which is globally carried out by a variety of different watch systems. In this study, the rotating 4:4 and fixed 4:4/6:6 two-section watch systems were compared in terms of sleepiness, fatigue, and stress responses. The data collection took place on a Finnish Defence Forces' (FDF) N...
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Purpose: To examine the effects of fatiguing power-loading on neuromuscular properties, force production, and metabolic capacities during four phases of the menstrual cycle (MC); menstruation (M), mid-follicular (mid FOL), ovulation (OV), and mid-luteal (mid LUT). Methods: Sixteen eumenorrheic women performed sessions of maximal explosive leg pr...
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Healthy lifestyle behaviors including physical activity (PA) have been recognized to contribute positively to mental health. Most of the evidence on relationship between PA and mental health relies on self-reported PA results. Device-based measures on PA or sedentary behavior (SB) are less frequently used in mental health research. The present stud...
Article
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The aim of this study was to examine changes in body composition, energy metabolites and electrolytes during a 10-day winter survival training period. Two groups of male soldiers were examined: the REC group ( n = 26; age 19.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI 23.9 ± 2.7) had recovery period between days 6 and 8 in the survival training, whereas the EXC group ( n =...
Article
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Purpose The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability in young endurance athletes during nocturnal sleep and in the morning; and to assess whether changes in these values are associated with changes in submaximal running (SRT) and counter-movement jump (CMJ) performance. Methods During a three-week period of s...
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Heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV) can be monitored with wearable devices throughout the day. Resting HRV in particular, reflecting cardiac parasympathetic activity, has been proposed to be a useful marker in the monitoring of health and recovery from training. This study examined the validity of the wrist-based photoplethysmography (...
Article
This issue of European Journal of Sport Science includes 8 invited state-of-the-science narrative reviews by well-established researchers in the area military performance focused on a) physical training; b) musculoskeletal injury; c) adaptive bone formation and stress fracture prevention; d) sex differences in responses to military stress; e) load...
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Physical activity is beneficial for improving health and reducing sick leave absences. This article describes a protocol for an intervention using an interactive accelerometer smartphone application, telephone counselling, and physical activity recordings to increase the physical activity of workers in the military and improve their health. Under t...
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Purpose: To examine the influence of menstrual cycle (MC) and hormonal contraceptive (HC) cycle phases on physiological variables monitored during incremental treadmill testing in physically active women (eumenorrheic, EUM = 16 and monophasic HC-users, CHC = 12). Methods: Four running tests to exhaustion were performed at bleeding, mid follicular (...
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Background: Based on earlier studies, natural metabolite D-glyceric acid (DGA) does not seem to play any role in whole-body metabolism. Nevertheless, one ethanol oxidation-related rat study with controversial results raised our interest. According to preparatory studies for the regulatory approval of DGA, some highly conserved mechanism seems to su...
Article
The aims of the current study were to examine the relationships between heart rate variability (HRV), salivary cortisol, sleep duration and training in young athletes. Eight athletes (16 ± 1 years) were monitored for 7 weeks during training and competition seasons. Subjects were training for endurance-based winter sports (cross-country skiing and b...
Article
Purpose. this study investigated the effects of two types of training on the bone formation marker of osteocalcin and the bone resorption marker of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase isoenzyme 5b (trAP5b) in young track and field boys and girls. Methods. the 14-year-old group (10 boys, 10 girls) performed first time an intensive and supervised 8-w...
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Physically demanding essential military tasks include load carriage, manual material handling and casualty evacuation. This narrative review characterizes the main physical attributes related to performance of these occupational tasks and reviews physical training intervention studies in military settings to improve performance in these military ta...
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Sex hormones are suggested to influence energy intake (EI) and metabolic hormones. This study investigated the influence of menstrual cycle (MC) and hormonal contraceptive (HC) cycle phases on EI, energy availability (EA), and metabolic hormones in recreational athletes (eumenorrheic, NHC = 15 and monophasic HC-users, CHC = 9). In addition, 72-h di...
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The aim of the study was to examine whether sports participation (SP), engagement in competitive sports (CS), and the type of sport undertaken at the age of 12 are associated with the physical and mental components of health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young adulthood. The data were collected using questionnaires prior to a compulsory milita...
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The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of progressively increased training intensity or volume on the nocturnal heart rate (HR) and heart rate variability (HRV), countermovement jump, perceived recovery, and heart rate-running speed index (HR-RS index). Another aim was to analyze how observed patterns during the training period in thes...
Preprint
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Based on earlier few studies natural metabolite D-glyceric acid does not seem to play any major role in cellular metabolism. Nevertheless, one study that concentrated on ethanol oxidation in the liver increased our curiosity. Therefore, research leading to the present 25 days lasting double blinded human study with placebo control was initiated. Ma...
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Limited data are available regarding strength and endurance training adaptations to occupational physical performance during deployment. This study assessed acute training-induced changes in neuromuscular (electromyography; EMG) and metabolic (blood lactate, BLa) responses during a high-intensity military simulation test (MST), performed in the beg...
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Background: An adequate level of muscular fitness is related to occupational performance in military personnel, including pilots flying high performance aircraft. The aim of this study was to describe the baseline level and the change in muscular fitness between the first and the second years of the Air Force Academy among fighter pilot cadets. Met...
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Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of three water immersion interventions performed after active recovery compared to active recovery only on the resolution of inflammation and markers of muscle damage post-exercise. Methods: Nine physically active men (n = 9; age 20‒35 years) performed an intensive loading protocol, incl...
Article
This study investigated acute responses and post 24-h recovery to four running sessions performed at different intensity zones by supine heart rate variability, countermovement jump, and a submaximal running test. A total of 24 recreationally endurance-trained male subjects performed 90 min low-intensity (LIT), 30 min moderate-intensity (MOD), 6×3...
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A soldier’s occupational physical task requirements are diverse and varied. However, the type of physical training that most effectively improves soldiers’ occupational task requirements has not been studied previously. The purpose of this study was to determine the important strength characteristics for soldiers during a repeated simulated militar...
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Purpose: To examine the potential sex differences in adaptations to combined endurance and strength training in recreationally endurance trained (eumenorrheic) women (n = 9) and men (n = 10). Methods: Isometric (ISOMmax) and dynamic bilateral leg press (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), running performance (3,000 m time trial), lean mass and body...
Article
Vigh-Larsen, JF, Haverinen, MT, Panduro, J, Ermidis, G, Andersen, TB, Overgaard, K, Krustrup, P, Parkkari, J, Avela, J, Kyröläinen, H, and Mohr, M. On-ice and office fitness profiles of elite and U20 male ice hockey players of two different national standards. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2020-Differences in body composition and performance...
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Introduction: Military training programmes are often similar for male and female recruits despite sex differences in physical performance that may influence training adaptations during military service. The present study aimed to compare changes in physical fitness and anthropometrics between Finnish female and male recruits during military servic...
Conference Paper
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of the contact time on energy cost and lower limb biomechanics during repeated vertical jumping. Nine male Japanese distance runners jumped for three minutes on a force platform for a preferred and long contact time. Sagittal plane kinematics, ground reaction force, and electromyography (E...
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Background: There is growing evidence on positive effects of physical activity (PA) on mental health. However, the focus of previous research on this relationship has typically been on mental health from the perspective of mental health problems rather than from the perspective of mental wellbeing. Further, previous research has commonly focused r...
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Background: Despite numerous studies providing evidence for positive effects of physical activity and physical fitness, evidence for association between physical fitness and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in young adults is limited. The aim of the present cross-sectional study was to investigate the association of cardiorespiratory and mus...
Article
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Microdialysis allows for a preview into local muscle metabolism and can provide physiological insight that blood measurements cannot. Purpose: To examine the potential differential IGF-I system regulation in interstitial fluid during unilateral stretch shortening cycle exercise. Methods: 10 men (26 ± 7 year) performed unilateral jumping [stretch sh...
Article
Objectives: This observational follow-up study investigated the associations of nutrition and body composition with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, including pro-inflammatory biomarkers, in soldiers during a 6-month deployment. Material and methods: Thirty-five male soldiers were assessed at months 0, 3 and 6, and their parameters, i....
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Impact statement: The diagnosis of overtraining syndrome and overreaching poses a great challenge. Military training aims at improving the physical performance of the conscripts, but an excessive training load could also lead to overreaching. This study of Finnish conscripts provides new insights into the pathophysiology of overreaching and overtr...
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of two different training programs on strength and power performance and serum hormone concentrations. A total of 104 male soldiers volunteered and took part in the 12-week training period with baseline, mid-, and post-measurements of body composition, muscle strength, lower and upper body po...
Conference Paper
Wearable electronics are often used for estimating the energy expenditure of the user based on heart rate measurement. While heart rate is a good predictor of calorie consumption at high intensities, it is less precise at low intensity levels, which translates into inaccurate results when estimating daily net energy expenditure. In this study, hear...
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Introduction: Physical fitness is strongly related to health and may offer valuable information about public health. We investigated trends in physical fitness, leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) and anthropometry of young healthy adult Finnish men in representative population based samples between 2003 and 2015. Methods: Three independent cr...
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Decreases in aerobic fitness during military operations have been observed in several studies. Thus, differences in training adaptations during a 6-month crisis-management operation were compared by using the change in endurance performance as the outcome measure. Sixty-six male soldiers volunteered for the study, consisting of pre–post assessments...
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New findings: What is the central question of the study? What are the effects of caffeine on neuromuscular function in a non-fatigued state and during fatiguing exercise? What is the main finding and its importance? In a non-fatigued state caffeine decreased the duration of the silent period evoked by TMS. A caffeine-induced reduction of inhibitor...
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Introduction Active commuting is an inexpensive and accessible form of physical activity and may be beneficial to health. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of active commuting and its subcomponents, cycling and walking, with cardiometabolic risk factors, physical fitness and body composition in young men. Methods Participant...
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Objectives: The purpose of the present study was to investigate how aerobic fitness, muscle fitness and body mass index (BMI) change in relation to their baseline levels during 6-12 months of military service. Design: Retrospective longitudinal follow-up study. Methods: The study group consisted of 249279 healthy young male conscripts (age 19....
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Purpose: To determine body composition, energy availability, training load, and menstrual status in young elite endurance running athletes (ATH) over 1 year, and in a secondary analysis, to investigate how these factors differ between nonrunning controls (CON), and amenorrheic (AME) and eumenorrheic (EUM) ATH. Correlations to injury, illness, and...
Article
Introduction Injuries are the major cause of morbidity and loss of active training days in military populations. Previous investigations have mainly focused on lower extremities. This study evaluated the incidence, diagnosis, and risk factors of upper extremity injuries requiring hospitalization in a large cohort of Finnish conscripts during a 5-ye...
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The primary aim of the present study was to identify motivational profiles of Finnish children, and the extent to which profiles could differ from each other in terms of motivational indices. Also, relationships between motivational profiles and organized sports participation were examined. Achievement goal theory framework was used in this study....
Article
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Background: There are only a few studies that have assessed awareness and knowledge regarding aerobic type of physical activity (PA) guidelines recommendations, while no previous studies have examined muscular type of activity recommendation guidelines. The aim was to assess knowledge and awareness and study the associations with demographic variab...
Conference Paper
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Tausta: Liikunnalla tiedetään olevan myönteisiä vaikutuksia fyysisen hyvinvoinnin lisäksi myös mielen hyvinvointiin. Erilaisilla liikuntainterventioilla on siten mahdollisuus edistää väestön mielenterveyttä. Jotta osaamme kohdistaa oikeanlaisia interventioita oikealle kohderyhmälle, tarvitsemme tietoa fyysisen passiivisuuden syistä erityisesti siin...
Article
This study aimed to examine the characteristics of electromyography (EMG) and kinematics of the supporting leg affecting energy cost while running at incline, level, and decline slopes. Twelve male Japanese middle- and long-distance runners volunteered for this study. The subjects were asked to run at 13.5 km·h⁻¹ on a treadmill under three slope co...
Article
IGF-I and IGFBPs have important physiological modulatory effects and this study sought to examine the influence of active vs. passive recovery following a heavy resistance exercise on IGF-I and IGF binding protein (IGFBP) recovery responses. It was hypothesized that increased IGF-I and decreased inhibitory IGFBPs during active recovery may be refle...
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Importance High physical fitness is associated with a reduction in risk of cardiovascular diseases and death, but the underlying mechanisms are insufficiently understood. Objective To determine how aerobic fitness and muscular strength are associated with serum metabolome measures. Design, Setting, and Participants This cross-sectional study incl...
Presentation
INTRODUCTION Modern battlefield requires warfighters to have anaerobic capacity to fulfil the occupational requirements of high intensity movements with heavy load carriage. The purpose of the present study was to compare the effects of different types of physical training on the neuromuscular performance and simulated combat task course performanc...
Article
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Introduction: Wrist-mounted motion sensors can quantify the volume and intensity of physical activities, but little is known about their long-term validity. Our aim was to validate a wrist motion sensor in estimating daily energy expenditure, including any change induced by long-term participation in endurance and strength training. Supplemental h...
Presentation
Introduction Military survival training (SERE) exposes soldiers to both psychological and physical stress. These stressors have been shown to lead to changes in both hormonal profiles and physical performance (Morgan et al. 2000). The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in daily variation of saliva cortisol (SCOR) concentrations durin...
Article
Purpose: To compare training load and energy expenditure during an 8-week military BT period among individuals having different fitness level using objective measurements in an authentic environment. Methods: Thirty-four voluntary male conscripts (age 19.1±0.3 years) were divided into three training groups (inactive, moderate, active) by their r...
Article
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Background: Much is known about theoretical bases of different mechanical efficiency indices and effects of physiological and biomechanical factors to them. However, there are only a few studies available about practical bases and interactions between these efficiency indices, which were the aims of the present study. Methods: Fourteen physicall...
Conference Paper
Differences Between Responders and Non-responders for Endurance Performance During Combined Training in Military Operation ABSTRACT: 1040 Board #274 May 29 2:00 PM - 3:30 PM Pihlainen, Kai; Santtila, Matti; Häkkinen, Keijo; Kyröläinen, Heikki FACSM Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise: June 2019 - Volume 51 - Issue 6 - p 276 doi: 10.1249/01.mss....
Article
The purpose of the study was to examine how military training influences neuromuscular function in non-overreached and overreached conscripts. A total of 24 male conscripts participated in the study (8 weeks basic training + 2 weeks specialized training). All measurements were conducted during weeks 1, 5, 8 and 10. After the training period, non-ov...