Heidemarie Halbritter's research while affiliated with University of Vienna and other places

Publications (44)

Article
The continuous refinement of the morphological, anatomical, and molecular studies on the genera of the “Cryptanthoid complex”, mainly considering the recently discovered outlier species, gave rise to new interpretations of species relationships. It reinforced the monophyly of the groups, and allowed the recognition of the new monotypic genus Siquei...
Article
Generic status for the Amazonian Hylaeaicum is proposed within the Aechmea alliance, excluding it from the “Nidularioid complex” in general and from Neoregelia in particular. The monophyly of this new genus is supported by molecular phylogenetic analyses. The taxonomic circumscription of Hylaeaicum is based on the combination of geographical range...
Article
Ochagavia (four species) and Fascicularia (one species) form a well-supported clade of the early-diverging Bromelioideae. The two genera are morphologically similar, but they can be easily discerned on the basis of generative characters. Besides the species distributed on the Chilean mainland, the group includes O. elegans, endemic to the Robinson...
Article
The pitcairnioid genus Fosterella currently comprises 31 species distributed from Mexico in North America, along the eastern slopes of the Andes in central South America, Southern Peru to northern Argentina, encompassing western, northern and southeastern Brazil and northern Paraguay. Their species have rather small ranges, representing local endem...
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pollen class: artificial grouping of pollen grains that share one or more distinctive characters
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angulaperturate: pollen grain with an angular outline where the apertures are located at the angles
Book
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This open access book offers a fully illustrated compendium of glossary terms and basic principles in the field of palynology, making it an indispensable tool for all palynologists. It is a revised and extended edition of “Pollen Terminology. An illustrated handbook,” published in 2009. This second edition, titled “Illustrated Pollen Terminology” s...
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monad: unit consisting of a single pollen grain
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For the description of a pollen grain, a number of features are used including size, polarity and shape, aperture condition, ornamentation, and pollen wall structure. Additional and often more specialized features depend on the group of plants under study, Gymnosperms (Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Pinales, Gnetales) vs. Angiosperms (magnoliids, monocots,...
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Pollen is source and transport unit for the male gametes (or their progenitor cell). The unicellular pollen grain represents the microspore of seed plants, the multicellular pollen grain the male gametophytic generation. The development of a pollen grain includes microsporogenesis and microgametogenesis (Figs. 1 and 2, Gomez et al. 2015; Keijzer an...
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Multiple methods and techniques should be used when investigating pollen grains in order to provide comprehensive and accurate information about pollen morphology and ultrastructure (see also “Misinterpretations in Palynology”). The preparation methods used depend on the material to be studied, if the pollen grains are to be obtained from recent fl...
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The description of pollen ornamentation depends on three major parameters (1) the interpretations of the palynologist (which are subjective), (2) the pollen terminology applied, and (3) the magnification, resolution, and methods used.
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outline: describes the contour of pollen grains in polar and/or equatorial view
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tectum/tectate: outer more or less continuous ektexine layer; tectum condition can be eutectate or semitectate
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All important terms in palynology are listed here and explained. Terms figured in chapter “Illustrated Pollen Terms” are indicated by bold page numbers. Non-recommended terms are only provided with an explanatory comment. For consistency, phrases are standardized, for example, features of ornamentation are stereotypically defined as “pollen wall wi...
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areola/areolate: insular ornamentation element
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The study of pollen should encompass all structural and ornamental aspects of the grain. Pollen morphology is studied using LM and SEM and is important to visualize the general features of a pollen grain, including, e.g., symmetry, shape, size, aperture number and location, as well as ornamentation. TEM investigations are used to highlight the stra...
Chapter
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Palynology is the science of palynomorphs, a general term for all entities found in palynological preparations (e.g., pollen, spores, cysts, diatoms). A dominating object of the palynomorph spectrum is the pollen grain. The term palynology was coined by Hyde and Williams (1955; Fig. 1). It is a combination of the Greek verb paluno (пαλύνω, “I strew...
Article
The authors provide a new circumscription for genera of the “Cryptanthoid complex” of Bromeliaceae subfam. Bromelioideae, originally composed of Cryptanthus, Lapanthus, Orthophytum, and Sincoraea, on the basis of new or reevaluated ecological, geographical and morphological evidence, as well as molecular phylogenies. A new generic status is propose...
Article
A new monotypic genus of Bromeliaceae, Waltillia, is described to accommodate a single rediscovered species, Waltillia hatschbachii, thought to be extinct and formerly placed in either Vriesea or Alcantarea. This new genus is ecologically and morphologically distinct from the remaining genera of subfamily Tillandsioideae in its unique combination o...
Article
A taxonomic revision of Bromeliaceae subfam. Tillandsioideae is presented based on a multi-locus DNA sequence phylogeny (viz., plastid DNA loci rpoB-trnC-petN, trnK-matK-trnK, and ycf1, and the nuclear DNA gene PHYC) and new or re-evaluated morphology (e.g., leaf, inflorescence, sepal, petal, ovary, stigma, stamen, pollen, ovule, and seed morpholog...
Article
In pollen characters, Amorphophallus is one of the most diverse genera in the Araceae. The present work is a critical survey of contradicting reports on the impact of acetolysis treatment on Amorphophallus pollen, on the chemical nature of the outer pollen wall layer and of electron-dense (dark) granules found within it. Furthermore, we wanted to c...
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The fossil record of Aponogeton (Aponogetonaceae) is scarce and the few reported macrofossil findings are in need of taxonomic revision. Aponogeton pollen is highly diagnostic and when studied with light microscopy (LM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) it cannot be confused with any other pollen types. The fossil Aponogeton pollen described h...
Article
Almost all systematic treatments agree that Calla is a puzzling case, being a highly autapomorphic taxon with obscure relationships. In molecular-based classifications the variable placements of Calla within Aroideae conflict strongly with those in morphologically and anatomically based systematic classifications, which treat the genus as a subfami...
Article
The heteropolar pollen grains of Dionaea and Drosera (Droseraceae) are united into permanent tetrads. Dionaea and Drosera tetrads have unique, complex internal set-ups. In both genera, apertures (pores) are situated equatorially (stephanoporate); neither Dionaea nor Drosera can be designated as examples for proximal polar situated apertures. In tur...
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In Croatia and the surrounding area, the genus Iris is represented with about 20 Alpine-Dinaric, Mediterranean and Pannonian taxa from the subgenera Iris and Limniris. We researched pollen morphology of all taxa by using scanning electron microscopy. All pollen grains are sulcate with few palynological features, which could have taxonomic importanc...
Article
Three morphologically and ecologically closely related new Pitcairnia species (Bromeliaceae: Pitcairnioideae), P. barbatostigma Leme & A. P. Fontana, P. glauca Leme & A. P. Fontana, and P. diversifolia Leme & A. P. Fontana, from the inselbergs of Espírito Santo State, southeastern Brazil, are described and illustrated. These taxa form a putative na...
Article
Mature pollen usually has a conspicuously thick intine in the aperture regions, whereas in the interapertural area(s) the intine is thin. In Carex (and in other Cyperaceae with pseudomonads), usually five to six circular or elongated apertures (poroids) are present, one situated distally and the others equatorially. In the species studied here the...
Article
Beschorneria yuccoides (Agavaceae) microspores are arranged mostly in planar tetrads. Later on, the pollen grains of the tetrad usually fall apart, but sometimes remain loosely connected by ektexine elements. The ektexine consists of a tectum, of short columellae, and of a thin, discontinuous foot layer. An endexine is absent. The bilayered intine...
Article
For the first time in Acanthaceae a comparative study of orbicules forming stable, coherent orbicular walls and the respective pollen ornamentation was undertaken. A peculiar acetolysis resistant, often species specific orbicular wall is typical for many genera. In some cases the orbicular wall ornamentation resembles closely the pollen ornamentati...
Article
Angiosperm pollen grains can absorb or release water quickly. The respective degree of hydration has great influence upon the actual pollen grain shape and is, to a certain extent, reversible (harmomegathic effect). In the hydrated condition the majority of pollen grains are usually spherical, but in the dry condition they are infolded in a highly...
Article
The pollen of the perigoniate Aroideae sensu Mayo et al. (1997) (Zamioculcas Schott, Gonatopus Hook. f. ex Engl. and Stylochaeton Lepr.) differs ultrastructurally from that of the aperigoniate Aroideae in several important exine and aperture characters. The almost identical zona-aperturate pollen of Zamioculcas and Gonatopus has outside the apertur...
Article
This paper reviews the origin, nature, systematic distribution, and the respective function of the highly variable and diverse thread-forming structures in angiosperm anthers (including somewhat similar, rare features in ferns and gymnosperms). On one hand, such threads may function as pollen-connecting vectors in forming pollen dispersal units, as...
Article
An ultrastructural investigation of 60 species, representing 47 genera, of Araceae showed two basic pollen wall types, each with two subtypes. The two main types are distinguished by presence (type 1) or absence (type 2) of an acetolysis-resistant ektexine. The subtypes are differentiated by a structured (type 1a) or unstructured (type 1b) ektexine...
Article
Pollen grains of Sauromatum are inaperturate with a microechinate exine ornamentation. The outer pollen wall is formed by the spongious endexine and spines. An acetolysis-resistant ektexine is missing. The endexine appears electron dense after TCH-Sp staining and electron translucent after the Thiery-test. The spines are polysaccharidic in nature....
Article
A simple, quick, and inexpensive method for preparing any type of pollen material is described. Fresh, mature pollen grains without previous chemical fixation are dehydrated in acidified 2, 2-dimethoxypropane (DMP) followed by critical-point drying in CO2. This method helps preserve size, shape and surface details of both fragile pollen grains and...
Article
In dehisced anthers of all Gymnocalycium species (Cactaceae, subfam. Cactoideae, tribe Trichocereae) investigated so far, a small percentage of pollen grains are aggregated by only a few threads. These threads are located at the margin of the dehiscing zone of stomium and septum. They are not part of the pollen grain wall, and they are not resistan...
Article
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The appearance of the pollen grains (or tetrads) of some taxa of only distantly related angiosperm families Berberidaceae (Mahonia), Bignoniaceae (Catalpa), Euphorbiaceae (Phyllanthus), Iridaceae (Iris sect. Juno), Malpighiaceae (Malpighia, Banisteriopsis, Heteropteris) and Martyniaceae (Ibicella, Probosciden) is very similar. For this pollen type...
Article
The appearance of the sulcus of many monocot pollen grains and the shape of the grains itself varies considerably with the respective pollen configuration (hydrodynamic state): (a) The turgescent, rounded pollen state within the not yet dehisced pollen sac, (b) the dry, contracted state after pollen sac dehiscence and during pollen transport, and (...
Article
Der Pollen von 338 Arten aus 31 Gattungen der Familie der Bromeliaceae wurde untersucht und mit der systematischen Stellung der Arten in Verbindung gebracht. Der überwiegende Teil der Bromeliaceen besitzt sulcaten, ein kleinerer Teil poraten oder inaperturaten Pollen mit reticulater, foveolater oder glatter Oberfläche. Die Form und Ausbildung des S...
Article
The pollen of Limnanthes douglasii was reinvestigated in order to clarify certain disagreements. Contrary to former authors the (single) tetrahedral/decussate tetrad and the microspore orientation is interpreted as follows: the ring-like aperture region of the spherical monads/young microspores runs parallel to the equator, but is slightly shifted...

Citations

... Our ongoing work has included 434 Bromelioideae species, but sequenced loci have been limited to five markers from the nuclear genome and five markers from the plastome (Heller, 2018). These data have contributed to revisions of established Bromelioideae clades (Leme & al., , 2021(Leme & al., , 2022Matuszak-Renger & al., 2018;Maciel & al., 2019). However, a fully resolved backbone for core Bromelioideae has not been provided up to now (Sass & Specht, 2010;Evans & al., 2015). ...
... Our ongoing work has included 434 Bromelioideae species, but sequenced loci have been limited to five markers from the nuclear genome and five markers from the plastome (Heller, 2018). These data have contributed to revisions of established Bromelioideae clades (Leme & al., , 2021(Leme & al., , 2022Matuszak-Renger & al., 2018;Maciel & al., 2019). However, a fully resolved backbone for core Bromelioideae has not been provided up to now (Sass & Specht, 2010;Evans & al., 2015). ...
... However, so far, only isolated clades within Bromelioideae have been studied using this approach. A recent study based on plastome and rDNA cistron sequence data focused only on the genera Fascicularia and Ochagavia (Paule & al., 2020b). Similarly, a study based on de novo as well as re-sequenced nuclear genomes focused narrowly on several Ananas Mill. ...
... Despite these early efforts, biological studies in the Chapada dos Guimarães are still scarce. Several endemic taxa have been described from the Chapada in recent years; these include invertebrates (Vilela et al. 2018;Garcia & Urso-Guimarães 2018), fish (Tagliacollo et al. 2011), a burrowing snake (Santos et al. 2018), lichens (Ferraro & Lücking 2003), lycophytes (Valdespino et al. 2015) and flowering plants (Rapini et al. 2010;Leme et al. 2019). Here, we describe a new species of Acisanthera that is apparently endemic to rocky sandstone walls of the Chapada dos Guimarães. ...
... Pollen grains were observed with both LM and SEM and described and measured following Punt et al. (2007) and Halbritter et al. (2018). The morphometric characteristics of P. persica and P. subaequalis were established based on measurements with LM from 120 pollen grains: 60 for each species, including 30 pollen grains measured in equatorial view and 30 in polar view (detailed measures are available in Suppl. ...
... Many researchers defined anxiety in various aspects. It is defined as a state of arousal manifesting itself through physical, emotional and cognitive differences experienced by individuals in the case of a subjective danger; a disturbing feeling that emerges when a strong desire or impulse seems not to achieve its purpose; an inner response showed in the case of imminent danger [2]- [4]. Turkish Language Association describes anxiety as sadness, a worrying thought, sorrow and a feeling of tension due to an unknown reason that usually stems from the idea that something bad will happen. ...
... Researchers have traditionally used microscopy to view bee-collected pollen and identify these samples to plant taxa the sample was derived from Campos et al. (2021). Pollen acetolysis, a process wherein pollen is treated with powerful acids to remove cellular content, is often used to make the morphological features of pollen grains more visible (Jones, 2014;Halbritter et al., 2018). Staining with safranin O during slide mounting also improves contrast of features. ...
... Palynological terminology was referenced from former works [56][57][58][59]. The pollen shape class, based on the P/E ratio, was identified using Erdtman's system [60]. ...
... Descriptive terminology follows Smith & Downs (1979), with adaptations suggested by Scharf & Gouda (2008). Definitions for the genera of the "Cryptanthoid" complex follow Leme et al. (2017) Specimens were herborized according to Fidalgo & Bononi (1989), and deposited in herbaria HVASF and HUEFS. Live specimens were introduced for cultivation at the Coleção de Plantas Vivas do Vale do São Francisco (Vivasf) in Petrolina, state of Pernambuco, and in Refúgio dos Gravatás, in Teresópolis, state of Rio de Janeiro, following guidelines recommended by the Convention on Biological Diversity (1992). ...