Harald G. Wallbott's research while affiliated with University of Salzburg and other places

Publications (39)

Article
While most research in the area of decoding emotions from facial expression has been devoted to the issue of whether emotions can be recognized from facial expression, whether some emotions are recognized better than others, and which factors foster or hamper decoding (cf. gender, cultural differences), less research has been devoted to the process...
Chapter
Numerous studies are available on differences in nonverbal sensitivity, i.e. the ability to decode emotions and attitudes from nonverbal expressive behaviour. It has been shown that persons differ to a large degree in their ability to decode emotions from facial expressions and other nonverbal channels (Hall, 1978, 1984; Rosenthal, 1979, Rosenthal,...
Article
Full-text available
Whereas the perception of emotion from facial expression has been extensively studied cross-culturally, little is known about judges’ ability to infer emotion from vocal cues. This article reports the results from a study conducted in nine countries in Europe, the United States, and Asia on vocal emotion portrayals of anger, sadness, fear, joy, and...
Article
The question whether body movements and body postures are indicative of speci®c emotions is a matter of debate. While some studies have found evidence for speci®c body movements accompanying speci®c emotions, others indicate that movement behavior (aside from facial expression) may be only indicative of the quantity (intensity) of emotion, but not...
Article
The question whether body movements and body postures are indicative of specific emotions is a matter of debate. While some studies have found evidence for specific body movements accompanying specific emotions, others indicate that movement behavior (aside from facial expression) may be only indicative of the quantity (intensity) of emotion, but n...
Article
Reports an error in the original article by K. R. Scherer and H. G. Wallbott (Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 1994[Feb], Vol 66[2], 310–328). On page 325, the 2nd and 3rd terms in the leftmost column of figure 2 should be interchanged. (The following abstract of this article originally appeared in record 1994-29654-001.) Reviews the m...
Article
The major controversy concerning psychobiological universality of differential emotion patterning versus cultural relativity of emotional experience is briefly reviewed. Data from a series of cross-cultural questionnaire studies in 37 countries on 5 continents are reported and used to evaluate the respective claims of the proponents in the debate....
Article
To date little evidence is available as to how emotional facial expression is decoded, specifically whether a bottom-up (data-driven) or a top-down (schema-driven) approach is more appropriate in explaining the decoding of emotions from facial expression. A study is reported (conducted with N = 20 subjects each in Germany and Italy), in which decod...
Article
The research examined whether subjects with hearing impairment would differ from normal hearing subjects in their ability to decode emotions from video stimuli (48 video takes in which two actors portrayed six different emotions). Studies in tactile and visual perception lead one to expect deficits, while there is also some evidence for compensatio...
Article
Whether recognition of emotion from facial expression is affected by distortions of pictorial quality has rarely been tested, with the exception of the influence of picture size on emotion recognition. On the other hand, this question is important for (low-cost) tele-communication and tele-conferencing. Here an attempt is made to study whether emot...
Chapter
Schon in den klassischen Lehrbüchern von Bleuler oder Kretschmer wird bei der Beschreibung der Symptomatologie Bezug auf spezielle Ausdruckscharakteristika von depressiven oder schizophrenen Patienten genommen. Quantitative Untersuchungen des Ausdrucksverhaltens von Patienten mit endogenen Psychosen standen demgegenüber im Hintergrund, gewinnen abe...
Article
There is considerable evidence now that recognition of emotion from facial expression occurs far above chance, at least for primary emotions. On the other hand, not much research is available studying the process of emotion recognition. An early theory was proposed by Lipps (1907), postulating that an 'imitation drive' accounts for this process. Ac...
Article
In this study several factors considered to be relevant in mediating stress arousal were experimentally manipulated. Ss selected for the coping styles anxiety denying, low anxiety, and high anxiety were confronted with both low- and high-arousal-inducing situations, using 2 different types of stressors (cognitive vs. emotional) in each case. Arousa...
Article
This paper explores the feasibility of three possible causes for the higher influence of expressive information compared to context information on the ascription of emotions: lack of biographical experience in situations described by the contextual information (Experiment 1), lack of instruction on categorizing contexts in terms of words that descr...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines the correspondence between theoretical predictions on vocal expression patterns in naturally occurring emotions (as based on the component process theory of emotion; Scherer, 1986) and empirical data on the acoustic characteristics of actors' portrayals. Two male and two female professional radio actors portrayed anger, sadne...
Article
This study† examines whether the recognition of emotion from facial expressions is impaired by deterioration of spatial resolution, contrast resolution, and picture size. Eighty judges rated 65 stimuli under 11 conditions: Undistorted, reduced spatial resolution (three steps), reduced contrast resolution (three steps), reduced picture size (three s...
Chapter
One important aspect of human cognitive processing is the understanding of other persons' emotional states. It is well known that facial expression is a central cue to such inferences about emotion. But the relative importance of facial expression (person information) and situational cues (context information) in determining emotion attributions is...
Article
attempt to demonstrate the value of a questionnaire approach in assessing subjective emotional experience / focusing on the subjective report of emotional experience, . . . [the authors] compare questionnaire techniques to laboratory emotion induction and field observation to illustrate the potential of questionnaire assessment . . . [the authors...
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Full-text available
En el presente estudio se examinan las contribuciones relativas de la expresión facial y el contexto situacional al reconocimiento de emociones. Tras la evaluación independiente de ambas fuentes de información, los sujetos juzgaron distintas combinaciones que variaban en su grado de congruencia. Aunque los resultados indican una preponderancia de l...
Article
In this study, we examined the degree of cultural similarity and specificity in emotional experience by asking subjects in the United States and Japan to report their experiences and reactions concerning seven different emotions. The data used for this study were part of a larger cross-cultural study of emotion antecedents and reactions involving m...
Article
While proponents of biological theories of emotion claim the existence of universal emotion and expression patterns, recent theories stress cognitive appraisal mechanisms as elicitors of emotion, thus suggesting the influence of cultural and social factors on emotional experience and emotional expression. Data from a large-scale questionnaire study...
Article
It was tested whether professional actors would be able to communicate emotional meaning via facial expression when this is presented to judges without context information. Forty takes were selected from movies, depicting a female or a male actor in close-up showing facial expression. These close-ups were selected by two expert judges, who knew the...
Article
purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to further test the hypotheses that have been advanced on the basis of the earlier European studies; and (b) to provide a somewhat stronger test of the cultural differences versus universality hypothesis by including not only the United states but also Japan, a culture that is traditionally considered to be...
Article
Studied issues pertinent to judgment studies in nonverbal communication and to the perception and attribution of emotions by investigating which behavioral cues are used in portraying various emotions and to what extent presentation and encoding differences between actors affect judgment accuracy. The nonverbal behaviors of 6 trained actors (3 male...
Article
Hand movement quality, the way in which human hand movements are executed in terms of circumference, velocity, and acceleration, seems to be very important both in terms of clinical diagnosis and in everyday person perception. This research studied movement quality by using objective physical measurements of movement parameters and subjective movem...
Article
636 university students from France, West Germany, Italy, Switzerland, and the UK completed a questionnaire (in their native language) asking them to describe events that had evoked in them the following emotions: joy/happiness/pleasure, sadness/sorrow/grief, anger/bad temper/rage, and fear/fright/terror. Results indicate that there were systematic...
Article
This is the third part of a series. Part I: Theories and Concepts appeared in Volume 3, Number 3 and Part II: The Face appeared in Volume 6, Number 4. In this part of the series a survey of the different techniques for the analysis of human movement behavior, as well as results of research and theorizing on gait, gestures, and body movement behavio...
Article
Full-text available
An attempt is made to survey research on nonverbal behavior performed by German speaking "Expression Psychologists." In this first part of a series of articles (other parts will cover research on facial expression, body movement, and speech and voice) theories and concepts of this nearly unknown branch of psychology are reviewed and discussed. Topi...
Article
Criticizes the operationalization of the repression-sensitization concept by the Repression-Sensitization (RS) Scale, since this scale does not distinguish between repressors and true low-anxious individuals. Instead, it seems more promising to use an additional measure of defensive avoidance of negative affect to accomplish this distinction (e.g.,...

Citations

... Weiterhin führen Brown und Waters (1993) (Brewer, Wilson & Braithwaite, 1995). (Ekman & Friesen, 1969Wallbott, 2003;vgl. Tab. 1 Ekman & Friesen, 1969Wallbott, 2003;aus Böttcher, 2013, S. 17 Besonders interessant war hierbei, dass ein "auffällig unauffälliges" Verhalten sowie eine meist nicht näher beschreibbare Abweichung des Verhaltens von demjenigen Verhalten aller übrigen anwesenden Personen spontan mehrfach als "verdächtig" benannt wurde (Heubrock, Kindermann, Palkies & Röhrs, 2009a Auffallend war auch, dass die professionelle Beobachterin sehr stark auf die Hände der "Attentäterin" achtete; bei drei ihrer sechs Äußerungen zu der "Attentäterin" benannte sie die Hände als auffällig: "Hat die Hände in den Pullover gesteckt", "fasst sich mit der rechten ...
... Another salient aspect in the representation of anger is the physiological or somatic symptoms of the experience. In psychology, physiological changes ascribed to anger include increased body temperature, faster heart rate, muscular tension, and faster breathing (Wallbott 1998). Some of these bodily reactions are well reflected across languages -for example, in the metaphorical representation of anger as a hot fluid boiling within the body, which is found in languages as diverse as English (Kövecses 2000), Spanish (Soriano 2005), Russian (Krylov 2007), Turkish (Aksan 2006), Hindi (Chand 2008), Minangali (Cederholm 2011), and Indonesian (Yuditha 2013) (but see Hsieh [2011] on Formosan languages and Ponsonnet [2013] on Dalabon for exceptions). ...
... The reliability of assignments into categories was checked for the entire material by two independent coders. According to the formula κ = (P -Pe)/(1 -Pe) [30] the intercoder reliability was κ = .92. ...
... Despite this evidence, only recent studies on perception of emotions conveyed by faces used stimuli depicting genuine facial expressions so far (Künecke et al., 2017;Vergallito et al., 2020;Zloteanu et al., 2018;McLellan et al., 2012). Indeed, the vast majority of previous research investigating perception of facial expressions have focused on posed (or fake) emotions (Dawel et al., 2017;Tcherkassof et al., 2013), raising serious doubts about the ecological validity of these studies (Tcherkassof et al., 2013;Barrett et al., 2019;Russell, 1994;Wallbott & Scherer, 1986;Zuckerman et al., 1976;Wallbott, 1990). Spontaneous/genuine and posed/ fake emotional expressions differ in their temporal and morphological characteristics, such as duration, intensity, and asymmetry (Cohn & Schmidt, 2003;Ekman, 1997;Sato & Yoshikawa, 2004;Valstar & Pantic, 2010;Wehrle et al., 2000;Yoshikawa & Sato, 2006). ...
... The study performed in [7] shows that human movements and posture can be associated to a specific emotion. Boredom, for example, is identified by limited movements, collapsed posture, head tilted back, and very small and slow arm movements [8]. Nevertheless, the lower part of the body could also reveal the emotional state. ...
... I risultati più rilevanti di questi studi furono recepiti in ulteriori contributi di Canestrari sul colloquio clinico (8003, 8201) e favorirono la costituzione a Bologna di un piccolo gruppo di ricercatori dedicato appunto allo studio della risposta emotiva (nelle sue diverse dimensioni), della espressione/manifestazione delle emozioni e della regolazione emozionale; ci si dedicò molto attivamente al rilancio delle indagini sulle emozioni nella comunità scientifica italiana, impegnandosi a creare una rete di ricerca che coinvolgeva in quel periodo colleghi appartenenti ad altre università italiane (Bari, Padova, Pavia, Sa- For terms and conditions of usage please see: http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/legalcode lerno, Torino…), coi quali vennero realizzati importanti progetti multicentrici finanziati dal Ministero dell'Università e dal Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche; tale collaborazione favorì iniziative scientifiche di grande rilievo (Convegni periodici, Giornate di Studio…) soprattutto per le ricadute sulla formazione di giovani ricercatori; in questo ambito va ricordata anche la partecipazione del gruppo di ricerca bolognese alla fondazione del Consorzio Europeo di Ricerca sulle Emozioni (CERE), costituitosi presso la Maison des Sciences de l'Homme di Parigi, sulla base della collaborazione sviluppatasi nel corso di una precedente ricerca multicentrica sull'esperienza emotiva (Scherer, Wallbott & Summerfield, 1986;Ricci Bitti & Scherer, 1986;Wallbott, Ricci Bitti & Banninger-Huber, 1986); il CERE fu avviato agli inizi degli anni '90 per opera di ricercatori appartenenti alle università di Amsterdam, Bologna, Ginevra, Louvain-la-Neuve, Parigi X (Nanterre) e Wuerzburg, e proseguito fino ad oggi con la prevalente finalità di formare giovani ricercatori attraverso il coinvolgimento di un numero sempre più ampio di istituzioni scientifiche europee. ...
... The basic device of this approach is a mapping sentence that contains a set of variables (i.e., facets) capturing important components of an emotional situation (e.g., Actors involved, Disadvantaged persons, Actions performed, etc.). Relevant facets of anger situations were derived from the International Survey on Emotion Antecedents And Reactions (ISEAR) database (containing over 3,000 accounts of emotional situations from respondents in 37 countries, see Wallbott & Scherer, 1988) and relevant literature reviews (e.g., Wranik & Scherer, 2010). ...
... For example, shame, though being universally recognized and experienced [27,28], as well as guilt, are profoundly influenced by how a culture considers the nature of the self and, consequently, the experience of this self-conscious emotion. In 1946, the anthropologist Ruth Benedict coined the expressions "guilt culture" and "shame culture" [29] as the result of her studies of two different societies: the North American and the Japanese. ...
... For the scary stories, our data comes from the subreddits r/CreepyPasta, r/ShortScaryStories, and r/NoSleep, and for non-scary stories we selected the subreddits r/TIFU, r/Self, r/StoriesAboutKevin, r/Confession, and r/Confessions, which are common story-writing subreddits. All stories are collected from the start of the subreddit until June, Dataset Description ISEARs (Scherer and Wallbott, 1994) Obtained from cross-cultural studies in 37 countries and contains sentences annotated for joy, sadness, fear, anger, guilt, disgust and shame emotions WASSA 2017 (Mohammad and Bravo-Marquez, 2017) Constructed from tweets and annotated for joy, sadness, fear, and anger emotions Affect Data (Alm, 2008) Constructed from Tales and classified into angry, fearful, happy, sad, disgusted and surprised emotions Emotion Stimulus No Cause Dataset (Ghazi et al., 2015) Data developed from FrameNets' annotated data for emotion lexical unit, each sentence is marked with an emotion tag. CrowdFlower Twitter Sentiment Analysis Emotion Data (CrowdFlower, 2021) Constructed from tweets and classified into 13 emotions (sadness, relief, anger, worry, enthusiasm etc.) Emotion-Annotated Dataset (Aman and Szpakowicz, 2007) Constructed from blog data sentences classified into happiness, sadness, fear, anger, surprise and disgust. ...
... We did not include a neutral face condition because so-called 'neutral' faces are often interpreted as displaying negative affect (Rich et al., 2006;Suess et al., 2014). Using dynamic stimuli would tend to exaggerate this effect: in that context, an immobile face would appear hostile, while facial muscle movements not included in canonical emotional expressions nevertheless frequently transmit emotional content (Wallbott and Ricci-Bitti, 1993). For this reason, other studies of dynamic facial emotions have often used an abstract visual baseline (Grosbras and Paus, 2005;Sato et al., 2015). ...