Hanna Kokko's research while affiliated with University of Zurich and other places

Publications (114)

Article
Full-text available
Fitness usually increases when a male mates with more females, but is the same true for females? A new meta-analysis in PLOS Biology shows that females, like males, tend to have a positive relationship between the number of mates and their reproductive output. But why? Fitness usually increases when a male mates with more females, but is the same t...
Article
Full-text available
Conspecific attraction during habitat selection is common among animals, but the ultimate (i.e., fitness‐related) reasons for this behavior often remain enigmatic. We aimed to evaluate the following three hypotheses for conspecific attraction during the breeding season in male Wood Warblers (Phylloscopus sibilatrix): the habitat detection hypothesi...
Article
Full-text available
In many species, male lifespan is shorter than that of females, often attributed to sexual selection favouring costly expression of traits preferred by females. Coevolutionary models of female preferences and male traits predict that males can be selected to have such life histories; however, this typically requires that females also pay some costs...
Article
Fisher's fundamental theorem states that natural selection improves mean fitness. Fitness, in turn, is often equated with population growth. This leads to an absurd prediction that life evolves to ever-faster growth rates, yet no one seriously claims generally slower population growth rates in the Triassic compared with the present day. I review he...
Preprint
Full-text available
Facultative sex, the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually, is widespread across the tree of life. In anisogamous species, the frequency of sex modulates selection on traits with sex-specific expression. Current theory on conditional gene expression posits that the strength of selection on loci only expressed by a subset of individuals,...
Article
Full-text available
In many communication systems, signal‐receivers profit from honest signals that indicate the signaller’s quality, whereas low quality signallers should profit from cheating. Under such a conflict of interests between signallers and signal‐receivers, the maintenance of honest signals presents a puzzle. In theory, honesty can represent an evolutionar...
Article
Full-text available
Facultative sex, the ability to reproduce both sexually and asexually, is widespread across the tree of life. In anisogamous species, the frequency of sex modulates selection on traits with sex-specific expression. Current theory on conditional gene expression posits that the strength of selection on loci only expressed by a subset of individuals,...
Article
In heterogeneous environments, dispersal may be hampered not only by direct costs, but also because immigrants may be locally maladapted. While malad- aptation affects both sexes, this cost may be modulated in females if they ex- press mate preferences that are either adaptive or maladaptive in the new local population. 2. Dispersal costs under loc...
Article
1. Maladaptive hybridization selects for prezygotic isolation, a process known as reinforcement. Reinforcement reduces gene flow and contributes to the final stage of speciation. Ecologically, however, coexistence of the incipient species is difficult if they initially use identical resources. 2. Habitat segregation offers an alternative to species...
Article
Full-text available
Multicellularity evolved independently in multiple lineages, yielding organisms with a wide range of adult sizes. Building an intact soma is not a trivial task, when dividing cells accumulate damage. Here, we study ‘ontogenetic management strategies’, i.e. rules of dividing, differentiating and killing somatic cells, to examine two questions. First...
Article
Old-growth forest specialists are among the species most affected by commercial forestry. However, it is often unclear whether such species can persist and what their habitat needs are in managed forests. We investigated habitat selection of one such old-growth forest specialist, the white-backed woodpecker Dendrocopos leu- cotos, a species highly...
Preprint
Full-text available
Multicellularity evolved independently in multiple lineages, yielding organisms with a wide range of adult sizes. Building an intact soma is not a trivial task, when dividing cells accumulate damage. Here, we study 'ontogenetic management strategies', i.e. rules of dividing, differentiating and killing somatic cells, to examine two questions. First...
Article
Full-text available
When asked about cancer, most would first think of it as a devastating disease. Some might add that lifestyle (e.g., smoking) or environmental pollution has something to do with it, but also that it tends to occur in old people. Cancer is indeed one of the most common causes of death in humans, and its incidence increases with age. Yet, focusing on...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual interactions play an important role in the evolution of reproductive isolation, with important consequences for speciation. Theoretical studies have focused on the evolution of mate preferences in each sex separately. However, mounting empirical evidence suggests that premating isolation often involves mutual mate choice. Here, using a popul...
Article
Full-text available
Assortative mating is a deviation from random mating based on phenotypic similarity. As it is much better studied in animals than in plants, we investigate for trees whether kinship of realized mating pairs deviates from what is expected from the set of potential mates and use this information to infer mating biases that may result from kin recogni...
Article
Why do most organisms age, and why do most of them reproduce sexually? Does sex rejuvenate? We review progress that has been made linking theories of senescence with those of sexual reproduction. We show that there is a dearth of theory against the numerous questions waiting to be answered theoretically or empirically: observed senescence patterns...
Article
Full-text available
Reversible phenotypic plasticity, the ability to change one’s phenotype repeatedly throughout life, can be selected for in environments that do not stay constant throughout an individual’s lifetime. It might also mitigate senescence, as the mismatch between the environment and a non-plastic individual’s traits is likely to increase as time passes....
Article
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Sex is ancestral in eukaryotes. Meiotic sex differs from bacterial ways of exchanging genetic material by involving the fusion of two cells. We examine the hypothesis that fusion evolved in early eukaryotes because it was directly beneficial, rather than a passive side‐effect of meiotic sex. We assume that the uptake of (proto)mitochondria into euk...
Article
There are striking differences between the male and female forms of some species. A study of marine fossils finds that such differences come at the cost of an increased risk of extinction. There are striking differences between the male and female forms of some species. A study of marine fossils finds that such differences come at the cost of an in...
Article
Full-text available
Warning signals are an effective defence strategy for aposematic prey, but only if they are recognized by potential predators. If predators must eat prey to associate novel warning signals with unpalatability, how can aposematic prey ever evolve? Using experiments with great tits (Parus major) as predators, we show that social transmission enhances...
Chapter
Despite an obvious focus of cancer as a medical phenomenon affecting human lifespan, cancer occurs across multicellular life. We argue that cancer research could benefit from moving from considering other species’ cancers as mere models of those of humans to embracing the differences across species, as these dictate the logic of natural selection a...
Article
A long-standing unresolved question is how uniparentally inherited mitochondria evade Muller’s ratchet. Radzvilavicius, Kokko, and Christie... Mitochondria are ATP-producing organelles of bacterial ancestry that played a key role in the origin and early evolution of complex eukaryotic cells. Most modern eukaryotes transmit mitochondrial genes unipa...
Article
Coevolution with avian brood parasites shapes a range of traits in their hosts, including morphology, behavior, and breeding systems. Here we explore whether brood parasitism is also associated with the evolution of host clutch size. Several studies have proposed that hosts of highly virulent parasites could decrease the costs of parasitism by evol...
Preprint
Mitochondria are ATP-producing organelles of bacterial ancestry that played a key role in the origin and early evolution of complex eukaryotic cells. Most modern eukaryotes transmit mitochondrial genes uniparentally, often without recombination among genetically divergent organelles. While this asymmetric inheritance maintains the efficacy of purif...
Article
A simplistic view of the adaptive process pictures a hillside along which a population can climb: when ecological ‘demands’ change, evolution ‘supplies’ the variation needed for the population to climb to a new peak. Evolutionary ecologists point out that this simplistic view can be incomplete because the fitness landscape changes dynamically as th...
Article
Full-text available
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Full-text available
Theory predicts that sexual reproduction is difficult to maintain if asexuality is an option, yet sex is very common. To understand why, it is important to pay attention to repeatably occurring conditions that favour transitions to, or persistence of, asexuality. Geographic parthenogenesis is a term that has been applied to describe a large variety...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Models of social evolution and the evolution of helping have been classified in numerous ways. Two categorical differences have, however, escaped attention in the field. Models tend not to justify why they use a particular assumption structure about who helps whom: a large number of authors model peer- to-peer cooperation of essentially identical i...
Article
Full-text available
Searching for mates is a critical stage in the life-cycle of most internally, and many externally, fertilising species. Males usually invest more in this costly activity than females, but the reasons for this are poorly understood. Previous models have shown that female-biased parental investment, including anisogamy, does not by itself select for...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Theories for the evolution of sex rarely include facultatively sexual reproduction. Sexual harassment by males is an underappreciated factor: it should at first sight increase the relative advantage of asexual reproduction by increasing the cost of sex. However, if the same females can perform either sexual or asexual life cycles, then females tryi...
Article
Full-text available
The factors influencing cancer susceptibility and why it varies across species are major open questions in the field of cancer biology. One underexplored source of variation in cancer susceptibility may arise from trade-offs between reproductive competitiveness (e.g. sexually selected traits, earlier reproduction and higher fertility) and cancer de...
Article
Full-text available
One contribution of 18 to a theme issue 'Cancer across life: Peto's paradox and the promise of comparative oncology'. Studies of body size evolution, and life-history theory in general, are conducted without taking into account cancer as a factor that can end an organism's reproductive lifespan. This reflects a tacit assumption that predation, para...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Although females rarely experience strong mate limitation, delays or lifelong problems of mate acquisition are detrimental to female fitness. In systems where males search for females via pheromone plumes, it is often difficult to assess whether female signaling is costly. Direct costs include the energetics of pheromone production and att...
Article
Ongoing climate change threatens to cause mismatches between the phenology of many organisms and their resources. Populations of migratory birds may need to undergo ‘evolutionary rescue’ if resource availability moves to earlier dates in the year, as shifted arrival dates at the breeding grounds may be required for persistence under new environment...
Article
Costly female mating preferences for purely Fisherian male traits (i.e. sexual ornaments that are genetically uncorrelated with inherent viability) are not expected to persist at equilibrium. The indirect benefit of producing ‘sexy sons’ (Fisher process) disappears: in some models, the male trait becomes fixed; in others, a range of male trait valu...
Article
The hawk-dove game famously introduced strategic game theory thinking into biology and forms the basis of arguments for limited aggression in animal populations. However, aggressive 'hawks' and peaceful 'doves', with strategies inherited in a discrete manner, have never been documented in a real animal population. Thus, the applicability of game-th...
Article
Positive allometry of secondary sexual traits (whereby larger individuals have disproportionally larger traits than smaller individuals) has been called one of the most pervasive and poorly understood regularities in the study of animal form and function. Its widespread occurrence is in contrast with theoretical predictions that it should evolve on...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Mate choice frequently operates differently for males and females as a consequence of male competition for mates. Competitive interactions can alter the fitness payoffs of choice and the realization of preferences under natural conditions, yet the majority of male choice studies still use binary trials that ignore social factors. Here we t...
Article
Positive allometry of secondary sexual traits (whereby larger individuals have disproportionally larger traits than smaller individuals) has been called one of the most pervasive and poorly understood regularities in the study of animal form and function. Its widespread occurrence is in contrast with theoretical predictions that it should evolve on...
Article
Genomic imprinting refers to a pattern of gene expression in which a specific parent's allele is either under-expressed or completely silenced. Imprinting is an evolutionary conundrum because it appears to incur the costs of diploidy (e.g. presenting a larger target than haploidy to mutations) while foregoing its benefits (protection from harmful r...
Article
Does evolution proceed faster in larger or smaller populations? The relationship between effective population size (Ne) and the rate of evolution has consequences for our ability to understand and interpret genomic variation, and is central to many aspects of evolution and ecology. Many factors affect the relationship between Ne and the rate of evo...
Article
Paternity protection and the acquisition of multiple mates select for different traits. The consensus from theoretical work is that mate-guarding intensifies with an increasing male bias in the adult sex ratio (ASR). A male bias can thus lead to male monogamy if guarding takes up the entire male time budget. Given that either female- or male-biased...
Article
Full-text available
Reciprocal altruism describes a situation in which an organism acts in a manner that temporarily reduces its fitness while increasing another organism's fitness, but there is an ultimate fitness benefit based on an expectation that the other organism will act in a similar manner at a later time. It creates the obvious dilemma in which there is alwa...
Chapter
A naive interpretation of evolutionary theory is the statement that all individuals should work as hard as possible to reproduce as fast as possible. More detailed analysis proves this to be wrong: for example, a too hard working kestrel parent would waste energy on offspring that are not good at surviving, at the expense of its own lifespan. Such...
Article
Contests are an important aspect of the lives of diverse animals, from sea anemones competing for space on a rocky shore to fallow deer stags contending for access to females. Why do animals fight? What determines when fights stop and which contestant wins? Addressing fundamental questions on contest behaviour, this volume presents theoretical and...
Chapter
Have humans always waged war? Is warring an ancient evolutionary adaptation or a relatively recent behavior—and what does that tell us about human nature? This book brings together experts in evolutionary biology, archaeology, anthropology, and primatology to answer fundamental questions about peace, conflict, and human nature in an evolutionary co...
Data
Field observations of sex-specific densities of Leptinotarsa decemlineata . (DOCX)
Article
Full-text available
If males and females affect reproduction differentially, understanding and predicting sexual reproduction requires specification of response surfaces, that is, two-dimensional functions that relate reproduction to the (numeric) densities of both sexes. Aiming at rigorous measurement of female per capita fertilization response surfaces, we conducted...
Data
Supplementary methods Leptinotarsa decemlineata experiment. (DOCX)
Article
Polyandry, by elevating sexual conflict and selecting for reduced male care relative to monandry, may exacerbate the cost of sex and thereby seriously impact population fitness. On the other hand, polyandry has a number of possible population-level benefits over monandry, such as increased sexual selection leading to faster adaptation and a reduced...
Article
1. Fundamental ecological research is both intrinsically interesting and provides the basic knowledge required to answer applied questions of importance to the management of the natural world. The 100th anniversary of the British Ecological Society in 2013 is an opportune moment to reflect on the current status of ecology as a science and look forw...
Article
Full-text available
Why do females of so many species mate multiply? The question makes use of an implicit null model that females by default should be monandrous and that polyandry requires an explanation. Here, we make the simple point that females encounter mates over their lifetime in a stochastic manner, and as they should accept at least one male, acceptance of...
Article
It is a challenge to measure sexual selection because both stochastic events (chance) and deterministic factors (selection) generate variation in individuals' reproductive success. Most researchers realize that random events ('noise') make it difficult to detect a relationship between a trait and mating success (i.e. the presence of sexual selectio...
Article
Full-text available
Sexual selection is thought to have led to searching as a profitable, but risky way of males obtaining mates. While there is great variation in which sex searches, previous theory has not considered search evolution when both males and females benefit from multiple mating. We present new theory and link it with data to bridge this gap. Two differen...
Article
Full-text available
In eusocial species, some individuals sacrifice their own reproduction for the benefit of others. The evolutionary transition towards eusociality may have been facilitated by ancestral species having a monogamous mating system (the monogamy hypothesis) or a haplodiploid genetic system (the haplodiploidy hypothesis), or it may have been entirely dri...
Article
The evolutionary forces shaping within- and across-species variation in the investment in male and female sex function are still incompletely understood. Despite earlier suggestions that in plants the evolution or cosexuality vs. dioecy, as well as sex allocation among cosexuals, is affected by seed and pollen dispersal, no formal model has explici...
Article
Male reproductive success is typically mate limited, which implies that males should rarely be choosy. On the other hand, females often vary greatly in their fecundity or other determinants of male reproductive success. There are two coexisting threads in the current literature on male mate choice: a number of studies emphasize that male mate choic...
Article
Sexual selection can explain major micro- and macro-evolutionary patterns. Much of current theory predicts that the strength of sexual selection (i) is driven by the relative abundance of males and females prepared to mate (i.e. the operational sex ratio, OSR) and (ii) can be generally estimated by calculating intra-sexual variation in mating succe...
Article
Big Questions in Ecology and Evolution by Thomas N. Sherratt and David M. Wilkinson Oxford University Press, New York, 2009. 311 pp. $99, £55. ISBN 9780199548606. Paper, $45, £27.50. ISBN 9780199548613. Sherratt and Wilkinson offer thought-provoking answers to questions about aging, sex, cooperation, species, tropical diversity, chaos, our green w...
Article
Full-text available
Female superb fairy-wrens Malurus cyaneus initiate extragroup fertilizations by forays to the territory of preferred males, just before sunrise, 2--4 days before egg laying. Over a prolonged breeding season, males advertise their availability to foraying females by singing during the dawn chorus. Here, we show that 1) males commence dawn advertisem...
Article
The extent to which indirect genetic benefits can drive the evolution of directional mating preferences for more ornamented mates, and the mechanisms that maintain such preferences without depleting genetic variance, remain key questions in evolutionary ecology. We used an individual-based genetic model to examine whether a directional preference f...
Article
In socially monogamous species, females may engage in extra-pair fertilizations to gain direct or indirect benefits not provided by the social mate, with the potential risk of a reduction in the social mate’s paternal effort. I present an ESS model of cuckoldry frequencies, which considers both facultative and nonfacultative male responses to losse...
Article
Many amphibian species are known to form leks during breeding season, yet it has seldom been tested which evolutionary forces are likely to act on lek formation in this taxon. We tested the kin selection hypothesis for lek formation by using eight variable microsatellite loci to compare the genetic relationship of 203 males in seven Rana arvalis le...
Article
How and Why Species Multiply. The Radiation of Darwin's Finches. By Peter R. Grant and B. Rosemary Grant. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2008. 272 pp. $35, £19.95. ISBN 9780691133607. Princeton Series in Evolutionary Biology. Drawing on decades of research in the Galapagos (especially their own work), the authors offer a comprehensive...
Article
Adaptation does not necessarily lead to traits which are optimal for the population. This is because selection is often the strongest at the individual or gene level. The evolution of selfishness can lead to a 'tragedy of the commons', where traits such as aggression or social cheating reduce population size and may lead to extinction. This suggest...
Article
Models of population dynamics generally neglect the presence of males. While this assumption holds under many circumstances, behavioural ecology increasingly tells us that the presence (or absence) of males may have an impact on female fitness, and hence population sizes. Here we ask the question of whether males matter to population dynamics, oper...
Article
Recent studies have demonstrated male mate choice for female ornaments in species without sex-role reversal. Despite these empirical findings, little is known about the adaptive dynamics of female signalling, in particular the evolution of male mating preferences. The evolution of traits that signal mate quality is more complex in females than in m...
Article
Published at full length with the title 'Reproductive behaviour: sexual selection remains the best explanation' in Science E-letters, 6 April 2006
Article
Sexual reproduction is associated with the evolution of anisogamy and sperm-producing males and egg-laying females. The ensuing competition for mates has led to sexual selection and coevolution of the sexes. Mathematical models are extensively used to test the plau- sibility of different complicated scenarios for the evolution of sexual traits. Unf...
Article
Full-text available
Question: Why do male frogs invest in heterospecific matings in hybridogenetic systems with large heterospecific and small conspecific females? When is a strategy to mate with larger females evolutionarily stable? Mathematical method: A continuous-time model of reproductive values with discrete classes of individuals is developed to investigate the...
Article
Sexual selection is a field with a strong focus on the 'costs' of traits. However, whether such costs have an influence on the demography of the population is very rarely discussed. Here we present various processes through which sexual selection might have an impact on population viability and thus increase or decrease the risk of extinction. We a...
Article
Sexual segregation is common in ungulates and some social mammals but its causes are still poorly understood. We developed an individual-based, spatially explicit simulation model to test whether sexual differences in activity could lead to sexual segregation. In our model, males and females differed only in their propensity to switch from an activ...
Article
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Article
Like most mammals, grey seals, Halichoerus grypus, are thought to be polygynous. However, genetic analysis reveals that as few as 1% of males gain reproductive success that is significantly above average. At the same time there appear to be more full siblings than can be accounted for by chance, implying some level of partner fidelity. We used an e...
Article
Full-text available
Species usually have to use indirect cues when assessing habitat quality. This means that it is possible for humans to alter habitats in a way that causes a discrepancy between the cues and the true quality of different habitats. This phenomenon is called an 'ecological trap'. Here we show that the trap may lead to a behaviourally mediated Allee ef...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the evolutionary stability of year-round residency in territorial populations, where breeding sites are a limiting resource. The model links individual life histories to the population-wide competition for territories and includes spatial variation in habitat quality as well as a potential parent-offspring conflict over territory ownersh...
Article
We shall examine the impact of Charles S. Elton's 1924 article on periodic fluctuations in animal populations on the development of modern population ecology. We argue that his impact has been substantial and that during the past 75 years of research on multi-annual periodic fluctuations in numbers of voles, lemmings, hares, lynx and game animals h...
Article
Our current understanding of the operation of sexual selection is predicated on a sex difference in parental investment, which favours one sex becoming limiting and choosy over mates, the other competitive and nonchoosy. This difference is reflected in the operational sex ratio (OSR), the ratio of sexually receptive males to females, considered to...
Article
Some individuals (helpers) in cooperatively breeding species provide alloparental care and often suppress their own reproduction. Kin selection is clearly an important explanation for such behaviour, but a possible alternative is group augmentation where individuals survive or reproduce better in large groups and where it therefore pays to recruit...

Citations

... Interface 20: 20220472 evolution studies (e.g. [55,56]), as discussed in Kokko [57]. Specifically, although theory predicts that natural selection should increase mean fitness, fitness proxies such as growth can become uncoupled from fitness. ...
... Different fitness components may align. In her commentary, Kokko (2021) provides a characteristically clear-sighted discussion of this point. But, we also feel that sexual selection should not be held to a higher standard. ...
... Visitation rates and handling time were especially reduced for warmed female bees, likely reflecting modifications in floral traits, but not for warmed males, likely because males spend minimal time foraging, searching instead for females (Danforth et al., 2019b). Corolla size and flower abundance can be positively correlated with pollinator visitation (Akter et al., 2017;Fowler et al., 2016;Knauer et al., 2021). Moreover, higher nectar sugar concentration can enhance flower visits (Cnaani et al., 2006;Fowler et al., 2016), and larger nectar volumes can increase the amount of time bees spend visiting flowers (Knauer et al., 2021;Thomson 1988). ...
... Mate-choice copying can provide a rather interesting and perhaps unexpected solution to this problem. As we have shown (Sapage et al. 2021), if migrant females have the ability to copy, compared to populations in which females do not copy, they will learn from local females who are the best locally adapted males and hence produce, by mating with them, better adapted offspring. The offspring will still carry their mother's nonadapted alleles but will also carry the alleles of the best local males, reducing considerably the reproductive cost of migration. ...
... Sister species with overlapping ranges often occupy different ecological niches [1]. Models show that species coexist more easily if barrier reinforcement relies on habitat preferences rather than on species recognition [3]. In plants, the pre-zygotic barrier often involves change in pollinators [1], and pollinators may be habitat specialists [4]. ...
... The functional relationships between body size, growth and TL might thus play an important role in shaping optimal body size under natural selection (Erten & Kokko, 2020;Ringsby et al., 2015). and several components of fitness in two insular populations of wild house sparrows over a study period of 11 years. ...
... In general, the diversity of saproxylic beetles increases with the amount of deadwood [24]. Standing deadwood hosts more beetles than lying deadwood [25,26], as well as lichens, birds, and bats [27,28]. In general, massive trees are preserved mainly in old game hunting areas, parks, pond dams, and orchards [29], or in agroforestry areas [30], and as prominent features in the landscape, such as heritage trees [5]. ...
... All subsequent analyses standardized and pooled the data from different patches at each site (see later). This experimental setup maximized our statistical power while resembling real natural populations, where the number of pollen donors fertilizing each maternal individual is limited by phenological mismatches, neighbourhood among individuals, and pollinator behaviour, regardless of the total number of potentially available paternal parents (Weis, 2005;Pannell & Labouche, 2013;Ison et al., 2014;Weis et al., 2014;Ismail & Kokko, 2020). ...