HELCOM's scientific contributions

Citations

... The Baltic Sea is one of the largest brackish-water areas worldwide and is affected by anthropogenic nutrient loading that leads to accelerated eutrophication effects including higher biomass production and increased oxygen consumption that have resulted in a ten-fold expansion of hypoxic (<2 mg/L O 2 ) dead zones within the last century [9][10][11]. Increased temperature accelerates hypoxia by decreasing the oxygen solubility [4] that has accounted for 15% of the total oxygen decline [12] along with higher microbial metabolic rates further increasing oxygen loss [4,13]. ...