H.-U. Danzebrink's research while affiliated with Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt and other places

Publications (49)

Article
Full-text available
Nanoparticles with size in the range from 10 nm to 300 nm and from three different materials (Au 10 nm, Ag 20 nm, and PSL 30 nm, 100 nm and 300 nm) were used in this supplementary comparison. The selected nanoparticles meet the requirements of different measurement methods such as Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM...
Article
This paper presents a newly developed highly accurate interferometric 6 degrees of freedom (DoF) measurement system with Angstrom resolution for displacement and mu rad resolution for angle measurement, respectively. The new interferometer is based on a modified homodyne Twyman-Green interferometer concept. It uses a novel signal acquisition and pr...
Conference Paper
Reference materials without variations in topography are essential for the characterization of imaging XPS (X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy) Instruments. Therefore a new fabrication process for this kind of zero-topography reference material was developed at PTB and resulted in first prototypes. The fabrication process and first measurement result...
Article
The contribution provides an overview on new developments of standards and measurement methods for 3D-micro- and nanometrology with a focus on recent work at the PTB. These developments target at a reduction of measurement uncertainty of instruments used for dimensional characterization of micro- and nanostructures. The developments in 3D-micrometr...
Article
The contribution provides an overview on new developments of standards and measurement methods for 3D-micro- and nanometrology with a focus on recent work at the PTB. These developments target at a reduction of measurement uncertainty of instruments used for dimensional characterization of micro- and nanostructures. The developments in 3D-micrometr...
Poster
Full-text available
Poster at the 10th Seminar on Quantitaive Microscopy (QM) and 6th seminar on Nanoscale Calibration Standards and Methods Dimensional and related measurements in the micro- and nanometre range
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The movement of a double-sided mirror was measured with two different interferometers aligned complying with Abbe's principle. The comparison of two interferometers with different wavelength allows a separation of their nonlinearities. Therewith the periodic nonlinearities of a novel compact Twyman-Green interferometer were determined to be smaller...
Article
Dimensional metrology for micro- and even nanometer-sized objects is becoming increasingly important in industry branches like semiconductor and optical industries as well as in the fields of mechanical engineering, biology and medicine. To achieve the required small uncertainties and probing flexibility new measurement systems have been developed...
Article
In this work, an anti-drift and auto-alignment mechanism is applied to an astigmatic detection system (ADS)-based atomic force microscope (AFM) for drift compensation and cantilever alignment. The optical path of the ADS adopts a commercial digital versatile disc (DVD) optical head using the astigmatic focus error signal. The ADS-based astigmatic A...
Article
A brief explanation of the optoelectronic probe concept and a comparison between the implementation of passive waveguide probes and optoelectronic probes in scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) is presented. The first probe realizations using cleaved semiconductor crystals and the work at present in progress using microfabricated Si pyrami...
Article
Full-text available
Dimensional metrology is the enabling technology required not only for ensuring the quality of optical products but also for monitoring/controlling the manufacturing processes. Dimensional metrology of micro and nano structures and form metrology of flat, spherical, aspherical, ruled and free form surfaces is needed. This paper introduces some dime...
Article
Full-text available
The paper reports on the design and testing of several new piezoresistive ultra high precision 3D microprobes for the use in coordinate measuring machines (CMM). The microprobes are all composed of three primary components a piezoresitive sensing element and stylus with probing sphere. The sensing element consists of a bossed KOH-etched silicon mem...
Article
This paper presents a sensor head for micro- and nano-coordinate metrology and scanning force microscopy (SFM) which has an ultrasonic vibration sensor working in a longitudinal oscillation mode. In this head several important aspects are involved. One is the structure of the stylus sensor which is based on unequal, vibrating masses, with an exchan...
Article
Measurements have been made at five national metrology institutes (NMIs) in the subject field of dimensional measurement using scanning probe microscopy. Four of the participating NMIs are in Europe, the fifth is in the Asia-Pacific region. Each NMI made measurements of four step height standards and two 1D grating standards. These are typical arte...
Article
Traceable calibrations of various micro and nano measurement devices are crucial tasks for ensuring reliable measurements for micro and nanotechnology. Today metrological AFM are widely used for traceable calibrations of nano dimensional standards. In this paper, we introduced the developments of metrological force microscopes at PTB. Of the three...
Book
Full-text available
Why should we care about nanometrology? For the same reason we care about metrology! Metrology is necessary as the key discipline to enable the exchange of industrial products or components. To give a few examples, think of the pilot carefully observing his altitude, course, fuel consumption and speed, the food inspectorate measuring bacteria conte...
Article
The development of a highly sensitive (sub-nanometer) and multi-platform scanning probe microscope (SPM) module is presented. The module is based on an optical DVD pickup head and uses its astigmatic detection scheme to detect the vertical displacement of the SPM cantilevers. The complete hybrid SPM module is capable of scanning in SPM intermittent...
Article
Within the International Avogadro Project, two spheres of highly enriched <sup>28</sup>Si crystals have been produced to perform new determination of Avogadro constant N<sub>A</sub>. The mass of the oxide layer of the spheres has to be measured as one of the critical tasks. For this purpose, a method consisting of precise thickness measurements and...
Article
Full-text available
Metrology plays an important role in the development and commercialisation of micro and nanotechnology. For calibrating versatile micro- and nanoscale standards, a dimensional metrology instrument coupled with multi sensor heads including atomic force microscope (AFM), tactile stylus, laser focus sensor and assembled cantilever probes (ACPs) has be...
Article
The present status of an international attempt of several national metrology institutes to determine the Avogadro constant with a relative standard uncertainty better than 2ldr10-8 is presented. To this end, a world-wide collaboration has been set up to produce a 5 kg 28Si single crystal with an enrichment factor greater than 99.985%. Technological...
Article
The authors present a concept of a scanning near-field optical microscope for second harmonic imaging. The microscope is based on uncoated silicon atomic force microscope tips, which provide high intensity transmission in the midinfrared spectral range. An approximately three times larger contrast was found for the second harmonic compared to the l...
Article
Full-text available
The key element of a scanning force microscope (SFM) is the cantilever probe. Commonly, its deflection is measured using either an optical lever or interferometric methods. However, optical detection methods increase the complexity of the microscope set-up and restrict its application in difficult environments. By integrating the detection system o...
Article
This paper presents the state of the art in scanning force microscopy for dimensional metrology. A detailed description is given of the important factors affecting the major components of a scanning force microscope from the metrological point of view. Both instrument design and calibration are discussed together with an overview of industrial appl...
Article
The proceeding miniaturization of components in the semiconductor and MEMS industries raises the demands on the accuracy of the measuring instruments applied in quality assurance systems. Special attention requires the comparability of the measurement results and also their traceability to the length unit. In this paper a measuring instrument is in...
Article
Single self-assembled InAs quantum dots embedded in a In0.12Ga0.88As quantum well and emitting in the near infrared have been optically investigated. The dependence on the excitation power of the single quantum dot photoluminescence has been used to identify the emission of the biexciton complex. The biexciton binding energy, which has been measure...
Article
Full-text available
The frequency response of an atomic force microscope silicon cantilever located in a vacuum cryostat chamber was investigated. The resonance frequency and the peak width were extracted by a Lorentzian fit of the resonance curves for different sample temperatures (15–310 K). Frequency shifts significantly less than one could expect from known temper...
Article
Quantitative dimensional measurements of micro- and nanometre-sized structures are urgently required from science and industry. Due to their very high vertical resolution (down to sub nanometres) and high lateral resolution (<10 nm) scanning probe microscopes (SPMs) are of great interest for such metrological applications. Additionally, SPM methods...
Article
A value for the Avogadro constant, NA, was derived from new measurements of the lattice parameter, the density and the molar mass of a silicon single crystal. The result NA = 6.022 135 3 × 1023 mol−1 has a relative measurement uncertainty and is in excellent agreement with other published data based on the x-ray crystal density molar mass method, i...
Article
A combined system for far- and near-field optical spectroscopy consisting of a compact scanning near-field optical microscope and a dedicated spectrometer was realized. The set-up allows the optical investigation of samples at temperatures from 10 to 300 K. The sample positioning range is as large as 5 x 5 x 5 mm3 and the spatial resolution is in t...
Article
A combined system for far- and near-field optical spectroscopy consisting of a compact scanning near-field optical microscope (SNOM) and a dedicated spectrometer was realised. This setup allows investigations at various temperatures from room to liquid-helium temperature. After a description of the apparatus, scanning force topography images of sel...
Article
Recently, the nanotechnologies for the fabrication of coatings and other structures in the nanometer range, i.e. with dimensions from 0,1 nm up to 100 nm, experienced appreciable growth. In order to solve the tasks of quality assurance of these nanotechnologies, it is necessary to develop measuring methods for the assessment of the structure's geom...
Article
In jüngster Zeit erleben Nanotechnologien zur Herstellung von Schichten und anderen Strukturen im Nanometerbereich, d.h. mit Abmessungen von 0,1 nm bis 100 nm, einen enormen Aufschwung. Um die Aufgaben der Qualitätssicherung dieser Nanotechnologien zu lösen, ist es notwendig, Messverfahren zur Bestimmung der geometrischen Strukturen mit Unsicherhei...
Article
A compact sensor head based on scanning force microscopy (SFM) using cantilever probes has been developed. The idea is to replace the microscope objective of a conventional optical microscope by this compact module and turn the optical microscope into a scanning force and near-field optical microscope with subwavelength resolution. We describe our...
Article
Scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) probes can be realized by aperture probes based on metal coated atomic force microscopy (AFM) sensors. The application of focused ion beam (FIB) nano machining for the fabrication of apertures with well defined geometry and dimensions down to 60 nm will be described. Problems related to the processing o...
Article
We present high-resolution aperture probes based on non-contact silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers for simultaneous AFM and near-infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). For use in near-field optical microscopy, conventional AFM cantilevers are modified by covering their tip side with an opaque aluminium layer. To fabr...
Article
The near-field probes described in this paper are based on metallized non-contact atomic force microscope cantilevers made of silicon. For application in high-resolution near-field optical/infrared microscopy, we use aperture probes with the aperture being fabricated by focused ion beams. This technique allows us to create apertures of sub-waveleng...
Article
We present aperture probes based on non-contact silicon atomic force microscopy (AFM) cantilevers for simultaneous AFM and near-infrared scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM). For use in high-resolution near-field optical microscopy, conventional AFM cantilevers are modified by covering their tip side with an aluminium layer to obtain an op...
Conference Paper
Beside other parameters the growth of oxide layers on silicon surfaces depends on the surface preparation and on the crystal orientation. Measurements of the oxide layer thicknesses on silicon spheres are described. The results show a strong dependence on the crystal orientations which may originate from the polishing process. After HF-etching this...
Article
Full-text available
Glass fibers, chemically etched at their extremities and covered with a thin metal coating, are often present in near-field optical microscopy. Such elongated systems can be used to either probe the evanescent components of the electromagnetic field at the surface of a sample, or locally couple this sample with optical evanescent waves. In this art...
Article
In this paper we report on the implementation of an uncoated silicon (Si) cantilever probe into a transmission scanning near-field optical microscopy (SNOM) architecture. In a first stage, the expected transmission behaviour of a sharp silicon probe is investigated by calculating the complete electric field distribution both inside and outside a si...
Article
In this paper we report on the fabrication of monolithic cantilevers for scanning probe microscopy (SPM) based on gallium arsenide material. For this purpose the etching properties of (1 0 0) oriented GaAs were studied to develop cantilevers with integrated tip of proper shape and aspect ratio. Although the mechanical properties of GaAs are similar...
Article
Silicon AFM tips can profitably be used as optical sensors for near field optical microscopy. In particular they are able to convert evanescent waves (also called virtual photons) into propagating ones which are conveniently guided in the tip and transferred to the air at the back of the cantilever. In this paper it is shown that virtual photons sc...
Article
Silicon AFM tips can profitably be used as optical sensors for near field optical microscopy. In particular they are able to convert evanescent waves (also called virtual photons) into propagating ones which are conveniently guided in the tip and transferred to the air at the back of the cantilever. In this paper it is shown that virtual photons sc...
Article
For the setting-up of near-field optical microscopes, the development of and investigation into new near-field probes is of fundamental importance. Up to now, the probes have predominantly been used as passive elements. In contrast to this practice, the principle of the optoelectronically active probe which has been presented on the NFO-1 conferenc...
Article
Near‐field probes have been developed, based on standard, i.e., commercially available, Si cantilever probes for scanning force microscopy (SFM), which directly convert the optical near‐field signal into an electrical signal using Schottky contacts. With these optoelectronic probes it is possible to realize very compact near‐field microscopes. The...
Article
Full-text available
True 3D measurements of micro and nano structures remains challenging issues today. A newly developed 3D-AFM for true 3D measurements of nano structures and an ultra precision micro/nano CMM based on a nano measuring machine (NMM) for true 3D measurements of micro and millimetre size structures have been introduced in the paper. In the design of th...
Article
Thorsten.Dziomba@ptb.de, Phone: 49 531 592 5122, Fax: +49 531 592 5105 While SPMs are being developed and used in scientific research for already more than two decades now, the number of these instruments is rapidly growing in the field of industrial applications as well in recent years. Especially with the latter, an increasing demand emerges for...

Citations

... Other ILCs measured zeta potential as a metric for surface charge [92,93] and specific surface area [NIST SRM 1898]. Large multi-laboratory ILCs were also organized to provide certified and informational particle size data for several EC-JRC reference materials [96] and to compare methods for size measurements by microscopy and scattering methods [97]. ...
... By adopting a commercial digital versatile disk (DVD) pickup head, the astigmatic profilometer is equipped with the advantages of small beam spot size, compact size, and high bandwidth [14][15][16]. For sensing small data pits, the focal laser spot on the DVD pickup head has a small full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 530 nm [17]. ...
... The wide potential application of this technique in biology, medicine, material science and technology requires the scattering analysis of evanescent waves by a penetrable scatterer (sensor tip) near the plane surface of a dielectric prism. The most 3-D models do not completely account for the interaction between the local scatterer and the plane interface [4,5]. Since recently computer simulations [6] demonstrate that this interaction leads to sig-ni®cant changes in the scattering characteristics, we will use in this paper a rigorous model for evanescent wave scattering based on the discrete sources method (DSM) [7]. ...
... The high-performance measurement of the pitch angle remains a problem due to the limitation of the drifting of the laser beam [5,6]. In past years, several techniques, including photoelectric autocollimation [7], laser interferometers [8] and grating interferometers [9], have been reported for pitch angle measurements. ...
... In addition to miniaturised artefacts developed for downscaling geometries and test procedures of classical coordinate metrology, task-specific artefacts were realised to measure sensor-specific characteristics, such as force-induced deformations for tactile microprobes or minimum structure sizes that can be measured with non-contact sensors. Reviews of available artefacts for contact and non-contact probing systems at micro-and nano-scales are reported in [218,217] and [59]. In the following, examples of 3D micro-and nano-artefacts are mentioned, without aiming to be exhaustive: many more artefacts exist as documented in the above reviews. ...
... In addition to miniaturised artefacts developed for downscaling geometries and test procedures of classical coordinate metrology, task-specific artefacts were realised to measure sensor-specific characteristics, such as force-induced deformations for tactile microprobes or minimum structure sizes that can be measured with non-contact sensors. Reviews of available artefacts for contact and non-contact probing systems at micro-and nano-scales are reported in [218], [217] and [59]. In the following, examples of 3D micro-and nano-artefacts are mentioned, without aiming to be exhaustive: many more artefacts exist as documented in the above reviews. ...
... A more detailed exposition can be found elsewhere: for example in "The Expression of Uncertainty and Confidence in Measurement" -document M3003 produced by UKAS [21]; "A Beginner's Guide to Uncertainty of Measurement" by S. Bell [22] or "Introductory Guide to Nanometrology" by P.E. Hansen and G. Roebben' [23]. ...
... The method is employed for identification and evaluation of dynamic error sources. With this method, they gave a quantitative assessment for a specific scanning probe at different scanning speeds which is an extension for ISO 10360 [11,12]. However the dynamic error related to measurement position and direction has not been sufficiently considered. ...
... This set -developed in an EU project [5] -also comprises lateral standards with a 2-dimensional pitch of nominally 100 resp. 300 nm (2D100, 2D300) that have been investigated accordingly e.g. at PTB [6]. In this contribution, a one-dimensional standard made of silicon with a nominal pitch of 100 nm was investigated, the NanoLattice standard by VLSI Standards Inc. Specimen material and topographic profile of this standard are optimized for high contrast imaging in a CD-SEM. ...
... Metrological traceability to the SI units is needed in all quanti tative measurements. Typically atomic force microscopes (AFMs) are calibrated using calibrated grating pitch and step height standards [1][2][3]. Standards are commercially available for large scale, step height >6 nm and pitch >150 nm. For measurements truly on nanometre scale, new types of standards are needed. ...