H. S. P. Müller's research while affiliated with University of Cologne and other places

Publications (202)

Article
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Context. The interstellar detections of isocyanic acid (HNCO), methyl isocyanate (CH 3 NCO), and very recently also ethyl isocyanate (C 2 H 5 NCO) invite the question of whether or not vinyl isocyanate (C 2 H 3 NCO) can be detected in the interstellar medium. There are only low-frequency spectroscopic data (<40 GHz) available for this species in th...
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The interstellar detections of isocyanic acid, methyl isocyanate, and very recently also ethyl isocyanate, open the question of the possible detection of vinyl isocyanate in the interstellar medium. The aim of this study is to extend the laboratory rotational spectrum of vinyl isocyanate into the millimeter wave region and to undertake a check for...
Article
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Context. The primary alcohol n-propanol (i.e., normal-propanol or propan-1-ol; C 3 H 7 OH) occurs in five different conformers: Ga, Gg, Gg' , Aa, and Ag. All rotational spectra of the three conformers of the G family are well described, making astronomical search of their spectroscopic signatures possible, as opposed to those of the Aa and Ag confo...
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Context. The detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the high-mass star forming protocluster Sagittarius (Sgr) B2(N) permitted by the advent of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) revealed a new dimension of interstellar chemistry. Astrochemical simulations subsequently predicted that beyond a certain degree of molecular compl...
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The detection of a branched alkyl molecule in the high-mass star forming protocluster Sgr B2(N) permitted by the advent of ALMA revealed a new dimension of interstellar chemistry. Astrochemical simulations subsequently predicted that beyond a certain degree of molecular complexity, branched molecules could even dominate over their straight-chain is...
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Context. Methanimine, CH 2 NH, and ethanimine, CH 3 CHNH, were both detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), the former in the 1970s and the latter nearly a decade ago. By analogy with nitriles, for which hydrogen cyanide, acetonitrile, and ethyl cyanide are the most abundant, n-propanimine was suggested as a candidate for detection in the ISM. A...
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This overview paper presents ATOMIUM, a Large Programme in Cycle 6 with the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The goal of ATOMIUM is to understand the dynamics and the gas phase and dust formation chemistry in the winds of evolved asymptotic giant branch (AGB) and red supergiant (RSG) stars. A more general aim is to identify chem...
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Characterizing the molecular composition of solar-type protostars is useful for improving our understanding of the physico-chemical conditions under which the Sun and its planets formed. In this work, we analyzed the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data of the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), an unbiased spectral...
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Characterizing the molecular composition of solar-type protostars is useful for improving our understanding of the physico-chemical conditions under which the Sun and its planets formed. In this work, we analyzed the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) data of the Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS), an unbiased spectral...
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Context. In recent times, large organic molecules of exceptional complexity have been found in diverse regions of the interstellar medium. Aims. In this context, we aim to provide accurate frequencies of the ground vibrational state of two key aliphatic aldehydes, n -butanal and its branched-chain isomer, i-butanal, to enable their eventual detecti...
Article
Context. Numerous complex organic molecules have been detected in the universe and among them are amides, which are considered as prime models for species containing a peptide linkage. In its backbone, acrylamide (CH 2 CHC(O)NH 2 ) bears not only the peptide bond, but also the vinyl functional group that is a common structural feature in many inter...
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Numerous complex organic molecules have been detected in the universe among which amides are considered as models for species containing the peptide linkage. Acrylamide bears in its backbone not only the peptide bond, but also the vinyl functional group which is a common motif in many interstellar compounds. This makes acrylamide an interesting tar...
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Solar-type protostars have been shown to harbor highly deuterated complex organics, as evidenced, for instance, by the high relative abundances of doubly and triply deuterated isotopologs. While this degree of deuteration may provide important clues in studying the formation of these species, spectroscopic information on multiply deuterated isotopo...
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Solar-type protostars harbor highly deuterated complex organics. While this degree of deuteration may provide important clues in studying the formation of these species, spectroscopic information on multiply deuterated isotopologs is often insufficient. In particular, searches for triply deuterated methanol, CD$_3$OH, are hampered by the lack of in...
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Glycinamide is considered to be one of the possible precursors of the simplest amino acid glycine. Its only rotational spectrum reported so far has been in the cm-wave region. The aim of this work is to extend its laboratory spectrum into the mm wave region to support its searches in the ISM. Glycinamide was synthesised chemically and was studied w...
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S-type asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars are thought to be intermediates in the evolution of oxygen- to carbon-rich AGB stars. The chemical compositions of their circumstellar envelopes are also intermediate, but have not been studied in as much detail as their carbon- and oxygen-rich counterparts. We aim to determine the abundances of AlCl and A...
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The HITRAN database is a compilation of molecular spectroscopic parameters. It was established in the early 1970s and is used by various computer codes to predict and simulate the transmission and emission of light in gaseous media (with an emphasis on terrestrial and planetary atmospheres). The HITRAN compilation is composed of five major componen...
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This paper describes the 2020 release of the GEISA database (Gestion et Etude des Informations Spectroscopiques Atmosphériques: Management and Study of Atmospheric Spectroscopic Information), developed and maintained at LMD since 1974. GEISA is the reference database for several current or planned Thermal and Short-Wave InfraRed (TIR and SWIR) spac...
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The dramatic increase in sensitivity, spectral coverage and resolution of radio astronomical facilities in recent years has opened new possibilities for observation of chemical differentiation and isotopic fractionation in protostellar sources to shed light on their spatial and temporal evolution. In warm interstellar environments, methanol is an a...
Article
The dramatic increase in sensitivity, spectral coverage and resolution of radio astronomical facilities in recent years has opened new possibilities for observation of chemical differentiation and isotopic fractionation in protostellar sources to shed light on their spatial and temporal evolution. In warm interstellar environments, methanol is an a...
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For all the amides detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), the corresponding nitriles or isonitriles have also been detected in the ISM, some of which have relatively high abundances. Among the abundant nitriles for which the corresponding amide has not yet been detected is cyanoacetylene (HCCCN), whose amide counterpart is propiolamide (HCCC(O)...
Article
Context. For all the amides detected in the interstellar medium (ISM), the corresponding nitriles or isonitriles have also been detected in the ISM, some of which have relatively high abundances. Among the abundant nitriles for which the corresponding amide has not yet been detected is cyanoacetylene (HCCCN), whose amide counterpart is propiolamide...
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Binary interactions dominate the evolution of massive stars, but their role is less clear for low- and intermediate-mass stars. The evolution of a spherical wind from an asymptotic giant branch (AGB) star into a nonspherical planetary nebula (PN) could be due to binary interactions. We observed a sample of AGB stars with the Atacama Large Millimete...
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Complex stellar winds from evolved stars Stars less than eight times the mass of the Sun end their lives as planetary nebulae, structures of ionized gas thrown off by the star and heated by the exposed stellar core. Planetary nebulae are often bipolar in shape or contain complex morphological features such as rings or spirals. Decin et al. observed...
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Thioformamide NH2CHS is a sulfur-bearing analog of formamide NH2CHO. The latter was detected in the interstellar medium back in the 1970s. Most of the sulfur-containing molecules detected in the interstellar medium are analogs of corresponding oxygen-containing compounds. Therefore, thioformamide is an interesting candidate for a search in the inte...
Article
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Context. Thioformamide NH 2 CHS is a sulfur-bearing analog of formamide NH 2 CHO. The latter was detected in the interstellar medium back in the 1970s. Most of the sulfur-containing molecules detected in the interstellar medium are analogs of corresponding oxygen-containing compounds. Therefore, thioformamide is an interesting candidate for a searc...
Article
Context. Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C 2 H 3 CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. Aims. This study aims to search for the presence of C 2 H 3 CHO and other three-carbo...
Article
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Context. Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C 2 H 3 CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. Aims. This study aims to search for the presence of C 2 H 3 CHO and other three-carbo...
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Complex organic molecules with three carbon atoms are found in the earliest stages of star formation. In particular, propenal (C$_2$H$_3$CHO) is a species of interest due to its implication in the formation of more complex species and even biotic molecules. This study aims to search for the presence of C$_2$H$_3$CHO and other three-carbon species s...
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Aminoacetonitrile, a molecule detected in the interstellar medium only towards the star-forming region Sagittarius B2 (Sgr B2) thus far, is considered an important prebiotic species. To date, observations were limited to ground state emission lines, whereas transitions from within vibrationally excited states remained undetected. We wanted to accur...
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Glycolamide is a glycine isomer and also one of the simplest derivatives of acetamide (e.g., one hydrogen atom is replaced with a hydroxyl group), which is a known interstellar molecule. Using a battery of state of the art rotational spectroscopic techniques in the frequency and time domain, around 1500 transitions have been newly assigned. Based o...
Article
Context. Complex organic molecules (COMs) are thought to form on icy dust grains in the earliest phase of star formation. The evolution of these COMs from the youngest Class 0/I protostellar phases toward the more evolved Class II phase is still not fully understood. Since planet formation seems to start early, and mature disks are too cold for cha...
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Context. Glycolamide is a glycine isomer and also one of the simplest derivatives of acetamide (e.g., one hydrogen atom is replaced with a hydroxyl group), which is a known interstellar molecule. Aims. In this context, the aim of our work is to provide direct experimental frequencies of the ground vibrational state of glycolamide in the centimeter-...
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Complex organic molecules (COMs) are thought to form on icy dust grains in the earliest phase of star formation. The evolution of these COMs from the youngest Class 0/I protostellar phases toward the more evolved Class II phase is still not fully understood. Since planet formation seems to start early, and mature disks are too cold for characterist...
Article
Context. The Exploring Molecule Complexity with ALMA (EMoCA) survey is an imaging spectral line survey using the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) to study the hot-core complex Sagittarius B2(N). Recently, EMoCA revealed the presence of three new hot cores in this complex (N3-N5), in addition to providing detailed spectral data on...
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We used the EMoCA survey data to search for isocyanides in Sgr B2(N2) and their corresponding cyanide analogs. We then used the coupled three-phase chemical kinetics code MAGICKAL to simulate their chemistry. Several new species, and over 100 new reactions have been added to the network. In addition, a new single-stage simultaneous collapse/warm-up...
Article
Context. Complex organic molecules are detected in many sources in the warm inner regions of envelopes surrounding deeply embedded protostars. Exactly how these species form remains an open question. Aims. This study aims to constrain the formation of complex organic molecules through comparisons of their abundances towards the Class 0 protostellar...
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Complex organic molecules (COM) are detected in many sources in the warm inner regions of envelopes surrounding deeply embedded protostars. Exactly how these COM form remains an open question. This study aims to constrain the formation of complex organic molecules through comparisons of their abundances towards the Class 0 protostellar binary IRAS...
Article
Context. Propyne (CH 3 CCH), also known as methyl acetylene, has been detected in a variety of environments, from Galactic star-forming regions to extragalactic sources. These molecules are excellent tracers of the physical conditions in star-forming regions, allowing the temperature and density conditions surrounding a forming star to be determine...
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Methyl mercaptan (CH3SH) is a known interstellar molecule with abundances high enough that the detection of some of its minor isotopologues is promising. The present study aims at providing accurate spectroscopic parameters for the (13)CH3SH isotopologue to facilitate searches in the interstellar medium at millimetre and submillimetre wavelengths....
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Context. Propyne (CH$_3$CCH) has been detected in a variety of environments, from Galactic star-forming regions to extragalactic sources. Such molecules are excellent tracers of the physical conditions in star-forming regions. Aims. This study explores the emission of CH$_3$CCH in the low-mass protostellar binary, IRAS 16293$-$2422, examining the s...
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We present a new global study of the millimeter (mm) wave, submillimeter (sub-mm) wave, and terahertz (THz) spectra of the lowest three torsional states of methyl mercaptan (CH$_3$SH). New measurements have been carried out between 50 and 510 GHz using the Kharkiv mm wave and the Cologne sub-mm wave spectrometers whereas THz spectra records were us...
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We have used an unbiased, spectral line-survey that covers the frequency range from 211 to 275 GHz and was obtained with ALMA (angular resolution of 0.4 arcsec) to study the small-scale structure of the dense gas in Sagittarius B2 (north). Eight filaments are found converging to the central hub and extending for about 0.1 pc. The spatial structure,...
Article
Context. Sagittarius B2 (north) is a chemically rich, high-mass star-forming region located within the giant molecular cloud complex Sgr B2 in the central molecular zone of our Galaxy. Dust continuum emission at 242 GHz, obtained at high angular resolution with the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), reveals that it has a filamentary structure o...
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Context. As the number of complex organic molecules (COMs) detected in the interstellar medium increases, it becomes even more important to place meaningful constraints on the origins and formation pathways of such chemical species. The molecular cloud Sagittarius B2(N) is host to several hot molecular cores in the early stage of star formation, wh...
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Context. Urea, NH 2 C(O)NH 2 , is a molecule of great importance in organic chemistry and biology. Two searches for urea in the interstellar medium have been reported in the past, but neither were conclusive. Aims. We want to take advantage of the increased sensitivity and angular resolution provided by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Ar...
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As the number of complex organic molecules (COMs) detected in the interstellar medium increases, it becomes important to place meaningful constraints on the formation pathways of these species. The molecular cloud SgrB2(N) is host to several hot molecular cores in the early stage of star formation, where a great variety of COMs are detected in the...
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Urea, NH2C(O)NH2, is a molecule of great importance in organic chemistry and biology. Two searches for urea in the interstellar medium were reported in the past, but neither were conclusive. We want to take advantage of the increased sensitivity and angular resolution provided by ALMA to search for urea toward the hot cores embedded in the high-mas...
Article
Context. The majority of stars form in binary or higher order systems. The evolution of each protostar in a multiple system may start at different times and may progress differently. The Class 0 protostellar system IRAS 16293–2422 contains two protostars, “A” and “B”, separated by ~600 au and embedded in a single, 10 ⁴ au scale envelope. Their rela...
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[Abridged] The majority of stars form in binary or higher order systems. The Class 0 protostellar system IRAS16293-2422 contains two protostars, 'A' and 'B', separated by ~600 au and embedded in a single, 10^4 au scale envelope. Their relative evolutionary stages have been debated. We aim to study the relation and interplay between the two protosta...
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Nitrogen oxides are thought to play a significant role as a nitrogen reservoir and to potentially participate in the formation of more complex species. Until now, only NO, N$_2$O and HNO have been detected in the interstellar medium. We report the first interstellar detection of nitrous acid (HONO). Twelve lines were identified towards component B...
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Context . New laboratory investigations of the rotational spectrum of postulated astronomical species are essential to support the assignment and analysis of current astronomical surveys. In particular, considerable interest surrounds sulfur analogs of oxygen-containing interstellar molecules and their isomers. Aims . To enable reliable interstella...
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Context. The diffuse and translucent molecular clouds traced in absorption along the line of sight to strong background sources have so far been investigated mainly in the spectral domain because of limited angular resolution or small sizes of the background sources. Aims. We aim to resolve and investigate the spatial structure of molecular clouds...
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The diffuse and translucent molecular clouds traced in absorption along the line of sight to strong background sources have so far been investigated mainly in the spectral domain because of limited angular resolution or small sizes of the background sources. We aim to resolve and investigate the spatial structure of molecular clouds traced by sever...
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Cyanamide is one of the few interstellar molecules containing two chemically different N atoms. It was detected recently toward the solar-type protostar IRAS 16293-2422 B together with H$_2$N$^{13}$CN and HDNCN in the course of the Atacama Large Millemeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) Protostellar Interferometric Line Survey (PILS). The detection of...
Article
Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in star formation regions. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Because the temperatures in star formation regions are low, these isotopol...
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Studies of deuterated isotopologues of complex organic molecules can provide important constraints on their origin in regions of star formation. In particular, the abundances of deuterated species are very sensitive to the physical conditions in the environment where they form. Due to the low temperatures in regions of star formation, these isotopo...
Article
We present high-resolution rotational spectroscopy of the two higher energy conformers of 2-cyanobutane (C 4 H 9 CN). We analysed spectra starting from 12 to 27 GHz using the Cologne chirped-pulse (CP) Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, which we discuss for the first time. Spectra between 36 and 402 GHz were also recorded by means of frequen...
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This paper presents a systematic survey of the deuterated and 13C isotopologues of a variety of oxygen-bearing complex organic molecules on Solar System scales toward the protostar IRAS 16293-2422B. We use the data from an unbiased molecular line survey between 329 and 363 GHz from the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). The observ...
Article
Context. Hydroxylamine (NH 2 OH) and methylamine (CH 3 NH 2 ) have both been suggested as precursors to the formation of amino acids and are therefore, of interest to prebiotic chemistry. Their presence in interstellar space and formation mechanisms, however, are not well established. Aims. We aim to detect both amines and their potential precursor...
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Hydroxylamine (NH$_{2}$OH) and methylamine (CH$_{3}$NH$_{2}$) have both been suggested as precursors to the formation of amino acids and are therefore of interest to prebiotic chemistry. Their presence in interstellar space and formation mechanisms, however, are not well established. We aim to detect both amines and their potential precursor molecu...
Article
Context. Methyl isocyanide (CH 3 NC) is the isocyanide with the largest number of atoms confirmed in the interstellar medium (ISM), but it is not an abundant molecule, having only been detected towards a handful of objects. Conversely, its isomer, methyl cyanide (CH 3 CN), is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules detected in the ISM, w...
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Methyl isocyanide (CH$_3$NC) is the isocyanide with the largest number of atoms confirmed in the interstellar medium (ISM), but it is not an abundant molecule, having only been detected towards a handful of objects. Conversely, its isomer, methyl cyanide (CH$_3$CN), is one of the most abundant complex organic molecules detected in the ISM, with det...
Article
Context . Complex organic molecules are readily detected in the inner regions of the gaseous envelopes of forming protostars. Their detection is crucial to understanding the chemical evolution of the Universe and exploring the link between the early stages of star formation and the formation of solar system bodies, where complex organic molecules h...