H King's research while affiliated with World Health Organization WHO and other places

Publications (51)

Article
To determine the prevalence of diabetes and impaired fasting glycaemia (IFG) and associated conditions such as obesity and hypertension, in the multi-ethnic, adult population of the United Arab Emirates in 1999-2000. A stratified, multistage, random sample was selected. Diagnosis was based on the latest recommendations of a WHO Expert Group. The ov...
Article
Prevalence of glucose intolerance-diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)-and of related conditions such as obesity and hypertension, was studied in six population samples in Mongolia in 1999. Diagnosis of glucose intolerance was made on the basis of 2-h blood glucose concentration, according to criteria recommended by the latest report of a...
Article
Surveys of noncommunicable diseases were performed in six communities in Papua New Guinea during 1985-1986. Results are reported here with respect to blood pressure and associated factors in adults. Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were lowest, and hypertension was rarest (less than 2%), in three rural/semirural villages on Karkar Island...
Article
Since 1988, the World Health Organization has been collecting standardized information on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance in adult communities worldwide. Within the age range 30 to 64 years, diabetes and impaired glucose tolerance were found to be absent or rare in some traditional communities in Melanesia, East A...
Article
To assemble standardized estimates of abnormal glucose tolerance in adults in diverse communities worldwide and provide guidelines for the derivation of comparable estimates in future epidemiological studies. The project was limited to population-based investigations that had used current WHO criteria for diagnosis and classification of abnormal gl...
Article
Dietary intake surveys of rural and urban communities in three Pacific Island countries were conducted using an adjusted 24-hour dietary recall method. Dietary survey samples were drawn from noncommunicable disease surveys of Melanesians and Indians in Fiji, Micronesians in Kiribati and Melanesians in Vanuatu. Comparisons of total energy and macron...
Article
We have carried out a comparison of the incidence of childhood onset insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) between five populations around the Baltic Sea. These were Finland, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania and Poland. The risk of IDDM is highest in the world in Finland and also very high in Sweden, on the western and northern side of the Baltic Se...
Article
During a survey of noncommunicable disease conducted on Karkar Island, Madang Province in 1986, measures of thyroid function were examined in adult residents of a formerly goitrous village (Gamog) and a neighbouring community (Marup) with no history of iodine deficiency or endemic goitre. In Gamog, almost 20% of males and almost 30% of females had...
Article
To study the relationship between the prevalence of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM) across populations of the Pacific Ocean region to assess whether variability in those two proportions followed some predictable pattern related to modernization of life-style and risk factor levels. Prevalence est...
Article
Epidemiological studies in Pacific populations have suggested a relationship between glucose tolerance and proportional Austronesian genetic admixture, with non-Austronesian Melanesians relatively free of glucose intolerance. However, a survey conducted in 1985 demonstrated the apparent emergence of glucose intolerance in a peri-urban non-Austrones...
Article
Since 1988, WHO has been collecting standardized information on the prevalence of diabetes mellitus and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) in adult communities worldwide. Within the age range 30-64 years, diabetes and IGT were found to be absent or rare in some traditional communities in Melanesia, East Africa and South America. In communities of Eur...
Article
The Tasmanian Insulin-treated Diabetes Register recruited 1233 eligible (treatment with insulin on May 1, 1984) subjects with insulin-treated diabetes, which enabled the description of a population-based profile of clinical characteristics. Approximately one-third of both the male and female subjects who were recruited was considered to have insuli...
Article
Assessment of individual modernity has considerable implications for the prevention of non-communicable disease in high-risk populations experiencing rapid modernization. A scoring system for the classification of the relative modernity of individuals in Melanesian society is described. The score consisted of eight components relating to area of or...
Article
Full-text available
Path analysis of family resemblance for plasma glucose concentration, 2 h after an oral glucose challenge, failed to detect significant genetic heritability. There were no intergenerational differences and marital resemblance was moderate. Over one-third of sibling environmental similarity was due to non-inherited factors. Cultural inheritance was...
Article
Electrocardiograms were performed on 427 Melanesian and 391 Indian males aged 30-69 years surveyed in 1980. The age-adjusted prevalence of abnormalities in Minnesota coding suggesting coronary arterial disease was: Indians - 17.1%, Melanesians - 9.1%. This difference was significant at P less than 0.001. For the Melanesians body mass index, plasma...
Article
A population survey in 1982 confirmed that Nauruan adults suffer from an extremely high prevalence (24%) of non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. A follow-up study of the survey subjects was conducted in 1986. The aim was to assess the burden of diabetes to Nauruans in terms of premature mortality. Age-adjusted mortality rates for diabetic subje...
Article
Plasma uric acid was investigated in a population survey on diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors among Melanesians and Asian Indians in Fiji in 1980. Plasma uric acid levels were elevated in men and women with impaired glucose tolerance in both ethnic groups. The lowest plasma uric acid levels were found in diabetic patients, especially in diab...
Article
The results of a cross-sectional study of Type 1 (insulin-dependent) diabetes in the total population of Tasmania are described. Tasmanians, predominantly of British origin, live in a temperate island situated to the south-east of mainland Australia. For males and females respectively, prevalence in 1984 was 1.1 +/- 0.1 and 0.9 +/- 0.1 per 1,000 at...
Article
The revision of the classification of diabetes mellitus, to differentiate clearly between insulin-dependent (IDDM) and non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), and the provision of unambiguous guidelines for diagnosis (1) constitute important recent developments in diabetes epidemiology. However, our knowledge even of the prevalence of NIDD...
Article
The results of this international collaboration emphasize the importance of population-based incidence registries which, similarly to cancer research, became an indispensable tool in etiological investigation and health-delivery planning in the area of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Future collaboration within the DERI project will hel...
Article
We report a cross-sectional study of impaired glucose tolerance conducted on data collected during the Fiji Cardiovascular and Metabolic Disease Survey, which was performed in 1980. Both Melanesian Fijians and migrants from the Indian subcontinent were studied. Impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes were defined according to current WHO criteria....
Article
A comparison of 148 newly diagnosed (‘incident’) and 202 previously diagnosed (‘prevalent’) Nauruan diabetics, examined during a population survey in 1982, has permitted cautious inference regarding the natural history of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in this Micronesian population. As might be expected the results of the comparison do sug...
Article
Full-text available
The results of a population survey of blood pressure in the adult residents of two highland villages in the Asaro Valley, Papua New Guinea are reported. The survey was conducted in 1983 as part of a wider epidemiological investigation of non-communicable disease in Papua New Guinea. Response to the survey was 95%, and 308 subjects were examined. Po...
Article
Refinement of the classification of diabetes mellitus to include two major categories, insulin dependent (IDDM) and noninsulin-dependent (NIDDM) and the recent attention paid to the standardization of epidemiological techniques have led to much new information on the epidemiology of the disease. Support for the notion of genetic influence in the de...
Article
Subjects with impaired glucose tolerance have been shown to have a higher risk for subsequent diabetes and increased susceptibility to atherosclerosis. Data obtained from a cross-sectional medical survey in Kiribati in 1981 have been studied for evidence as to whether impaired glucose tolerance is a truly separate category of glucose intolerance. S...
Article
Two urbanized Micronesian populations were recently studied by population-based diabetes surveys. These were Nauruans living on the island of Nauru, and Gilbertese resident on the islet of Betio, in the Republic of Kiribati (1982 and 1981, respectively). Nauruans are known to suffer from a very high prevalence of non-insulin-dependent (type II) dia...
Article
A population-based survey of 2938 subjects has demonstrated a high prevalence of non-insulin-dependent diabetes (NIDDM) in the Micronesian population of Kiribati (formerly the Gilbert Islands). This finding provides further support for evidence from Nauru, Guam, and the Marshall Islands that Micronesians are particularly susceptible to NIDDM. The a...
Article
Fasting serum C-peptide immunoreactivity was determined on Nauruans, a Micronesian population with a high prevalence of diabetes. In Micronesian subjects neither age nor gender had a significant effect on fasting serum C-peptide. In non-diabetic subjects, as has been shown previously for Caucasiod subjects, both obesity and fasting plasma glucose l...
Article
Full-text available
A diabetes survey was conducted in the highlands of Papua New Guinea in June 1983. Two villages in the Asaro Valley, Eastern Highlands Province, were selected for study. The subjects were of Melanesian ancestry, and were free of Austronesian genetic admixture. The response rate was 95% and 308 subjects were examined. As defined by current WHO crite...
Article
A population survey in 1982 has confirmed that Nauruan adults suffer from an extremely high prevalence of Type 2 (noninsulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus. The crude population prevalence of Type 2 diabetes was 24%. Abnormal glucose tolerance (impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes) was present in over 40% of the adult population and exceeded 80% i...
Article
A longitudinal study of 266 randomly selected non-diabetic Nauruans (215 normal subjects, 51 with impaired glucose tolerance) has permitted the natural history of impaired glucose tolerance to be studied in this Micronesian population. Nauruans are known to suffer from a very high prevalence of abnormal glucose tolerance. The subjects were first ex...
Article
A recent epidemiological survey of the whole adult Micronesian population of Nauru has confirmed that Nauruans, along with Pima Indians, suffer the highest rate of abnormal glucose tolerance yet recorded. To establish the morbid effects of hyperglycaemia in this population, all responders to the diabetes survey were concurrently examined for diabet...
Article
Population-based data on 1,842 subjects from six semitraditional Pacific communities, collected in the years 1978-1983, have been compared in order to examine the hypotheses that differences in the distribution of plasma glucose concentration between populations are to some extent genetically determined, and that non-Austronesian (NAN) Melanesians...
Article
Most epidemiological studies of diabetic retinopathy have been based on clinic populations. This produces a bias for the more severe cases and later stages of the disease. To avoid this bias, 1567 Micronesian adults of Nauru (82% of total adult population) were examined. Diabetic retinopathy was classified by both the World Health Organization (WHO...

Citations

... Les données, recueillies durant 3 mois à partir des dossiers médicaux et administratifs de ces travailleurs au niveau de la base de vie, sont : forte prévalence de ce type de diabète dans les communautés des pays en voie de développement et dans les minorités ethniques des pays industrialisés [10]. En Algérie, le diabète est de la deuxième maladie chronique après l'hypertension artérielle (HTA). ...
... The prevalence of diabetes in the US adult population increased by 33% in the last decade. The increase in diabetes prevalence in individuals aged 30-39 years in the same period was more than double that (70%) and is evidenced by an increased prevalence of pre-existing diabetes and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) amongst reproductiveaged (20-39 years) women (10)(11)(12). GDM is characterized by hyperglycemia first arising in late pregnancy. It is ascribed to placental hormones that oppose insulin action and occur when the hormones reach sufficient levels to increase maternal insulin resistance (IR) from 24 weeks gestation onwards. ...
... Environmental factors likely account for the low concordance rate for T1D among monozygotic twins (30%) [45][46][47]. Similarly, the geographic distribution underscores the importance of the environment [3,48,49]. The multifactorial etiopathogenesis is also evident in the spontaneous diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse and the bio breeding (BB) rat employed over the past three decades. ...
... Type I or insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (100M) is a world-wide auto-immune disease concerning millions of people (1). At the present time, the demand is for a treatment capable of eradicating 100M. ...
... Previous population studies of BP in Samoa dating back to the 1970s have identified an association between increasing age and increases in mean BP and hypertension prevalence in both sexes [20]. Increased BP with increasing age has also been found in other Pacific Islands, including Fiji [25], Tonga [26], and American Samoa [27,28] and elsewhere, including Australia [29]. However, some previous studies of least modernised populations indicate no significant increase in BP with age in the Pacific, including the northern Cook Islands (Pukapuka) [30], Tokelau [31], and Wallis Island [32], and elsewhere, including Brazil and Kenya [33], highlighting that increased BP is not an inevitable consequence of ageing. ...
... The occurrence of Diabetes Mellitus (DM) is increasing sharply worldwide. Study shows that there will be 360 million more cases of DM till 2030 [1]. DM causes severe damage to human physiology including degradation of bones, nerves and other vital organs. ...
... It is one of the top five diseases and fatalities causes in the world [25]. According to a report, there are 246 million diabetics worldwide, with about 80% living in poor nations [26]. Despite the fact that diabetes is typically not included as a cause of death, it is estimated that globally in 2000, it was the fifth biggest cause of death, trailing only infectious diseases, cardiovascular disease, cancer and traumas [26]. ...
... Some aspects of a more traditional way of life in the remote mountain village Gamog may be repeated in short: In Gamog there are no electricity, no cars, no asphalt streets, no chemicals, almost no use of industrially produced foods, and less influence of Western medicine. The geographical and partial social isolation of the mountain village Gamog and the retention of traditional gardening practices has already been described by King et al. 21 The significantly increased number of mountain villagers keeping pets can also be regarded as an indicator of a traditional lifestyle. Considering all lifestyle variables, differences between villages were most striking in the field of infections: the number of dermatophyte infections, worm infestations, and severe respiratory tract infections were significantly higher in the mountain village compared to those in the coastal villages. ...
... It has been suggested that a Westernized diet is likely driving obesity in low-and middle-income settings. This appears to be the case in Papua New Guinea (PNG) and other Pacific Island countries (Taylor et al. 1992;Hodge et al. 1994;Keke et al. 2007). For instance, a higher proportion of Tongan adults living in urban areas displayed higher BMIs than those living in rural areas (Koike et al. 1984;Murayama et al. 2010). ...
... In contrast, only one third of incidence is observed in the Baltic population [11](e.g. Estonia) [12] despite the ethnical similarity with Finland´s population, this being indicative of environmental factors playing an important role [8]. ...