Gustav Nilsonne's research while affiliated with University of Gothenburg and other places

Publications (158)

Article
Using random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM), researchers have concluded that within-individual need for cognition (WI-NFC) negatively affects subsequent within-individual anxiety and depression symptoms (WI-ADS). However, RI-CLPM may be susceptible to spurious results due to regression to the mean. We investigated the risk of spuriou...
Article
Full-text available
Clinical translation from bench to bedside often remains challenging even despite promising preclinical evidence. Among many drivers like biological complexity or poorly understood disease pathology, preclinical evidence often lacks desired robustness. Reasons include low sample sizes, selective reporting, publication bias, and consequently inflate...
Preprint
The Funding and Finance Committee serves as an advisory board for the PSA’s Director and Associate Directors on all matters related to finance and funding. The Funding and Finance Committee will work with the PSA’s Director and Associate Directors (hereafter “the PSA Board”) to propose and manage the PSA’s annual operating budget, provide guidance...
Preprint
A recent meta-analysis claimed to provide evidence that academic self-concept and achievement have reciprocal prospective effects on each other (reciprocal effects model). However, prospective effects were estimated while adjusting for a prior measurement of the outcome, and this method is susceptible to spurious findings due to correlations with r...
Preprint
Ability tilt refers to a within-individual difference between two abilities, e.g. a difference between math and verbal ability. Coyle and colleagues have demonstrated correlations between ability tilts and measures of the constituent abilities. We have previously pointed out that such measures may be spurious as the tilt is dependent on the constit...
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Background Symptoms related to chronic stress are prevalent and entail high societal costs, yet there is a lack of international consensus regarding diagnostics and treatment. A new stress-related diagnosis, exhaustion disorder, was introduced into the Swedish version of ICD-10 in 2005. Since then, use of the diagnosis has increased rapidly. Aims...
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The COVID-19 pandemic (and its aftermath) highlights a critical need to communicate health information effectively to the global public. Given that subtle differences in information framing can have meaningful effects on behavior, behavioral science research highlights a pressing question: Is it more effective to frame COVID-19 health messages in t...
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Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Background According to the vulnerability model, low self-esteem makes people more depressed. Support for the vulnerability model comes almost exclusively from analyses using cross-lagged panel models, showing a negative effect of initial self-esteem on subsequent depression ratings when adjusting for initial depression. However, it is well known t...
Preprint
Clinical translation from bench to bedside often remains challenging even despite promising preclinical evidence. Among many drivers like biological complexity or poorly understood disease pathology, preclinical evidence often lacks desired robustness. Reasons include low sample sizes, selective reporting, publication bias, and consequently inflate...
Article
Full-text available
This initiative examined systematically the extent to which a large set of archival research findings generalizes across contexts. We repeated the key analyses for 29 original strategic management effects in the same context (direct reproduction) as well as in 52 novel time periods and geographies; 45% of the reproductions returned results matching...
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The relation between religiosity and well-being is one of the most researched topics in the psychology of religion, yet the directionality and robustness of the effect remains debated. Here, we adopted a many-analysts approach to assess the robustness of this relation based on a new cross-cultural dataset (N = 10, 535 participants from 24 countries...
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Significance Communicating in ways that motivate engagement in social distancing remains a critical global public health priority during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study tested motivational qualities of messages about social distancing (those that promoted choice and agency vs. those that were forceful and shaming) in 25,718 people in 89 countries...
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Background Latent change score models are often used to study change over time in observational data. However, latent change score models may be susceptible to regression to the mean. Earlier observational studies have identified a positive association between breastfeeding and child intelligence, even when adjusting for maternal intelligence. Met...
Preprint
Background: Using random-intercept cross-lagged panel models (RI-CLPM), researchers have concluded that within-individual need for cognition (WI-NFC) negatively affects subsequent within-individual anxiety and depression symptoms (WI-ADS). However, RI-CLPM may be susceptible to spurious results due to regression to the mean. We investigated the ris...
Article
Full-text available
The Brain Imaging Data Structure (BIDS) is a specification for organizing, sharing, and archiving neuroimaging data and metadata in a reusable way. First developed for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) datasets, the community-led specification evolved rapidly to include other modalities such as magnetoencephalography, positron emission tomography, a...
Article
It has been claimed that intelligence causes academic achievement to increase over time, and that also, conversely, academic achievement causes intelligence to increase over time. This bidirectional facilitating longitudinal effect between intelligence and academic achievement rests on observed associations between initial intelligence and the chan...
Preprint
According to the vulnerability model, low self-esteem makes people more prone to become depressed. Support for the vulnerability model comes almost exclusive from analyses with cross-lagged panel models, shoving a negative effect of initial self-esteem on subsequent degree of depression when adjusting for initial degree of depression. However, it i...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Symptoms related to chronic stress are prevalent and entail high societal costs, yet there is a lack of international consensus regarding diagnostics and treatment. A new stress-related diagnosis, Exhaustion Disorder (ED), was introduced into the Swedish version of ICD-10 in 2005. Since then, use of the diagnosis has increased rapidly....
Article
Journal editors are the main gatekeepers in scientific publishing. Yet there is a concern that they may receive preferential treatment when submitting manuscripts to their own journals. The prevalence of such self‐publishing is not known, nor the consequences for reliability and trustworthiness of published research. This study aimed to systematica...
Article
Ability tilt refers to a within-individual difference between two abilities (X-Y), e.g. differences between tech and verbal or verbal and math abilities. Studies have found associations between ability tilts and their constituent abilities (X or Y). Here we show that such associations may be spurious due to the non-independence of the two measures....
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Undisclosed discrepancies often exist between study registrations and their associated publications. Discrepancies can increase risk of bias, and when undisclosed, they disguise this increased risk of bias from readers. To remedy this issue, we developed an intervention called discrepancy review . We provided journals with peer reviewers...
Preprint
In a recent article, Zainal and Newman (2022) reported that need for cognition (NFC) predicted anxiety and depression symptoms (ADS) across 10 years in a large (N = 6750) sample of community-dwelling adults, and furthermore that a within-person decrease in NFC was associated with an increase in ADS. Here, we analyze the modeling approaches used in...
Preprint
Latent change score models are often used to study change over time in observational data. However, latent change score models may be susceptible to regression to the mean. In the present study, we investigate regression to the mean in the case of breastfeeding and intelligence of children. Earlier observational studies have identified a positive a...
Article
Full-text available
Objective The present simulation study aimed to assess positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) for our newly introduced Accounting for Expected Adjusted Effect test (AEAE test) and compare it to PPV and NPV for a traditional zero-order significance test. Results The AEAE test exhibited greater PPV compared to a traditio...
Preprint
Journal editors are the main gatekeepers in scientific publishing. Yet there is a concern that they may receive preferential treatment when submitting manuscripts to their own journals. The prevalence of such self-publishing is not known, nor the consequences for reliability and trustworthiness of published research. This study aimed to systematica...
Article
Full-text available
Any large dataset can be analyzed in a number of ways, and it is possible that the use of different analysis strategies will lead to different results and conclusions. One way to assess whether the results obtained depend on the analysis strategy chosen is to employ multiple analysts and leave each of them free to follow their own approach. Here, w...
Preprint
It has been claimed that intelligence causes academic achievement to increase over time, and that also, conversely, academic achievement causes intelligence to increase over time. This bidirectional facilitating longitudinal effect between intelligence and academic achievement rests on observed associations between initial intelligence and the chan...
Article
Full-text available
A major factor underlying several of scholarship's most pressing problems is its antiquated journal system with its trifecta of reproducibility, affordability and functionality crises. Any solution needs to not only solve the current problems but also be capable of preventing a takeover by corporations. Technically, there is broad agreement on the...
Article
Full-text available
Background Cognitive ability and socioeconomic background (SEB) have been previously identified as determinants of achieved level of education. According to a “discrimination hypothesis”, higher cognitive ability is required from those with lower SEB in order to achieve the same level of education as those with higher SEB. Support for this hypothes...
Preprint
Latent change score modelling is a version of structural equation modelling for measuring change between measurements. It seems quite common to regress change on the initial value included in the calculation of the change score (i.e. ΔY (= Y2 – Y1) is regressed on Y1). However, similarly as in simpler regression analyses, this procedure may make fi...
Preprint
Effects of education on intelligence are controversial. Earlier studies of longitudinal data have observed positive associations between level of education and a later measurement of intelligence, when statistically controlling for an earlier measurement of intelligence, and furthermore that this association is stronger among individuals with lower...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
The COVID-19 pandemic has increased negative emotions and decreased positive emotions globally. Left unchecked, these emotional changes might have a wide array of adverse impacts. To reduce negative emotions and increase positive emotions, we tested the effectiveness of reappraisal, an emotion-regulation strategy that modifies how one thinks about...
Article
Full-text available
In this crowdsourced initiative, independent analysts used the same dataset to test two hypotheses regarding the effects of scientists' gender and professional status on verbosity during group meetings. Not only the analytic approach but also the operationalizations of key variables were left unconstrained and up to individual analysts. For instanc...
Preprint
Cognitive ability and socioeconomic background (SEB) have been previously identified as determinants of achieved level of education. According to a “discrimination hypothesis”, higher cognitive ability is required from those with lower SEB in order to achieve the same level of education as those with higher SEB. Support for this hypothesis has been...
Article
Full-text available
The systemic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic require cross-disciplinary collaboration in a global and timely fashion. Such collaboration needs open research practices and the sharing of research outputs, such as data and code, thereby facilitating research and research reproducibility and timely collaboration beyond borders. The Research Data A...
Article
Full-text available
On 16 July 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued their decision in the Schrems II case concerning Facebook’s transfers of personal data from the EU to the US. The decision may have significant effects on the legitimate transfer of personal data for health research purposes from the EU. This article aims: (i) to outline the consequ...
Article
Background: Cognitive reappraisal is a strategy for emotional regulation, important in the context of anxiety disorders. It is not known whether anxiolytic effects of benzodiazepines affect cognitive reappraisal. Aims: We aimed to investigate the effect of 25 mg oxazepam on cognitive reappraisal. Methods: In a preliminary investigation, 33 hea...
Preprint
Full-text available
We present consensus-based guidance for conducting and documenting multi-analyst studies. We discuss why broader adoption of the multi-analyst approach will strengthen the robustness of results and conclusions in empirical sciences.
Article
Neuroimaging and genetics studies have advanced our understanding of the neurobiology of sleep and its disorders. However, individual studies usually have limitations to identifying consistent and reproducible effects, including modest sample sizes, heterogeneous clinical characteristics and varied methodologies. These issues call for a large‐scale...
Article
Full-text available
There is growing awareness across the neuroscience community that the replicability of findings on the relationship between brain activity and cognitive phenomena can be improved by conducting studies with high statistical power that adhere to well-defined and standardized analysis pipelines. Inspired by efforts from the psychological sciences, and...
Article
Full-text available
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design...
Article
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design...
Article
Full-text available
How can we maximize what is learned from a replication study? In the creative destruction approach to replication, the original hypothesis is compared not only to the null hypothesis, but also to predictions derived from multiple alternative theoretical accounts of the phenomenon. To this end, new populations and measures are included in the design...
Preprint
Ability tilt refers to a within-individual difference between two abilities (X-Y), e.g. differences between tech, verbal and math abilities. Studies have found associations between ability tilts and their constituent abilities (X or Y). Here we investigate whether such associations may be spurious due to the non-independence of the two measures. Us...
Article
Full-text available
During wakeful rest, individuals make small eye movements during fixation. We examined how these endogenously-driven oculomotor patterns impact topography and topology of functional brain networks. We used a dataset consisting of eyes-open resting-state (RS) fMRI data with simultaneous eye-tracking (Nilsonne, 2016). The eye-tracking data indicated...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Emotional contagion, empathy, and emotional regulation are hypothesized to be hierarchically organized functions. Aims: This study aimed to investigate associations between responses in tasks investigating these three functions using both neural representations and ratings. Methods: 86 healthy individuals performed tasks investigating e...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction Body Mass Index (BMI) is a composite variable of weight and height, often used as a predictor of health outcomes, including mortality. The main purpose of combining weight and height in one variable is to obtain a measure of obesity independent of height. It is however unclear how accurate BMI is as a predictor of mortality compared to...
Preprint
Full-text available
There is growing awareness across the neuroscience community that the replicability of findings on the relationship between brain activity and cognitive phenomena can be improved by conducting studies with high statistical power that adhere to well-defined and standardised analysis pipelines. Inspired by efforts from the psychological sciences, and...
Article
Full-text available
The systemic challenges of the COVID-19 pandemic require cross-disciplinary collaboration in a global and timely fashion. Such collaboration needs open research practices and the sharing of research outputs, such as data and code, thereby facilitating research and research reproducibility and timely collaboration beyond borders. The Research Data A...
Article
Full-text available
Sleep deprivation is proposed to inhibit top-down-control in emotion processing, but it is unclear whether sleep deprivation affects emotional mimicry and contagion. Here, we aimed to investigate effects of partial sleep deprivation on emotional contagion and mimicry in young and older humans. Participants underwent partial sleep deprivation (3 h s...
Preprint
Adjusting for possible confounders is common in statistical analyses, but the degree to which confounding can be eliminated depends on the reliability of measurement of the confounding variable. We have recently proposed a new test which formally incorporates the reliability of the confounding variable: the Accounting for the Expected Adjusted Effe...
Preprint
Full-text available
On July 16 th, 2020, the Court of Justice of the European Union issued a landmark decision in the case of Data Protection Commissioner v. Facebook Ireland Ltd, Maximillian Schrems (Schrems II) concerning the legality of Facebook's transfers of personal data from the EU to the US. The decision has potentially significant effects on the ability of re...
Article
Full-text available
Understanding the association between autonomic nervous system [ANS] function and brain morphology across the lifespan provides important insights into neurovisceral mechanisms underlying health and disease. Resting state ANS activity, indexed by measures of heart rate [HR] and its variability [HRV] has been associated with brain morphology, partic...
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Full-text available
Data analysis workflows in many scientific domains have become increasingly complex and flexible. Here we assess the effect of this flexibility on the results of functional magnetic resonance imaging by asking 70 independent teams to analyse the same dataset, testing the same 9 ex-ante hypotheses1. The flexibility of analytical approaches is exempl...
Preprint
Full-text available
During wakeful rest, individuals make small eye movements when asked to fixate. We examined how these endogenously-driven oculomotor patterns impact topography and topology of functional brain networks. We used a dataset consisting of eyes-open resting-state (RS) fMRI data with simultaneous eye-tracking (Nilsonne et al., 2016). The eye-tracking dat...
Article
Full-text available
Establishing generalisable humour style profiles promises to have significant value for educational, clinical, and occupational application. However, previous research investigating such profiles has thus far presented inconsistent results. To determine the generalisability and value of humour style profiles, a large and geographically diverse exam...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Subjectively experienced sleepiness is a problem in society, possibly linked with gray matter (GM) volume. Given a different sleep pattern, aging may affect such associations, possibly due to shrinking brain volume. Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the association between subjectively rated sleepiness and...
Preprint
BMI has been used as a predictor of health outcomes, including mortality, in numerous studies. However, in the present study of Swedish male conscripts with follow ups (N = 48,904, 3442 deaths), we show that there are several better ways to use measured weight and height than to calculate BMI when predicting mortality. The most accurate model indic...
Preprint
In a recent article in this journal, Wu et al. presented an EEG-based prediction model for antidepressant treatment response1. Here, we point to limitations in the methods used to define response and to validate the prediction model; specifically that change from baseline Hamilton depression rating scale (HAMD) scores needs to take into account the...
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Full-text available
The Community of Open Scholarship Grassroots Networks (COSGN), includes 120 grassroots networks, representing virtually every region of the world and every research discipline. These networks communicate and coordinate on topics of common interest. We propose, using an NSF 19-501 Full-Scale implementation grant, to formalize governance and coordina...