# Gregory Soyez's research while affiliated with Université Paris-Saclay and other places

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## Publications (162)

A bstract
We formulate PanScales parton showers for hadron collisions so as to achieve next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy across a broad set of observables. We do so specifically for colour singlet production. Relative to the existing PanScales final-state showers, the main new question is that of how to redistribute momentum imbalances fro...

A bstract
We carry out extensive tests of the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy of the PanScales parton showers, as introduced recently for colour-singlet production in hadron collisions. The tests include comparisons to (semi-)analytic NLL calculations of a wide range of hadron-collider observables: the colour-singlet boson transverse mom...

A bstract
We revisit the calculation of the average jet multiplicity in high-energy collisions. First, we introduce a new definition of (sub)jet multiplicity based on Lund declusterings obtained using the Cambridge jet algorithm. We develop a new systematic resummation approach. This allows us to compute both the Lund and the Cambridge average mult...

A bstract
Discriminating quark and gluon jets is a long-standing topic in collider phenomenology. In this paper, we address this question using the Lund jet plane substructure technique introduced in recent years. We present two complementary approaches: one where the quark/gluon likelihood ratio is computed analytically, to single-logarithmic accu...

We carry out extensive tests of the next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy of the PanScales parton showers, as introduced recently for colour-singlet production in hadron collisions. The tests include comparisons to (semi-)analytic NLL calculations of a wide range of hadron-collider observables: the colour-singlet boson transverse momentum dist...

We revisit the calculation of the average jet multiplicity in high-energy collisions. First, we introduce a new definition of (sub)jet multiplicity based on Lund declusterings obtained using the Cambridge jet algorithm. We develop a new systematic resummation approach. This allows us to compute both the Lund and the Cambridge average multiplicities...

We formulate PanScales parton showers for hadron collisions so as to achieve next-to-leading logarithmic (NLL) accuracy across a broad set of observables. We do so specifically for colour singlet production. Relative to the existing PanScales final-state showers, the main new question is that of how to redistribute momentum imbalances from initial-...

We provide an overview of the status of Monte-Carlo event generators for high-energy particle physics. Guided by the experimental needs and requirements, we highlight areas of active development, and opportunities for future improvements. Particular emphasis is given to physics models and algorithms that are employed across a variety of experiments...

This document provides a comprehensive summary of the state-of-the-art, challenges, and prospects in the experimental and theoretical study of the strong coupling $\alpha_s$. The current status of the seven methods presently used to determine $\alpha_s$ based on: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) hadronic $\tau$ decays, (iii) deep-inelastic scattering and part...

A bstract
We compute resummed and matched predictions for jet angularities in hadronic dijet and Z +jet events with and without grooming the candidate jets using the SoftDrop technique. Our theoretical predictions also account for non-perturbative corrections from the underlying event and hadronisation through parton-to-hadron level transfer matric...

We compute resummed and matched predictions for jet angularities in hadronic dijet and Z+jet events with and without grooming the candidate jets using the SoftDrop technique. Our theoretical predictions also account for non-perturbative corrections from the underlying event and hadronisation through parton-to-hadron level transfer matrices extracte...

Discriminating quark and gluon jets is a long-standing topic in collider phenomenology. In this paper, we address this question using the Lund jet plane substructure technique introduced in recent years. We present two complementary approaches: one where the quark/gluon likelihood ratio is computed analytically, to single-logarithmic accuracy, in p...

A bstract
We present a phenomenological study of angularities measured on the highest transverse-momentum jet in LHC events that feature the associate production of a Z boson and one or more jets. In particular, we study angularity distributions that are measured on jets with and without the SoftDrop grooming procedure. We begin our analysis exploi...

We present a phenomenological study of angularities measured on the highest transverse-momentum jet in LHC events that feature the associate production of a $Z$ boson and one or more jets. In particular, we study angularity distributions that are measured on jets with and without the SoftDrop grooming procedure. We begin our analysis exploiting sta...

A bstract
In a series of previous papers, we have presented a new approach, based on perturbative QCD, for the evolution of a jet in a dense quark-gluon plasma. In the original formulation, the plasma was assumed to be homogeneous and static. In this work, we extend our description and its Monte Carlo implementation to a plasma obeying Bjorken long...

A bstract
Standard dipole parton showers are known to yield incorrect subleading-colour contributions to the leading (double) logarithmic terms for a variety of observables. In this work, concentrating on final-state showers, we present two simple, computationally efficient prescriptions to correct this problem, exploiting a Lund-diagram type class...

When computed to next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation for the high-energy evolution of the dipole-hadron scattering appears to be unstable. We show that this instability can be avoided by using the rapidity of the dense hadronic target (instead of that of the dilute dipole projectile) as the evo...

Using a pQCD picture for jet evolution in a dense QCD medium, in which medium-induced parton branchings are factorized from vacuum-like emissions, we study two jet substructure observables: the zg and the Soft Drop multiplicity distributions. We compute the respective nuclear modification factors using a Monte-Carlo implementation of the parton sho...

In a series of previous papers, we have presented a new approach, based on perturbative QCD, for the evolution of a jet in a dense quark-gluon plasma. In the original formulation, the plasma was assumed to be homogeneous and static. In this work, we extend our description and its Monte Carlo implementation to a plasma obeying Bjorken longitudinal e...

Standard dipole parton showers are known to yield incorrect subleading-colour contributions to the leading (double) logarithmic terms for a variety of observables. In this work, concentrating on final-state showers, we present two simple, computationally efficient prescriptions to correct this problem, exploiting a Lund-diagram type classification...

A bstract
Using a recently-developed perturbative-QCD approach for jet evolution in a dense quark-gluon plasma, we study the nuclear modification factor for the jet fragmentation function. The qualitative behaviour that we find is in agreement with the respective experimental observations in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC: a pronounced nuclear enhance...

A bstract
The Lund-jet plane has recently been proposed as a powerful jet substructure tool with a broad range of applications. In this paper, we provide an all-order single logarithmic calculation of the primary Lund-plane density in Quantum Chromodynamics, including contributions from the running of the coupling, collinear effects for the leading...

We study the fragmentation function of jets propagating through a dense quark-gluon plasma within perturbative QCD. Our results for its nuclear modification factor are in qualitative agreement with the experimental data in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC. In particular, we reproduce the enhancements seen in the data at both relatively soft and relative...

A bstract
The past few years have seen a rapid development of machine-learning algorithms. While surely augmenting performance, these complex tools are often treated as black-boxes and may impair our understanding of the physical processes under study. The aim of this paper is to move a first step into the direction of applying expert-knowledge in...

Parton showers are among the most widely used tools in collider physics. Despite their key importance, none so far have been able to demonstrate accuracy beyond a basic level known as leading logarithmic order, with ensuing limitations across a broad spectrum of physics applications. In this Letter, we propose criteria for showers to be considered...

The Lund-jet plane has recently been proposed as a powerful jet substructure tool with a broad range of applications. In this paper, we provide an all-order single logarithmic calculation of the primary Lund-plane density in Quantum Chromodynamics, including contributions from the running of the coupling, collinear effects for the leading parton, a...

The past few years have seen a rapid development of machine-learning algorithms. While surely augmenting performance, these complex tools are often treated as black-boxes and may impair our understanding of the physical processes under study. The aim of this paper is to move a first step into the direction of applying expert-knowledge in particle p...

Using a recently-developed perturbative-QCD approach for jet evolution in a dense quark-gluon plasma, we study the nuclear modification factor for the jet fragmentation function. The qualitative behaviour that we find is in agreement with the respective experimental observations in Pb+Pb collisions at the LHC: a pronounced nuclear enhancement at bo...

This Report summarizes the proceedings of the 2019 Les Houches workshop on Physics at TeV Colliders. Session 1 dealt with (I) new developments for high precision Standard Model calculations, (II) the sensitivity of parton distribution functions to the experimental inputs, (III) new developments in jet substructure techniques and a detailed examinat...

Parton showers are among the most widely used tools in collider physics. Despite their key importance, none so far has been able to demonstrate accuracy beyond a basic level known as leading logarithmic (LL) order, with ensuing limitations across a broad spectrum of physics applications. In this letter, we propose criteria for showers to be conside...

Within the framework of the dipole factorisation, we use a recent collinearly-improved version of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation to fit the HERA data for inclusive deep inelastic scattering at small Bjorken x. The equation includes an all-order resummation of double and single transverse logarithms and running coupling corrections. Compared to sim...

Using a pQCD picture for jet evolution in a dense QCD medium, in which medium-induced parton branchings are factorized from vacuum-like emissions, we study two jet substructure observables: the $z_g$ and the Soft Drop multiplicity distributions. We compute the respective nuclear modification factors using a Monte-Carlo implementation of the parton...

When computed to next-to-leading order in perturbative QCD, the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation for the high-energy evolution of the dipole-hadron scattering appears to be unstable. We show that this instability can be avoided by using the rapidity of the dense hadronic target (instead of that of the dilute dipole projectile) as the evo...

Within the framework of the dipole factorisation, we use a recent collinearly-improved version of the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation to fit the HERA data for inclusive deep inelastic scattering at small Bjorken $x$. The equation includes an all-order resummation of double and single transverse logarithms and running coupling corrections. Compared to s...

We investigate some well-known problematic aspects of the single-jet inclusive cross section, specifically its nonunitarity and the possibly related issue of apparent perturbative instability at low orders. We study and clarify their origin by introducing possible alternative weighted definitions of the observable which restore unitarity. We show t...

A bstract
Soft drop has been shown to reduce hadronisation effects at e ⁺ e − colliders for the thrust event shape. In this context, we perform fits of the strong coupling constant for the soft-drop thrust distribution at NLO+NLL accuracy to pseudo data generated by the Sherpa event generator. In particular, we focus on the impact of hadronisation...

A bstract
Within perturbative QCD, we develop a new picture for the parton shower generated by a jet propagating through a dense quark-gluon plasma. This picture combines in a simple, factorised, way multiple medium-induced parton branchings and standard vacuum-like emissions, with the phase-space for the latter constrained by the presence of the m...

Within perturbative QCD, we develop a new picture for the parton shower generated by a jet propagating through a dense quark-gluon plasma. This picture combines in a simple, factorised, way multiple medium-induced parton branchings and standard vacuum-like emissions, with the phase-space for the latter constrained by the presence of the medium. We...

We investigate some well-known problematic aspects of the single-jet inclusive cross-section, specifically its non-unitarity and the possibly related issue of apparent perturbative instability at low orders. We study and clarify their origin by introducing possible alternative weighted definitions of the observable which restore unitarity. We show...

Soft drop has been shown to reduce hadronisation effects at $e^+e^-$ colliders for the thrust event shape. In this context, we perform fits of the strong coupling constant for the soft-drop thrust distribution at NLO+NLL accuracy to pseudo data generated by the \textsf{Sherpa}~event generator. In particular, we focus on the impact of hadronisation...

Two-prong taggers aim at discriminating massive objects that decay into two hard QCD partons (usually quarks), from the background of QCD jets. This signal is often an electroweak boson (H/W/Z) but it can also be a new particle (see Chap. 10 for examples). Our goal in this chapter is two-folded and it closely follows what was done in the previous c...

This Chapter provides a broad introduction to the topic known as jet substructure in the context of today’s collider experiments and particle physics in general. We describe the contents and goals of this book.

Since both jets and their substructure are deeply rooted in Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD), the fundamental theory of strong interactions, we give a brief introduction to QCD in the context of collider experiments. Since QCD is a vast field, we focus here on the introductory aspects which are directly relevant for the purpose of this book.

In this chapter we will revisit the calculations performed in Chap. 4 and extend them in order to describe jet mass distributions with grooming algorithms. In what follows, we are not going to present state-of-the art theoretical calculations, but instead we aim to keep the our discussion as simple as possible. Therefore, the theoretical accuracy o...

This chapter is dedicated to the specific applications of substructure techniques to discriminate quark-initiated jets from gluon-initiated jets. We begin with a brief discussion on how to tentatively define quark- and gluon-initiated jets. We then concentrate on two broad classes of observables: (i) shape observables like angularities or energy-co...

In this chapter, we give a brief overview of existing experimental performance studies, as well as measurements and searches performed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations using jet substructure techniques. Our goal is not to provide a comprehensive discussion of all searches and measurements performed by LHC experiments, but rather to select and sh...

Since many facets and applications of jet substructure have been covered in this book, it is useless to try and summarise them all individually. Instead, in this concluding chapter, we will briefly summarise the main lessons we have learned from about a decade of jet substructure studies and from the aspects covered in this book.

In this chapter we genuinely start to discuss jet substructure per se. We begin with a generic description of the physics concepts which are at the foundation of jet substructure techniques. We then discuss ideas on how to assess the performance of these tools, including their sheer discriminating power as well as their resilience against non-pertu...

In this Chapter we go back to the SoftDrop algorithm and we study two variables deeply connected to it: the angular separation of the two subjets that pass SoftDrop and their momentum sharing. We find that while the former can be described using the all-order techniques described so far, the latter one cannot be. It instead exhibits peculiar featur...

One of our main goal in this book is to connect the phenomenology of jet substructure to analytic calculations in QCD. This Chapter studies an important example: the jet mass distribution. This simple and typical property of a jet allows us to discuss the need for all-order calculations in the boosted regime and to introduce resummation techniques...

There is no jet substructure without jets. Jets are ubiquitous objects in collider physics, which have been used for 40 years. This Chapter discusses the concept jets as collimated sprays of particles (or flows of energy). It also introduces the algorithms which are used for their practical definitions, basic experimental aspects and the software i...

A bstract
The standard formulation of the high-energy evolution in perturbative QCD, based on the Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, is known to suffer from severe instabilities associated with radiative corrections enhanced by double transverse logarithms, which occur in all orders starting with the next-to-leading one. Over the last years, several meth...

The next-to-leading order (NLO) Balitsky-Kovchegov (BK) equation describing the high-energy evolution of the scattering between a dilute projectile and a dense target suffers from instabilities unless it is supplemented by a proper resummation of the radiative corrections enhanced by (anti-)collinear logarithms. Earlier studies have shown that if o...

Monte Carlo event generators (MCEGs) are the indispensable workhorses of particle physics, bridging the gap between theoretical ideas and first-principles calculations on the one hand, and the complex detector signatures and data of the experimental community on the other hand. All collider physics experiments are dependent on simulated events by M...

We study the fragmentation of a jet propagating in a dense quark-gluon plasma. We show that the “vacuum-like” emissions triggered by the parton virtualities can be factorized from the medium-induced radiation responsible for the energy loss within a controlled, “double-logarithmic”, approximation in perturbative QCD. We show that the collisions wit...

We study a puzzle raised recently regarding the running coupling prescription used in the calculation of forward particle production in proton-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order: using a coordinate space prescription which is consistent with the one used in the high energy evolution of the target leads to results which can be two orders of...

The study of the internal structure of hadronic jets has become in recent years a very active area of research in particle physics. Jet substructure techniques are increasingly used in experimental analyses by the LHC collaborations, both in the context of searching for new physics and for Standard Model measurements. On the theory side, the quest...

This concise primer reviews the latest developments in the field of jets. Jets are collinear sprays of hadrons produced in very high-energy collisions, e.g. at the LHC or at a future hadron collider. They are essential to and ubiquitous in experimental analyses, making their study crucial.
At present LHC energies and beyond, massive particles aroun...

A main difficulty in understanding the dynamics of jets produced in the high-density environment of ultrarelativistic heavy ion collision, is to provide a unified description for the two sources of radiation that are a priori expected: the "vacuum-like" emissions responsible for the parton shower from large virtualities down to the hadronisation sc...

A bstract
Jet substructure tools have proven useful in a number of high-energy particle-physics studies. A particular case is the discrimination, or tagging, between a boosted jet originated from an electroweak boson (signal), and a standard QCD parton (background). A common way to achieve this is to cut on a measure of the radiation inside the jet...

A bstract
Lund diagrams, a theoretical representation of the phase space within jets, have long been used in discussing parton showers and resummations. We point out that they can be created for individual jets through repeated Cambridge/Aachen declustering, providing a powerful visual representation of the radiation within any given jet. Concentra...

We study the fragmentation of a jet propagating in a dense quark-gluon plasma. Using a leading, double-logarithmic approximation in perturbative QCD, we compute for the first time the effects of the medium on the vacuum-like emissions. We show that, due to the scatterings off the plasma, the in-medium parton showers differ from the vacuum ones in t...

Jet substructure tools have proven useful in a number of high-energy particle-physics studies. A particular case is the discrimination, or tagging, between a boosted jet originated from an electroweak boson (signal), and a standard QCD parton (background). A common way to achieve this is to cut on a measure of the radiation inside the jet, i.e. a j...

In this paper we study aspects of top tagging from first principles of QCD. We find that the method known as the CMS top tagger becomes collinear unsafe at high pt and propose variants thereof which are IRC safe, and hence suitable for analytical studies, while giving a comparable performance to the CMS tagger. We also develop new techniques to ide...

We study the fragmentation of a jet propagating in a dense quark-gluon plasma. We show that the "vacuum-like" emissions triggered by the parton virtualities can be factorized from the medium-induced radiation responsible for the energy loss within a controlled, "double-logarithmic", approximation in perturbative QCD. We show that the collisions wit...

We study a puzzle raised recently regarding the running coupling prescription used in the calculation of forward particle production in proton-nucleus collisions at next-to-leading order: using a coordinate space prescription which is consistent with the one used in the high energy evolution of the target leads to results which can be two orders of...

In this paper we study aspects of top tagging from first principles of QCD. We find that the method known as the CMS top tagger becomes collinear unsafe at high $p_t$ and propose variants thereof which are IRC safe, and hence suitable for analytical studies, while giving a comparable performance to the CMS tagger. We also develop new techniques to...

Lund diagrams, a theoretical representation of the phase space within jets, have long been used in discussing parton showers and resummations. We point out that they can be created for individual jets through repeated Cambridge/Aachen declustering, providing a powerful visual representation of the radiation within any given jet. Concentrating here...

A bstract
We introduce a new jet substructure technique called Recursive Soft Drop, which generalizes the Soft Drop algorithm to have multiple grooming layers. Like the original Soft Drop method, this new recursive variant traverses a jet clustering tree to remove soft wide-angle contamination. By enforcing the Soft Drop condition N times, Recursiv...

This Report summarizes the proceedings of the 2017 Les Houches workshop on Physics at TeV Colliders. Session 1 dealt with (I) new developments relevant for high precision Standard Model calculations, (II) theoretical uncertainties and dataset dependence of parton distribution functions, (III) new developments in jet substructure techniques, (IV) is...

We study the fragmentation of a jet propagating in a dense quark-gluon plasma. Using a leading, double-logarithmic approximation in perturbative QCD, we compute for the first time the effects of the medium on the vacuum-like emissions. We show that, due to the scatterings off the plasma, the in-medium parton showers differ from the vacuum ones in t...

Given the high luminosities at which CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) operates, multiple proton-proton collisions occur during the same bunch crossing. Hard collisions are therefore contaminated by several soft, zero-bias, ones. This effect, known as pileup pollutes the reconstruction of the final state of the collision. This document is meant to...

We address and solve a puzzle raised by a recent calculation [1] of the cross-section for particle production in proton-nucleus collisions to next-to-leading order: the numerical results show an un- reasonably large dependence upon the choice of a prescription for the QCD running coupling, which spoils the predictive power of the calculation. Speci...

We present a first-principle computation of the mass distribution of jets which have undergone the grooming procedure known as Soft Drop. This calculation includes the resummation of the large logarithms of the jet mass over its transverse momentum, up to next-to-logarithmic accuracy, matched to exact fixed-order results at next-to-leading order. W...

By measuring the substructure of a jet, one can assign it a "quark" or "gluon" tag. In the eikonal (double-logarithmic) limit, quark/gluon discrimination is determined solely by the color factor of the initiating parton (C_F versus C_A). In this paper, we confront the challenges faced when going beyond this leading-order understanding, using both p...

We perform a phenomenological study of the invariant mass distribution of hadronic jets produced in proton-proton collisions, in conjunction a grooming algorithm. In particular, we consider the modified MassDrop Tagger (mMDT), which corresponds to Soft Drop with angular exponent $\beta=0$. Our calculation, which is differential in both jet mass and...

This document collects the proceedings of the "Parton Radiation and Fragmentation from LHC to FCC-ee" workshop (http://indico.cern.ch/e/ee\_jets16) held at CERN in Nov. 2016. The writeup reviews the latest theoretical and experimental developments on parton radiation and parton-hadron fragmentation studies --including analyses of LEP, B-factories,...

N$-subjettiness ratios are in wide use for tagging heavy boosted objects, in particular the ratio of 2-subjettiness to 1-subjettiness for tagging boosted electroweak bosons. In this article we introduce a new, \emph{dichroic} ratio, which uses different regions of a jet to determine the two subjettiness measures, emphasising the hard substructure f...

It has recently been demonstrated with Monte Carlo studies that combining the well-known Y-splitter and trimming techniques gives rise to important gains in the signal significance achievable for boosted electroweak boson tagging at high $p_t$. Here we carry out analytical calculations that explain these findings from first principles of QCD both f...

This Report summarizes the proceedings of the 2015 Les Houches workshop on Physics at TeV Colliders. Session 1 dealt with (I) new developments relevant for high precision Standard Model calculations, (II) the new PDF4LHC parton distributions, (III) issues in the theoretical description of the production of Standard Model Higgs bosons and how to rel...

Following on our earlier work on leading-logarithmic (LLR) resummations for the properties of jets with a small radius, R, we here examine the phenomenological considerations for the inclusive jet spectrum. We discuss how to match the NLO predictions with small-R resummation. As part of the study we propose a new, physically-inspired prescription f...

The high-energy evolution in perturbative QCD suffers from a severe lack-of-convergence problem, due to higher order corrections enhanced by double and single transverse logarithms. We resum double logarithms to all orders within the non-linear Balitsky-Kovchegov equation, by taking into account successive soft gluon emissions strongly ordered in l...

Several boosted jet techniques use jet shape variables to discriminate the
multi-pronged signal from Quantum Chromodynamics backgrounds. In this paper, we
provide a first-principles study of an important class of jet shapes all of
which put a constraint on the subjet mass: the mass-drop parameter ($\mu^2$),
the $N$-subjettiness ratio ($\tau_{21}^{(...