Gregory M. Plunkett's research while affiliated with CUNY Graduate Center and other places

Publications (169)

Article
Plunkett, G.M., T.A. Ranker, C. Sam & M.J. Balick (2022). Towards a checklist of the Vascular Flora of Vanuatu. Candollea 77: 105118. In English, English and French abstracts. Vanuatu is an archipelago in the southwest Pacific that, to date, has no modern checklist of its flora, despite the fact that it sits in the midst of several other archipelag...
Article
Sciodaphyllum montanum Idárraga, Jiménez-Mont. & Lowry and S. undulatum Jiménez-Mont., Idárraga & Lowry (Araliaceae) from the northern region of the Central and Western Cordilleras of the Andes in Colombia are described and illustrated. Sciodaphyllum montanum differs from other members of the genus mainly by a bulging disc up to 1.1 mm in height an...
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Following the recent resurrection of Sciodaphyllum P. Browne (Araliaceae) to accommodate the majority of Neotropical species formerly included in Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst., we have begun to describe the many new members of this genus documented during field and herbarium studies conducted over the past several years. Here we describe and...
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Premise: The carrot family (Apiaceae) comprises 466 genera, which include many well-known crops (e.g., aniseed, caraway, carrots, celery, coriander, cumin, dill, fennel, parsley, and parsnips). Higher-level phylogenetic relationships among subfamilies, tribes, and other major clades of Apiaceae are not fully resolved. This study aims to address th...
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Premise: Speciation not associated with morphological shifts is challenging to detect unless molecular data are employed. Using Sanger-sequencing approaches, the Lomatium packardiae/L. anomalum subcomplex within the larger Lomatium triternatum complex could not be resolved. Therefore, we attempt to resolve these boundaries here. Methods: The Ang...
Article
Hemiepiphytic plants are defined by their ontogeny. They germinate on a host tree but later establish root contact with the soil. Most hemiepiphytes remain structurally dependent on their host for their entire life, but some, often referred to as stranglers, develop pseudotrunks that allow them to outlive their host. Unfortunately, the terminology...
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Until recently, Schefflera was the largest genus in Araliaceae (with more than 600 described species), but with a growing understanding of its polyphyly, the circumscription of Schefflera had to be limited to just eight closely related species from the Pacific Islands. To restore monophyly, it was necessary to transfer the remaining, unrelated spec...
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In the genus Sciodaphyllum (Araliaceae), some species have paniculate inflorescences with globose capitula as their terminal units, in which numerous tightly packed flowers develop into fruits that are appressed to each other. This informal assemblage, referred to as the “globose-capitate group,” currently includes 20 described species. Three new s...
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Fungi provide essential ecosystem services and engage in a variety of symbiotic relationships with trees. In this study, we investigate the spatial relationship of trees and fungi at a community level. We characterized the spatial dynamics for above- and belowground fungi using a series of forest monitoring plots, at nested spatial scales, located...
Article
A new combination, Sciodaphyllum quinquestylorum (Steyerm.) Lowry, G. M. Plunkett & M. M. Mora, is made for a species that was overlooked when Neotropical species previously included in Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Araliaceae) were recently transferred to the resurrected genus Sciodaphyllum P. Browne.
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The phylogenetic position of Rangaeris (Schltr.) Summerh. has been one of the most problematic issues of angraecoid orchid taxonomy. A recently published phylogenetic tree with nearly comprehensive taxon sampling of African angraecoid orchids suggested that this genus was polyphyletic, as its species appear nested within different subclades of the...
Article
The polyphyly of the pantropical genus Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Araliaceae) is now well established, and consequently the genus has had to be restricted to its type (S. digitata J. R. Forst. & G. Forst.) and seven closely related Pacific Island species. Taxonomic transfers of the members of four other, unrelated clades have mostly been...
Preprint
Full-text available
Fungi provide essential ecosystem services and engage in a variety of symbiotic relationships with trees. In this study, we investigate the spatial relationship of trees and fungi at a community level. We characterized the spatial dynamics for above- and belowground fungi using a series of forest monitoring plots, at nested spatial scales, located...
Article
Full-text available
Sciodaphyllum zarucchii M. M. Mora, Lowry, Idárraga, Jiménez-Mont. & G. M. Plunkett (Araliaceae) is described as a new species in honor of James L. Zarucchi (1952–2019). It occurs in humid premontane and montane forests on the western slope of the Cordillera Occidental in the department of Antioquia, Colombia, where it is known from only two locali...
Article
Sciodaphyllum P. Browne (Araliaceae) has recently been resurrected to accommodate the majority of Neotropical species previously included in Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. Recent field and herbarium studies have revealed many distinctive new species of Sciodaphyllum, including three from the eastern slopes of the Andes in central Peru, which a...
Article
Schefflera is the largest and most complex genus of Araliaceae, with ~600 described species (and many additional species awaiting formal description), but recent studies indicate that it is polyphyletic, forming five geographically centered clades spread across the major lineages of the family. Significant progress has been made in revising the thr...
Article
Didymopanax had been recognized for at least a century as the only genus of Araliaceae in the Americas with bicarpellate ovaries, but in recent decades, it had been treated in synonymy under Schefflera, where it has been recognized as an informal group. During this time, several new species belonging to the group were described under Schefflera, bu...
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The pantropical genus Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Araliaceae) was recently found to be polyphyletic, making it necessary to restrict the generic name to a small clade in the southwest Pacific and to transfer the members of the four remaining clades to other genera. Recent studies of the Neotropical clade have shown that it comprises five m...
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Phylogenetic studies have shown that Schefflera, the largest genus of Araliaceae, is highly polyphyletic, comprising five non-sister clades within the family, and that the generic name must be restricted to a small group of Pacific Island species. In an effort to establish monophyletic genera for the other elements still remaining in Schefflera, ph...
Article
Schinus, best known by its few cultivated and invasive species, is the largest genus of Anacardiaceae in southern South America. It is remarkably diverse compared to closely related genera, with approximately 42 species, most of which occur in several arid vegetation types and extend into Andean and Atlantic moist forests. The most comprehensive ta...
Article
A taxonomic revision of the species belonging to the Didymopanax group of Neotropical Schefflera J. R. Forst. & G. Forst. (Araliaceae) is here presented. This monophyletic group is currently recognized only informally, and comprises 37 species mostly restricted to small areas of lowland to mid-elevation tropical regions across Brazil and adjacent s...
Article
Species boundaries have traditionally been delimited by applying phenotypic characters to a morphological species concept. With an increased understanding of the complexities of speciation as a process, species concepts have proliferated while at the same time, the ability to gather greater numbers and types of molecular characters has expanded the...
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Despite significant progress made in recent years toward developing an infrafamilial classification of Orchidaceae, our understanding of relationships among and within tribal and subtribal groups of epidendroid orchids remains incomplete. To reassess generic delimitation among one group of these epidendroids, the African angraecoids, phylogenetic r...
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Recent molecular studies have suggested the monophyly of Bolusiella, a small orchid genus comprising five species and one subspecies from Continental Africa, but sampling has been limited. Using the species delimitation presented in the recent taxonomic revision of the genus, this study aimed to confirm the monophyly of Bolusiella and assess the in...
Chapter
Shrubs to small trees, glabrous and unarmed; schizogenous secretory canals throughout the plant; plants terrestrial, evergreen; stems monocaulous or sparsely to well branched, pachycaulous; mating system andromonoecious (rarely hermaphroditic). Leaves alternate, frequently heteroblastic; petioles sheathing at the base, exstipulate, sometimes alate;...
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Small shrubs to large trees, less commonly lianas or herbs, glabrous or pubescent; mating system hermaphroditic or andromonoecious, rarely dioecious or diphasic; schizogenous secretory canals throughout the plant; plants terrestrial, hemi-epiphytic, or climbing, evergreen or deciduous; stems monocaulous or sparsely to well branched, usually pachyca...
Chapter
Small trees or shrubs, evergreen or deciduous; plants dioecious or hermaphroditic, lacking secretory canals. Leaves spiral and simple; margins often dentate, serrate, crenate to pinnatifid, more rarely entire; leaf venation pinnate or palmate; petioles exstipulate and distinctly sheathing; blades chartaceous to subcoriaceous or somewhat succulent,...
Chapter
Annual, biennial or perennial, monocarpic or polycarpic, caulescent or acaulescent, glabrous or pubescent or glandular-pubescent herbs, rarely suffrutescent or woody subshrubs, shrubs or trees, evergreen or deciduous; with taproots, rhizomes, or unbranched to branched rootstocks, sometimes swollen and tuberiform; with schizogenous secretory canals...
Article
Generic circumscriptions in the mostly pantropical family Simaroubaceae are somewhat controversial. Simaba is the largest genus, currently defined as exclusively neotropical, with around 25 species of trees and shrubs, but both its limits and infrageneric classification have been a matter of discussion and divergence. Traditionally, species of the...
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Molecular and morphological phylogenetic analyses indicate that many of the perennial endemic genera of North American Apiaceae are either polyphyletic or nested within paraphyletic groups. In light of these results, taxonomic changes are needed to ensure that ongoing efforts to prepare state, regional, and continental floristic treatments of Apiac...
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Lowry, P.P., II, G.M. Plunkett, M.R. Gostel & D.G. Frodin (2017). A synopsis of the Afro-Malagasy species previously included in Schefflera (Araliaceae): resurrection of the genera Astropanax and Neocussonia. Candollea 72: 265–282. In English, English abstract. Phylogenetic studies have shown that Schefflera J.R. Forst. & G. Forst., the largest gen...
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Background and introduction – Schefflera is the largest genus in Araliaceae, with approximately 900 species. However, recent studies have shown that Schefflera is polyphyletic, representing no fewer than five distinct clades, each corresponding to a specific geographic region: Asia, continental Africa plus Madagascar, Melanesia, the Neotropics, and...
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Species delimitation within Angraecum section Dolabrifolia is problematic due to morphological variability coupled with overlap in many of the characters traditionally used to distinguish species. Recent molecular phylogenetic studies of the genus included three of the five currently described species of the Dolabrifolia group, placing them as sist...
Article
Phylogenetic analyses of nuclear rDNA spacers (ITS and ETS) from Azorella and five closely related genera confirm earlier plastid results indicating that Azorella, Huanaca, Mulinum, and Schizeilema are all polyphyletic, and that the monotypic genus Laretia is nested within one of the six subclades of Azorella. Only Stilbocarpa is monophyletic, but...
Article
Fruit and trichome structures of Apiaceae subfamily Mackinlayoideae were studied in detail using light microscopy to identify morphological features that might be useful in delimiting this subfamily and to identify structural characters that can be used to define subclades identified by molecular phylogenetic studies (e.g. the Centella and Xanthosi...
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Osmoxylon Miq. (Araliaceae) is revised for Palau, Micronesia including descriptions of two new taxa Osmoxylon leidichii Costion, sp. nov. and Osmoxylon ngardokense Costion, sp. nov. Full descriptions are provided for all four Palau species, along with diagnostic field keys.
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Fruit structure of Apiaceae was studied in 19 species representing the 10 genera of the tribe Heteromorpheae. Our results indicate this group has a woody habit, simple leaves, heteromorphic mericarps with lateral wings. fruits with bottleshaped or bulging epidermal cells which have thickened and cutinized outer wall, regular vittae (one in furrow a...
Data
Supporting evidence for the treatment of Osmoxylon oliveri and Osmoxylon truncatum as one species
Article
This study presents the most complete generic phylogenetic framework to date for the tribe Coleeae (Bignoniaceae), which is endemic to Madagascar and the other smaller islands in the western part of the Indian Ocean. The study is based on plastid and nuclear DNA regions and includes 47 species representing the five currently recognized genera (incl...
Article
Pentziinae are a subtribe of tribe Anthemideae (Asteraceae), comprising seven almost exclusively southern African endemic genera and c. 60 species. Generic delimitations and relationships in the subtribe are explored using parsimony and Bayesian analyses of nuclear (internal transcribed spacer, ITS) and plastid (ndhF, psbA-trnH, trnK-rps16 and rpl3...
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Abstract— Angraecum, the largest genus of the angraecoid orchids, has long been regarded as a natural group possessing a common overall floral morphology, although recent molecular studies have called into question its monophyly. No recent taxonomic revision is available for the genus or its sections, and previous studies (whether based on morpholo...
Article
This study provides an overview of the historical biogeography of the major clades of Apiales based on extensive taxon sampling from all major lineages of the order, and character sampling of sequence data from the plastid rpl16 intron and trnD-trnY-trnE-trnT intergenic spacers. Divergence times were estimated in BEAST using relaxed molecular clock...
Data
Treefile output from BEAST analysis. The FigTree computer program can be used to display the chronogram posterior probabilities, median ages, error bars, age ranges, and other data associated with the BEAST output. FigTree is a free program available for download at http:// tree. bio. ed. ac. uk/ software/ figtree/ .
Data
Output file resulting from the Lagrange analyses under three different models of dispersal. The file includes the geographic area(s) next to each terminal and all possibilities of biogeographic splits at each node (with relative probabilities).
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Background and aims – Recent molecular studies suggest the polyphyly of Angraecum and the unnaturalness of some of its sections, as exemplified by sect. Pectinaria, which has species in two well separated clades, one in Madagascar and the other in continental Africa. However, species delimitation among the five continental African members remained...
Article
Wood anatomy has been investigated from 35 species belonging to the Neotropical clade of the polyphyletic genus Schefflera (Araliaceae), representing three of the five subgroups (Didymopanax, Crepinella and Sciodaphyllum). The species examined are rather uniform in their wood structure, sharing the presence of scalariform and simple perforation pla...
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Phylogenetic studies have demonstrated that Schefflera, the largest genus of Araliaceae, is grossly polyphyletic, comprising five distinct clades within the family. In an effort to establish monophyletic genera among the elements that currently comprise Schefflera, the genus Plerandra is expanded to encompass all of the members of one of these clad...
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Background and aims Fruit structural characters have traditionally been important in the taxonomy of the family Apiaceae. Previous investigations using a limited number of taxa have shown that the carpophore may be especially useful in helping to circumscribe subfamily Azorelloideae. The present study examines, for the first time, carpophore struct...
Article
The taxonomic histories and generic delimitations of the Andean-Subantarctic genera Azorella, Laretia, and Mulinum are among the most complex in Apiaceae subfam. Azorelloideae. To understand the evolutionary underpinnings of this complexity, we reconstructed the phylogenetic and biogeographic relationships of these genera, using for the first time...
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The Pacific species of the polyphyletic genus Schefflera belong to three main clades, of which the Melanesian Schefflera clade is best represented in the archipelagos of New Caledonia, Fiji, Vanuatu, and the Solomon Islands. Previous studies have helped to establish the monophyly of Melanesian Schefflera, but an informal, morphology-based classific...
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From the last quarter of the 19th century, Schefflera has been viewed as the largest and most widely-ranging genus in Araliaceae, with a strong, easily recognised morphological facies. Recent studies have, however, shown the genus to be broadly polyphyletic within Araliaceae, revealing at least five primary lineages associated with morphologically...
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Lowry, P.P, II & Plunkett, G.M.: Recircumscription of Polyscias (Araliaceae) to include six related genera, with a new infrageneric classification and a synopsis of species. — Plant Div. Evol. 128: 55-84. 2010.— ISSN 1869-6155. The genus Polyscias, described more than two centuries ago, has gone through several cycles of ex-pansion and contraction...
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Pollen grains from 43 species of Neotropical Schefflera were studied under light and scanning electron microscopy to search for variation among species and possible agreement with current taxonomic views. The species investigated are characterized mostly by tri-colporate angulaperturate pollen with lalongate endoapertures and a semitectate sexine,...
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Seven Paleotropical genera of Araliaceae have imparipinnate leaves and belong to the single large "Polyscias sensu lato" clade. Current generic circumscriptions, however, fail to reflect the evolutionary history of the group. Building on earlier results, the present study employs an enhanced set of samples and a third molecular marker (nuclear ETS,...
Article
As circumscribed by Drude, the umbellifer subfamily Hydrocotyloideae posed a major hindrance to resolving the phylogeny of order Apiales. Previous studies have suggested its polyphyly, but have not had sufficient sampling to address the issue fully. To put an end to the out-dated concept of Hydrocotyloideae, we investigated the placement of 40 of t...
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The fruit anatomy of 51 species of Apiaceae, representing all 23 genera of the traditional tribe Mulineae (now recognized as Apiaceae subfamily Azorelloideae) and their putative relatives, was studied in detail. Most genera (Asteriscium, Azorella, Bolax, Bowlesia, Dichosciadium, Dickinsia, Diplaspis, Diposis, Domeykoa, Drusa, Eremocharis, Gymnophyt...
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Phylogenetic analyses of ITS sequence data from 70 species and 40 genera of Araliaceae (representing all major lineages within the "core group" of the family) do not support the widely used traditional division of Araliaceae into three tribes. Tribe Aralieae (characterized by imbricate petals) is found nested within a paraphyletic Schefflerieae (wh...
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Four new species of the Didymopanax group of Neotropical Schefflera (Araliaceae) from the Brazilian Amazon are here described and illustrated. Two of these are mainly known from the surroundings of Manaus, Amazonas state (Schefflera ciliatifolia and Schefflera umbrosa). The first is distinguished by its ciliate leaflets, while the second is charact...