Gregor Reid's research while affiliated with Lawson Health Research Institute and other places

Publications (567)

Preprint
Background Oral microbial therapy has been studied as an intervention for a range of gastrointestinal and immunological disorders. Though emerging research suggests microbial exposure may intimately affect the gastrointestinal system, motility, and host immunity in a pediatric population, data has been inconsistent and variable, with the majority o...
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The presence of Bifidobacterium species in the maternal vaginal and fecal microbiota is arguably an evolutionary trait that allows these organisms to be primary colonizers of the newborn intestinal tract. Their ability to utilize human milk oligosaccharides fosters their establishment as core health-promoting organisms throughout life. A reduction...
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Background: Type-2 inflammation commonly marks asthma in childhood. Also, gut and lung dysbiosis is detectable in patients with asthma. Strain-related probiotic supplementation may restore a physiological immune response, dampen airway inflammation, and repair dysbiosis. Therefore, the probiotics in pediatric asthma management (PROPAM) study is ai...
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The conventional viewpoint of single-celled microbial metabolism fails to adequately depict energy flow at the systems level in host-adapted microbial communities. Emerging paradigms instead support that distinct microbiomes develop interconnected and interdependent electron transport chains that rely on cooperative production and sharing of bioene...
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Recent studies suggest histamine and d -lactate may negatively impact host health. As excess histamine is deleterious to the host, the identification of bacterial producers has contributed to concerns over the consumption of probiotics or live microorganisms in fermented food items. Some probiotic products have been suspected of inducing d -lactic-...
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Vaginal malodour is a sign of dysbiosis. The biogenic amines (BAs) cadaverine, putrescine and tyramine are known to be causative compounds. Recent reports suggest these compounds produced by pathogens might have a role beyond causing malodour; namely inhibiting the growth of lactobacilli bacteria that are crucial in the maintenance of vaginal homeo...
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Vaginal care products are widely used by women to relieve discomfort such as pain, itching and malodour, all of which are commonly caused by conditions resulting from microbiota dysbiosis. Previous studies showed that probiotic strains Lacticaseibacillus (formerly Lactobacillus) rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) and Limosilactobacillus (formerly Lactobacillus...
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Breast cancer is the most diagnosed cancer amongst women worldwide. We have previously shown that there is a breast microbiota which differs between women who have breast cancer and those who are disease-free. To better understand the local biochemical perturbations occurring with disease and the potential contribution of the breast microbiome, lip...
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The human microbiome is a rich factory for metabolite production and emerging data has led to the concept that orally administered microbial strains can synthesize metabolites with neuroactive potential. Recent research from ex vivo and murine models suggests translational potential for microbes to regulate anxiety and depression through the gut-br...
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Lactobacillus crispatus is the dominant species in the vagina of many women. With the potential for strains of this species to be used as a probiotic to help prevent and treat dysbiosis, we investigated isolates from vaginal swabs with Lactobacillus-dominated and a dysbiotic microbiota. A comparative genome analysis led to the identification of met...
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The concerns over honey bee health and colony collapse have led to an increased interest in the potential for beneficial bacteria as an intervention. However, the efficacy of this approach is mostly unknown because the application of bacterial adjuncts to hives has not often proceeded by understanding the strains being applied or how they function....
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Effective aquaculture management strategies are paramount to global food security. Growing demands stimulate the intensification of production and create the need for practices that are both economically viable and environmentally sustainable. Importantly, pathogenic microbes continue to be detrimental to fish growth and survival. In terms of host...
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Background Periodontal disease represents a major health concern. The administration of beneficial microbes has been increasing in popularity over efforts to manipulate the microbes using antimicrobial agents. This study determined the ability of Streptococcus salivarius to inhibit IL-6 and IL-8 production by gingival fibroblasts when activated by...
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This semi-randomized controlled trial examined the effects of a probiotic food supplement on cortisol and C-reactive protein (CRP) in a sample of 262 four-to seven-year-old children (56% girls) in two economically-disadvantaged schools in an urban setting in Côte d’Ivoire. For one semester, children in one school were randomized to receive a probio...
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This perspective looks at how social media has become even more critical since the pandemic and provides tips on how to market research outputs from a trainee viewpoint better.
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The failure of current universal taxonomic databases to support the rapidly expanding field of bee microbiota research has led to many investigators relying on “in-house” reference sets or manual classification of sequence reads (usually based on BLAST searches), often with vague identity thresholds and subjective taxonomy choices. This time expens...
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Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) (previously classified as Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1) is the most researched probiotic strain for women’s health. Its various urogenital health effects, including a reduction in the recurrence of bacterial vaginosis and urinary-tract infection, are well documented. The strain has also been safely used by...
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Probiotics, defined as “live microorganisms that, when administered in adequate amounts, confer a health benefit on the host,” are becoming increasingly popular and marketable. However, too many of the products currently labelled as probiotics fail to comply with the defining characteristics. In recent years, the cosmetic industry has increased the...
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The human intestinal microbiota represents a complex microbial community that plays an essential role in the maintenance of host health. Over the last decade, metagenomic and metabolomic analyses have revealed the influence of intestinal microbial diversity and composition on a range of biological functions in the host. While overall taxonomic comp...
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An expert panel was convened in September 2019 by The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) to develop a definition for fermented foods and to describe their role in the human diet. Although these foods have been consumed for thousands of years, they are receiving increased attention among biologists, nutritioni...
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Of the five agriculturally important mycotoxins, AFB 1 , FB 1 , DON, ZEA and OTA, a well-characterized biomarker of exposure in blood is only available for aflatoxin. Working with a population of 139 women of childbearing age in Rwanda, we undertook a comprehensive assessment of their dietary mycotoxin exposure. Using high-resolution LC-MS/MS with...
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The popularity of using probiotics has surged, since they became widely accepted as safe and help improve general health. Inevitably, some of these products are used after expiration when microbial cell viability is below the recommended effective dose. Given that probiotics must be live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts, the aim of t...
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The administration of antibiotics while critical for treatment, can be accompanied by potentially severe complications. These include toxicities associated with the drugs themselves, the selection of resistant organisms and depletion of endogenous host microbiota. In addition, antibiotics may be associated with less well-recognized complications ar...
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Widespread antibiotic usage in apiculture contributes substantially to the global dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and has the potential to negatively influence bacterial symbionts of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Here, we show that routine antibiotic administration with oxytetracycline selectively increased tetB (efflux pump resistance gen...
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Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, though this cannot fully explain its efficacy against androgen-independent prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that androgen deprivation therapy depletes androgen-utilizing Corynebacterium spp. in pros-tate cancer patients and that oral AA further enriches for the health-associate...
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Ureteral stents are commonly used to prevent urinary obstruction but can become colonized by bacteria and encrusted, leading to clinical complications. Despite recent discovery and characterization of the healthy urinary microbiota, stent-associated bacteria and their impact on encrustation are largely underexplored. We profile the microbiota of pa...
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Kidney stone disease is a morbid condition that is increasing in prevalence, with few nonsurgical treatment options. The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate. Unlike humans, some microbes can break down oxalate, suggesting that microbial therapeutics may provide a novel treatment for kidney stone patients. This study demonstrated that...
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In May 2019, the International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) convened a panel of nutritionists, physiologists and microbiologists to review the definition and scope of synbiotics. The panel updated the definition of a synbiotic to “a mixture comprising live microorganisms and substrate(s) selectively utilized by host...
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Pesticide exposure, infectious disease, and nutritional stress contribute to honey bee mortality and a high rate of colony loss. This realization has fueled a decades-long investigation into the single and combined effects of each stressor and their overall bearing on insect physiology. However, one element largely missing from this research effort...
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Many women suffer from urinary tract infections (UTIs). In addition to pain and increased urgency to urinate, malodour is a significant issue for these patients. The specific factors causing this malodour are unclear, and there are no targeted treatment options to counteract it effectively. We used a metabolomics approach to compare the chemical co...
Preprint
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Background: The popularity of using probiotics has surged, since they became widely accepted as safe and help improve general health. Inevitably, some of these products are used after expiration when microbial cell viability is below the recommended effective dose. Given that probiotics are live microorganisms administered in adequate amounts, the...
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Introduction: Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an obesity-related disorder that is rapidly increasing in incidence and is considered the hepatic manifestation of the metabolic syndrome. The gut microbiome plays a role in metabolism and maintaining gut barrier integrity. Studies have found differences in the microbiota between NAFLD and...
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Fermentation has been applied to a multitude of food types for preservation and product enhancing characteristics. Interest in the microbiome and healthy foods makes it important to understand the microbial processes involved in fermentation. This is particularly the case for products such as fermented cashew (Anacardium occidentale). We hereby des...
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Managed populations of the European honey bee (Apis mellifera) support the production of a global food supply. This important role in modern agriculture has rendered honey bees vulnerable to the noxious effects of anthropogenic stressors such as pesticides. Although the deleterious outcomes of lethal pesticide exposure on honey bee health and perfo...
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Objective: To compare the vaginal microbiota of women living with HIV (WLWH) to the vaginal microbiota of women with recurrent bacterial vaginosis (BV) and healthy women without HIV to determine if there are differences in the vaginal microbiome, what factors influence these differences, and to characterize HIV clinical parameters including viral...
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Sublethal exposure to certain pesticides (e.g., neonicotinoid insecticides) is suspected to contribute to honey bee ( Apis mellifera ) population decline in North America. Neonicotinoids are known to interfere with immune pathways in the gut of insects, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. We used a Drosophila melanogaster model to underst...
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American foulbrood (AFB) is a highly virulent disease afflicting honey bees (Apis mellifera). The causative organism, Paenibacillus larvae, attacks honey bee brood and renders entire hives dysfunctional during active disease states, but more commonly resides in hives asymptomatically as inactive spores that elude even vigilant beekeepers. The mecha...
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Approximately 40% of global HIV-1 transmission occurs in the female genital tract (FGT) through heterosexual transmission. Epithelial cells lining the FGT provide the first barrier to HIV-1 entry. Previous studies have suggested that certain hormonal contraceptives or a dysbiosis of the vaginal microbiota can enhance HIV-1 acquisition in the FGT. W...
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Much is made of the need to translate scientific research into improved care of people or other life forms. Grant applications invariably start with the extent of a problem, and end by claiming that their work will or could result in making an impact. In truth, very few projects ever lead to translation at the level of the host, nor was that really...
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Molecular analyses of the vaginal microbiota have uncovered a vast array of organisms in this niche, but not so far changed what has been known for a long time: lactobacilli are dominant in health, and the diagnosis and treatment of symptomatic bacterial vaginosis is sub-optimal, and has not changed for over 40 years. While the lowering cost of DNA...
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Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI) and overactive bladder (OAB) can both potentially be influenced by commensal and urinary tract infection-associated bacteria. The sensing of bladder filling involves interplay between various components of the nervous system, eventually resulting in contraction of the detrusor muscle during micturition. This study...
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Probiotics and prebiotics are microbiota-management tools for improving host health. They target gastrointestinal effects via the gut, although direct application to other sites such as the oral cavity, vaginal tract and skin is being explored. Here, we describe gut-derived effects in humans. In the past decade, research on the gut microbiome has r...
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The high incidence of urinary tract infection (UTI) among women and children, in combination with a lack of antibiotic efficacy with regard to pathogen eradication and recurrence prevention, as well as the negative side effects associated with antibiotics, has led researchers to explore the role of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs as a primary...
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Background A vaginal microbiota dominated by lactobacilli (particularly Lactobacillus crispatus) is associated with vaginal health, whereas a vaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli is considered dysbiotic. Here we investigated whether L. crispatus strains isolated from the vaginal tract of women with Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microb...
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It has been over seventeen years since the scientific definition of probiotics was crafted, along with guidelines ensuring the appropriate use of the term. This definition is now used globally, yet on a consistent basis scientists, media and industry misrepresent probiotics or make generalized statements that illustrate a misunderstanding of their...
Preprint
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Urgency urinary incontinence (UUI), the result of conditions such as overactive bladder (OAB), could potentially be influenced by both commensal and urinary tract infection-associated bacteria. The sensing of bladder filling involves interplay between various parts of the nervous system eventually resulting in contraction of the detrusor muscle dur...
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Much has been written in recent years about the gut-brain axis. Exciting pilot studies suggest probiotic applications to the gut can reduce anxiety and depression via the vagus nerve. But not to diminish such findings, much still needs to be considered, including the fact that the vagus nerve links to many other body sites that also host a microbio...
Preprint
Nonrenal clearance pathways such as drug metabolism are decreased in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the mechanism remains elusive, uremic toxin retention and an altered gut microbiota are suspected to influence cytochrome P450s (CYPs) contributing to the unpredictable pharmacokinetics in patients with CKD. We characterized dysbiosis and ure...
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In rural Africa, income generating activities of many households heavily depend on agricultural activities. In this paper, we present the results of a multi-year intervention whereby dairy farmers and small-scale entrepreneurs were taught to convert their milk into a probiotic yoghurt using an innovative bacterial starter culture and basic equipmen...
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Heavy metals are highly toxic elements that contaminate the global food supply and affect human and wildlife health. Purification technologies are often too expensive or not practically applicable for large-scale implementation, especially in impoverished nations where heavy metal contamination is widespread. Lactobacillus rhamnosus GR-1 (LGR-1) wa...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: A vaginal microbiota dominated by lactobacilli (particularly Lactobacillus crispatus) is associated with vaginal health, whereas a vaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli is considered dysbiotic. Here we investigated whether L. crispatus strains isolated from the vaginal tract of women with Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal micro...