Gregg Marland's research while affiliated with Appalachian State University and other places

Publications (128)

Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets...
Article
Widespread concern about the risks of global climate change is increasingly focused on the urgent need for action, and natural climate solutions are a critical component of global strategies to achieve low temperature targets. Yet to date, the full potential of natural systems to store carbon has not been leveraged because policymakers have require...
Chapter
There are increasing concerns (and evolving agreements) over the emission of greenhouse gases to the atmosphere and it is consequently important to have accurate inventories of these emissions. With emphasis on the most important of the greenhouse gases, CO2, this chapter describes and gives examples of how inventories are prepared and discusses so...
Article
Full-text available
p>Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize datasets...
Preprint
Widespread concern about the risks of global climate change is increasingly focused on the urgent need for action (IPCC, 2018; IPCC, 2021), and natural climate solutions are a critical component of global strategies to achieve low temperature targets (e.g. Griscom et al. 2017, Roe et al. 2019). Yet to date, the full potential of natural systems to...
Article
Full-text available
Forest carbon offset protocols reward measurable carbon stocks to adhere to accepted greenhouse gas (GHG) accounting principles. This focus on measurable stocks threatens permanence and shifts project-level risks from natural disturbances to an offset registry’s buffer pool. This creates bias towards current GHG benefits, where greater but potentia...
Preprint
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate is critical to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe and synthesize data sets...
Preprint
Full-text available
Widespread concern about the risks of global climate change is increasingly focused on the urgent need for action (IPCC, 2018; IPCC, 2021), and natural climate solutions are a critical component of global strategies to achieve low temperature targets (e.g. Griscom et al. 2017, Roe et al. 2019). Yet to date, the full potential of natural systems to...
Article
Full-text available
Global- and national-scale inventories of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important tools as countries grapple with the need to reduce emissions to minimize the magnitude of changes in the global climate system. The longest time series dataset on global and national CO2 emissions, with consistency over all countries and all years since 1751, has...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere in a changing climate – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we de...
Preprint
Full-text available
Global and national scale inventories of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions are important tools as countries grapple with the need to reduce emissions to minimize the magnitude of changes in the global climate system. The longest time series dataset on global and national CO2 emissions, with consistency over all countries and all years since 1751, has...
Article
Governance is essential to the structure of incentives and the accounting necessary for large-scale deployment of methods for carbon dioxide removal from the atmosphere, particularly in light of the urgency to upscale carbon removal to stay below the 2°C global climate change target. A key governance challenge is operationalizing standards for the...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessment of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere – the “global carbon budget” – is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the development of climate policies, and project future climate change. Here we describe data sets and m...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Although there is broad agreement that negative carbon emissions may be required in order to meet the global climate change targets specified in the Paris Agreement and that carbon sequestration in the terrestrial biosphere can be an important contributor, there are important accounting issues that often discourage forest carbon seques...
Article
Full-text available
The assessment of greenhouse gases (GHGs) and air pollutants emitted to and removed from the atmosphere ranks high on international political and scientific agendas. Growing international concern and cooperation regarding the climate change problem have increased the need to consider the uncertainty in inventories of GHG emissions. The approaches t...
Article
Full-text available
Emission Inventories (EIs) are the fundamental tool to monitor compliance with greenhouse gas (GHGs) emissions and emission-reduction commitments. Inventory accounting guidelines provide the best practices to help EI compilers across different countries and regions make comparable, national emission estimates regardless of differences in data avail...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
The Open-source Data Inventory for Anthropogenic CO2 (ODIAC) is a global, high-resolution, gridded emission product that provides CO2 emission estimates from fossil fuel combustion, cement production and gas flaring. ODIAC is based on spatial disaggregation of country-level emission estimates made by the Carbon Dioxide Information Analysis Center (...
Conference Paper
Emission Inventory (EI) is a fundamental tool to monitor global compliance of greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions reduction actions. Inventory guidelines provide a best practice to help EI compilers to make comparable national emission estimates, in spite of the differences in data availability across countries and regions. There are a variety of sou...
Article
Full-text available
The quantification of fossil-fuel-related emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere is necessary in order to accurately represent carbon cycle fluxes and to understand and project the details of the global carbon cycle. In addition, the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) of carbon dioxide emissions is necessary for the success of int...
Article
Full-text available
Carbon offset programs, such as that overseen by the California Air Resources Board (CA ARB), have emerged as a strategy for climate change mitigation. Offset projects sequestering carbon earn credits that can be traded on the Cap-and-Trade market to compensate for carbon emissions. The carbon stock embodied in harvested wood products can make up a...
Chapter
The Forest Offset Protocol lays out the requirements and methods for quantifying the net GHG emission and removals resulting from voluntary project activities undertaken on forested land. The ARB’s compliance offset protocol was built off of the Climate Action Reserve’s Forest Project Protocol Version 3.2 (CAR 2010). The Forest Offset Protocol cove...
Chapter
In the forest offset program, sequestration of carbon from the atmosphere has quite a number of factors that are uncertain or pose a risk. The uncertainty among the different factors can vary by region or by project. The uncertainty can also be reduced using a variety of strategies. The risks may be different under a variety of circumstances and ma...
Chapter
With considerable reliance on somewhat qualitative judgments, estimates, models, and assumed factors, the quality of a forest carbon accounting system can be reviewed by examining the extent to which the processes, procedures, and methods prescribed by the offset protocol adhere to its underlying accounting principles. We can examine the extent to...
Chapter
Calculation of offset credits requires a chain of measurements, estimates, and modeling exercises. It requires measuring what did happen, estimating what likely happened, and modeling what might have happened. It requires dealing with uncertainty and risk. It differs importantly from conventional inventory processes in that it deals with some thing...
Chapter
Prior to implementation of California’s cap-and-trade policy the U.S. had no compliance market for management and mitigation of GHG emissions featuring offsets as a significant mechanism for compliance. The ARB’s offset program and protocols were developed based largely on lessons learned and methodologies developed in the Climate Action Reserve’s...
Chapter
Calculating forest offset credits under the California Forest Offset Protocol is heavily dependent on data from the U.S. Forest Service (USFS) and on methodologies developed by the USFS. The USFS data include both archived data and continuing data compilations. They include both published and unpublished data. The driving data source for calculatin...
Chapter
There are many ideas presented in this document but here we highlight some of the major points. There is much still to be learned for implementing a forest offset program and what works for one market is likely to be emulated or adapted in other markets. Goldstein and Nayland (2015) note that “there are a few key compliance carbon-pricing policies...
Article
Full-text available
Studies report different findings concerning the climate benefits of bioenergy, in part due to varying scope and use of different approaches to define spatial and temporal system boundaries. We quantify carbon balances for bioenergy systems that use biomass from forests managed with long rotations, employing different approaches and boundary condit...
Article
We are interested in the spatial distribution of fossil-fuel-related emissions of CO2 for both geochemical and geopolitical reasons, but it is important to understand the uncertainty that exists in spatially explicit emissions estimates. Working from one of the widely used gridded data sets of CO2 emissions, we examine the elements of uncertainty,...
Article
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Nearly three-quarters of the growth in global carbon emissions from the burning of fossil fuels and cement production between 2010 and 2012 occurred in China. Yet estimates of Chinese emissions remain subject to large uncertainty; inventories of China's total fossil fuel carbon emissions in 2008 differ by 0.3 gigatonnes of carbon, or 15 per cent. T...
Article
The commentary by Schendler and Trexler (2015) strikes us as an intriguing paradox. Schendler and Trexler see responses to the threat of global climate change beginning to move forward in the corporate world, but they fear these corporate initiatives will be a distraction from what is ultimately required. They emphasize the need for “greater govern...
Article
Renewable, biomass-based energy options can reduce the climate impacts of fossil fuels. However, calculating the effects of wood-derived bioenergy on greenhouse gases (GHGs), and thus on climate, is complicated (Miner et al. 2015). To clarify concerns and options about bioenergy, in November 2014, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) produc...
Article
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The definition of baselines is a major step in determining the greenhouse-gas emissions of bioenergy systems. Accounting frameworks with a planning objective might require different baseline attributes and designs than those with a monitoring objective.
Article
Our study focuses on uncertainty in greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from anthropogenic sources, including land use and land-use change activities. We aim to understand the relevance of diagnostic (retrospective) and prognostic (prospective) uncertainty in an emissions-temperature setting that seeks to constrain global warming and to link uncertainty...
Article
Background: We have greater certainty for what has happened in the past than for what will happen in the future. Uncertainty on the impact and value of emissions can be very large. Given all of the elements of uncertainty, we are challenged to set global targets for limiting the environmental impact of emissions, to distribute those targets among t...
Article
Background: It has become increasingly evident in the literature that a correlation needs to be made between uncertainty in GHG emissions estimates and the value of emissions. That is, emissions with larger uncertainty are less desirable than those with smaller uncertainty. In fact, concrete advances in trade and reduction agreements depend on find...
Article
Full-text available
The article discusses factors that influence accounting for carbon dioxide emissions. The process is said to involve determining the information that would be useful and the accountant's ability to make meaningful measurements. The World Resources Institute and World Business Council for Sustainable Development (WRI/WBCSD) developed a three-layer e...
Article
Full-text available
Accurate assessments of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions and their redistribution among the atmosphere, ocean, and terrestrial biosphere is important to better understand the global carbon cycle, support the climate policy process, and project future climate change. Present-day analysis requires the combination of a range of data, algor...
Article
Full-text available
The latest carbon dioxide emissions continue to track the high end of emission scenarios, making it even less likely global warming will stay below 2 °C. A shift to a 2 °C pathway requires immediate significant and sustained global mitigation, with a probable reliance on net negative emissions in the longer term.
Article
Climate change mitigation commitments and basic carbon-cycle science both require reliable information on carbon dioxide emissions. Uncertainties in energy data and carbon dioxide emissions estimates are particularly important when they involve large emitters.
Article
Full-text available
This synthesis discusses the emissions of carbon dioxide from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production. While much is known about these emissions, there is still much that is unknown about the details surrounding these emissions. This synthesis explores 5 our knowledge of these emissions in terms of why there is concern about them; how they are...
Article
Global carbon dioxide emissions from fossil-fuel combustion and cement production grew 5.9% in 2010, surpassed 9 Pg of carbon (Pg C) for the first time, and more than offset the 1.4% decrease in 2009. The impact of the 2008 2009 global financial crisis (GFC) on emissions has been short-lived owing to strong emissions growth in emerging economies, a...
Chapter
Full-text available
The assessment of greenhouse gases emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on the international political and scientific agendas. Growing international concern and cooperation regarding the climate change problem have increased the need for policy-oriented solutions to the issue of uncertainty in, and related to, inventories of greenhous...
Article
We recognize that carbon-containing products do not decay and release CO2 to the atmosphere instantaneously, but release that carbon over extended periods of time. For an initial production of a stock of carbon-containing product, we can treat the release as a probability distribution covering the time over which that release occurs. The probabilit...
Chapter
When assembling the 17 papers for this volume, the editors decided to put together general concluding thoughts on dealing with uncertainty in emission inventories. There is a wealth of research in this volume, and this has encouraged us to present both the systematic classification of contributions that is included in our introductory paper and als...
Article
Researchers have recently argued that there is a 'critical climate accounting error' and that we should say 'goodbye to carbon neutral' for bioenergy. Many other analysts have published opionions on the same topic, and the US Environmental Protection Agency posted a specific call for information. The currently burning questions for carbon accountin...
Article
Net annual soil carbon change, fossil fuel emissions from cropland production, and cropland net primary production were estimated and spatially distributed using land cover defined by NASA's moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) and by the USDA National Agricultural Statistics Service (NASS) cropland data layer (CDL). Spatially reso...
Chapter
Full-text available
The assessment of greenhouse gases emitted to and removed from the atmosphere is high on both political and scientific agendas. Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Parties to the Convention publish annual or periodic national inventories of greenhouse gas emissions and removals. Policymakers use these inventories to dev...
Article
Globalization and the dynamics of ecosystem sinks need be considered in post-Kyoto climate negotiations as they increasingly affect the carbon dioxide concentration in the atmosphere. Currently, the allocation of responsibility for greenhouse gas mitigation is based on territorial emissions from fossil-fuel combustion, process emissions and some la...
Article
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Efforts to control climate change require the stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentrations. This can only be achieved through a drastic reduction of global CO2 emissions. Yet fossil fuel emissions increased by 29% between 2000 and 2008, in conjunction with increased contributions from emerging economies, from the production and international tra...
Article
In this issue of Climatic Change, Van Kooten (2009) addresses an issue that has bedeviled negotiators since the drafting stage of the Kyoto Protocol. If we accept that increasing withdrawals of carbon dioxide from the atmpshere has the same net impact on the climate system as reducing emissions of carbon dioxide to the atmosphere, how do we design...
Article
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Carbon dioxide is taken up by agricultural crops and released soon after during the consumption of agricultural commodities. The global net impact of this process on carbon flux to the atmosphere is negligible, but impact on the spatial distribution of carbon dioxide uptake and release across regions and continents is significant. To estimate the c...