Graham Thornicroft's research while affiliated with King's College London and other places

Publications (686)

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Background There are around 250 million adolescents in India. Adolescents are vulnerable to common mental disorders with depression and self-harm accounting for a major share of the burden of death and disability in this age group. Around 20% of children and adolescents are diagnosed with/ or live with a disabling mental illness. A national survey...
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Introduction. Health care professionals experience severe occupational and psycho-emotional stress during the COVID-19 pandemic, which put them at high risk of mental disorders. The aim of the study was to examine the mental health of healthcare workers who provided treatment and support to patients with COVID-19. Materials and methods. A set of st...
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Despite their training, psychiatrists have been found to have negative attitudes towards people with mental illness, including the patients they treat. Similarly, studies focused on service users have identified psychiatrists as a source of stigma. Even though negative attitudes in psychiatrists have been identified in different countries and setti...
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Background People with mental illnesses are at an increased risk of experiencing human rights violations, stigma and discrimination. Even though mental health stigma and discrimination are universal, there appears to be a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. Anti-stigma interventions need to be grounded in local evidence. The aim of t...
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Background There are increasing efforts for the integration of mental health services into primary care settings in low- and middle-income countries. However, commonly used approaches to train primary care providers (PCPs) may not achieve the expected outcomes for improved service delivery, as evidenced by low detection rates of mental illnesses af...
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Infectious disease epidemics have become more frequent and more complex during the 21st century, posing a health threat to the general public and leading to psychological symptoms. The current study was designed to investigate the prevalence of and risk factors associated with depression, anxiety and insomnia symptoms during epidemic outbreaks, inc...
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Introduction In India about 95% of individuals who need treatment for common mental disorders like depression, stress and anxiety and substance use are unable to access care. Stigma associated with help seeking and lack of trained mental health professionals are important barriers in accessing mental healthcare. Systematic Medical Appraisal, Referr...
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Objectives: In addition to risking their physical well-being, frontline physicians are enduring significant emotional burden both at work and home during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate the levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and to identify associated factors among Bangladeshi physicians during the COVID-19 outbreak....
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Background Mental health-related stigma is a global public health concern and a major barrier to seeking care. In this study, we explored the role of stigma as a barrier to scaling up mental health services in primary health care (PHC) centres in Lebanon. We focused on the experiences of Healthcare Providers (HCPs) providing services to patients wi...
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Background: Contact-based intervention has been documented and proved effective on reducing stigma of mental illness in high-income countries, but it is still unclear about the effectiveness of the contact-based intervention among family caregivers of persons with schizophrenia (FCPWS) in low- and middle-income countries including rural China. Meth...
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Objectives: The WHO's Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) has been widely used in low and middle-income countries. We reviewed literature describing interventions and training programmes beyond the mhGAP-IG, in primary healthcare (PHC) and community-based healthcare (CBH). Design: We searched studies excluded from ou...
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Purpose Studies of mental illness stigma reduction interventions have been criticised for failing to evaluate behavioural outcomes and mechanisms of action. This project evaluates training for medical students entitled ‘Responding to Experienced and Anticipated Discrimination’ (READ), developed to focus on skills in addition to attitudes and knowle...
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Abstract Background. The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) is a patient-reported outcome measure which assesses experiences of discrimination among persons with a mental illness globally. Methods. This study evaluated whether the psychometric properties of a short-form version, DISC-Ultra Short (DISCUS) (11-item), could be replicated in a samp...
Preprint
Background : There are around 250 million adolescents in India. Adolescents are vulnerable to common mental disorders with depression and self-harm accounting for a major share of the burden of death and disability in this age group. Around 20 percent of children and adolescents are diagnosed with/ or live with a disabling mental illness. A nationa...
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The aim was to assess the feasibility of an intervention to reduce stigma among primary care and community healthcare staff in Beijing, China through a contact-based education intervention. Participants were randomly assigned to: (i) “education only” group, a lecture-based education; or (ii) “education and contact” group, lectures plus contact with...
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Background: The Discrimination and Stigma Scale (DISC) is a patient-reported outcome measure which assesses experiences of discrimination among persons with a mental illness globally Methods: This study evaluated whether the psychometric properties of a short-form version, DISCUS (11-item), could be replicated in a sample of people with a wide rang...
Preprint
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Background: Mental health and other health professionals working in mental health care may contribute to the experiences of stigma and discrimination among mental health service users, but can also help reduce the impact of stigma on service users. However the few studies of interventions to equip such professionals to be anti-stigma agents those t...
Preprint
Background Taking advantage of the rapidly increasing access to digital technology in low- and middle-income countries, the World Health Organization has launched an electronic version of the mental health Gap Action Programme intervention guide (emhGAP-IG). This is suitable for use on smartphones or tablets by non-specialist primary healthcare pro...
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Background Depression is one of the commonest mental disorders in primary care but is poorly identified. The objective of this review was to determine the level of detection of depression by primary care clinicians and its determinants in studies from low- to middle-income countries (LMICs). Methods A systematic review and meta-analysis was conduc...
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Aims Stigma related to mental disorders is a barrier to quality mental healthcare. This scoping review aimed to synthesise literature on stigma related to mental disorders in Nepal to understand stigma processes. The anthropological concept of ‘what matters most’ to understand culture and stigma was used to frame the literature on explanatory model...
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To achieve universal health coverage, health system strengthening (HSS) is required to support the of delivery of high-quality care. The aim of the National Institute for Health Research Global Research Unit on HeAlth System StrEngThening in Sub-Saharan Africa (ASSET) is to address this need in a four-year programme, with three healthcare platforms...
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Background There is research evidence regarding the presence of stigmatising attitudes in psychiatrists towards people with mental illness, but a lack of studies and interventions focused on this issue in low and middle-income countries. Aims To assess the feasibility of implementing an anti-stigma intervention for Mexican psychiatric trainees, an...
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Mental illness is a significant public health burden in low- and middle-income countries. A wide treatment gap in mental health care exists within the Nigerian health care system and this gap is worsened by the presence of stigma associated with mental illness, which leads to delay in treatment or acts as a barrier to any care. In this study, our a...
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Background There have been no trials of task-shared care (TSC) using WHO's mental health Gap Action Programme for people with severe mental disorders (psychosis or affective disorder) in low-income or middle-income countries. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of TSC compared with enhanced specialist mental health care in rura...
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Implementation research is a multidisciplinary field that addresses the complex phenomenon of how context influences our ability to deliver evidence-informed healthcare. There is increasing realisation of the importance of applying robust implementation research to scale-up life-saving interventions that meet health-related sustainable development...
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Background Stigma is a barrier for help-seeking, mental health service access, and contributes to the mental health treatment gap. Because the mental health treatment gap is greatest in low- and middle-income countries, it is vital to identify effective strategies to reduce stigma in these settings. To date, there has been a lack of synthesis of fi...
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Background Stigma among healthcare providers is a barrier to the effective delivery of mental health services in primary care. Few studies have been conducted in primary care settings comparing the attitudes of healthcare providers and experiences of people with mental illness who are service users in those facilities. Such research is necessary ac...
Preprint
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Background Mental health related stigma is a global public health concern and is considered a major barrier to seeking care. In this study, we explored the role of stigma as a barrier to scaling up mental health services in primary health care (PHC) centres in Lebanon. We focused on the experiences of PHC workers, while providing services to patien...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background People with mental illnesses are at an increased risk of experiencing human rights violations, stigma and discrimination. Even though mental health stigma and discrimination are universal, there appears to be a higher burden in low- and middle-income countries. Anti-stigma interventions need to be grounded in local evidence. The aim of t...
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PurposeWe aimed to map evidence on the development of mental health care in Central Asia after 1991.Method We conducted a scoping review complemented by an expert review. We searched five databases for peer-reviewed journal articles and conducted grey literature searching. The reference lists of included articles were screened for additional releva...
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Objectives ASSET (Health System Strengthening in sub-Saharan Africa) is a health system strengthening (HSS) programme involving eight work-packages (ie, a research study that addresses a specific need for HSS) that aims to develop solutions that support high-quality care. Here we present the protocol for the implementation science (IS) theme within...
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Negative attitudes towards people with mental health disorders have been widely studied and identified in the general population, and even within health care professionals. Moreover, studies focused on service users have also identified mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, as a source of stigma. However, in Mexico and Latin America...
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Background There is a growing global need for scalable approaches to training and supervising primary care workers (PCWs) to deliver mental health services. Over the past decade, the World Health Organization Mental Health Gap Action Programme Intervention Guide (mhGAP-IG) and associated training and implementation guidance have been disseminated t...
Preprint
Purpose This paper aims to translate and validate an Arabic version of the Barriers to Access to Care Evaluation (BACE) BACE scale to make it appropriate for the targeted socio-cultural and linguistic context. Design/methodology/approach This psychometric study has two main compounds: translating the BACE into Arabic and validating it. Using the b...
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Purpose There are significant documented inequalities for the Black community in the UK in relation to mental health care. Research has also indicated that cultural difference exists in pathways into, and engagement with, mental health services. To reduce inequalities and improve engagement with mental health services, it is important that professi...
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Objective To explore the reliability and validity of the Stigma Stress Scale (SSS) for patients with serious mental illness in China. The SSS is a measure of perceived stigma-related stress, based on perceived stigma-related harm (subscale 1) and perceived resources to cope with stigma (subscale 2). Stigma stress occurs if perceived harm exceeds pe...
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Background National Health Service use the Community Mental Health Service User Questionnaire (NHS-CMH) to assess care quality. However, its reliability and internal validity is uncertain. Aims To test the NHS-CMH structure, reliability and item-level characteristics. Methods We used data from 11,373 participants who answered the 2017 NHS-CMH sur...
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Question: There is a large worldwide gap between the service need and provision for mental, neurological and substance use disorders. WHO's Mental Health Gap Action Programme (mhGAP) intervention guide (IG), provides evidence-based guidance and tools for assessment and integrated management of priority disorders. Our 2017 systematic review identif...
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Background Institutional injustice refers to structures that create disparities in resources, opportunities and representation. Marginalised people experience institutional injustice, inequalities and discrimination through intersecting personal characteristics and social circumstances. This study aimed to investigate sources of institutional injus...
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Background and study objectives This study aimed to assess among Ukrainian adults: (1) knowledge of mental disorders; (2) attitudes towards people with mental health disorders, and to the delivery of mental health treatment within the community; and (3) behaviours towards people with mental disorders. Methodology A cross-sectional survey of Ukrain...
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Background Mental health remains a neglected issue on the global health policy agenda, particularly in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC), and the translation of research evidence into policy and practice is slow. The new EVITA framework was developed to improve mental health evidence uptake and policy agenda-setting in LMICs. In addition, beh...
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Background People with severe mental disorders (SMD) experience premature mortality mostly from preventable physical causes. The World Health Organization (WHO) have recently produced guidelines on the prevention and management of physical health conditions in SMD. This paper presents the evidence which led to the recommendations presented in the g...
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Background Around 1 in 7 people in India are impacted by mental illness. The treatment gap for people with mental disorders is as high as 75–95%. Health care systems, especially in rural regions in India, face substantial challenges to address these gaps in care, and innovative strategies are needed. Methods We hypothesise that an intervention inv...
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Background It remains unknown what the impacts of multiple dimensions of contact (e.g. level, quantity and quality) are on the stigma of mental illness. Aims To explore the relationship between the multiple dimensions of contact and stigma of mental illness among family members (FM), mental health workers (MHW) and community residents (CR) in Hong...
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Background Care assistant workers (CAWs) are a part of a new pattern of mental health care providers in China and play a significant role in bridging the human resource shortage. CAWs in China mainly include community cadres, community mental health staff, and community policemen. The mental health related knowledge and attitudes of CAWs could infl...
Preprint
Implementation research is a multidisciplinary field that addresses the complex phenomenon of how context influences our ability to deliver evidence-informed healthcare. There is increasing realisation of the importance of applying robust implementation research to scale-up lifesaving interventions that meet health-related sustainable development g...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background Increasing evidence suggests that the stigma associated with mental illness is a powerful barrier to accessing mental health care worldwide. Consistent findings in high-income countries have shown that contact with people with mental illness is the most effective intervention to reduce stigma. However, little evidence is available at pre...
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Most of the global population live in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs), which have historically received a small fraction of global resources for mental health. The COVID-19 pandemic has spread rapidly in many of these countries. This Review examines the mental health implications of the COVID-19 pandemic in LMICs in four parts. First...
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The current management of patients with primary psychosis worldwide is often remarkably stereotyped. In almost all cases an antipsychotic medica­tion is prescribed, with second‐generation antipsychotics usually preferred to first‐generation ones. Cognitive behavioral therapy is rarely used in the vast majority of countries, although there is eviden...
Preprint
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Objectives To achieve universal health coverage, health systems need to be strengthened to support the consistent delivery of high-quality, evidence-informed care at scale. The aim of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Global Research Unit on HeAlth System StrEngThening in Sub-Saharan Africa (ASSET) is to address this need in a four-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background To achieve universal health coverage, health systems need to be strengthened to support the consistent delivery of high-quality, evidence-informed care at scale. The aim of the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Global Research Unit on HeAlth System StrEngThening in Sub-Saharan Africa (ASSET) is to address this need in a four-...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background ASSET (Health System Strengthening in Sub-Saharan Africa) is a health system strengthening (HSS) programme that aims to develop and evaluate effective and sustainable solutions that support high-quality care that involve eight work packages across four sub-Saharan African countries. Here we present the protocol for the implementation sci...
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Background Responses to anticipateddiscrimination are common among mental health service users and can have adetrimental impact on their recovery. Since 2009, the Time to Change (TTC)anti-stigma program in England has aimed to improve service users’ empowerment,reducing public stigma and discrimination. In this paper, we aim to evaluatewhether serv...
Preprint
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ABSTRACT Objectives: In addition to risking their physical well-being, frontline physicians are enduring significant emotional burden both at work and home during the COVID-19 pandemic. This study aims to investigate the levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms and to identify associated factors among Bangladeshi physicians during the COVID-19 out...
Article
Full-text available
The syndemic framework goes beyond the concept of comorbidity and considers how diseases interact within their wider environmental context, along with social and political factors, to mutually exacerbate negative outcomes. The syndemic approach enhances the way mental disorders are understood in terms of their aetiology, treatment and prognosis and...
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Background : We tested the real-world effectiveness of a collaborative task-sharing model on depressive symptom reduction in hypertensive Primary Health Care (PHC) patients in South Africa. Method : A pragmatic parallel cluster randomised trial in 20 clinics in the Dr Kenneth Kaunda district, North West province. PHC clinics were stratified by sub...
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PurposeHousehold poverty associated with schizophrenia has been long described. However, the mechanisms by which schizophrenia may have influenced the economic status of a household in rural communities are still unclear. This study aimed to test an integrated model of schizophrenia, social support and caregiving burden on household poverty in a ru...
Preprint
Full-text available
Background: Care assistant workers (CAWs) are a part of a new pattern of mental health care providers in China and play a significant role in bridging the human resource shortage. CAWs in China mainly include community cadres, community mental health staff and community policemen. The mental health related knowledge and attitudes of CAWs could infl...