Graham B. Spanier's research while affiliated with Oregon State University and other places

Publications (37)

Article
Many children who experience abuse, family disruption, or poverty nevertheless reach adulthood, against great odds, with a strong commitment to family life. Two questions are posed: Are the current changes confronting American families indicators of pathology, deterioration, and instability? How is it possible and by what mechanisms do families wit...
Chapter
Remarriage is not a new social invention for repairing marital disruption. The earliest recorded histories document that remarriage was a recognized option for some, but not all, individuals whose marriages were disrupted by the death of the husband or wife. Some societies accorded the same status to remarriages as they did to first marriages, othe...
Article
Full-text available
Andrew Cherlin has proposed that the high rate of dissolution of remarriages stems from the incomplete institutionalization of remarriage. Data are presented which confirm Cherlin's observations that remarried couples face problems for which no institutionalized solutions have emerged, but these data do not support the hypothesis that second marrie...
Article
Relief and distress as responses to the termination of marriage are examined in a study of a nonprobability sample of 205 individuals in central Pennsylvania. Respondents were interviewed in depth soon after their final separation. Retrospective measures are used to assess the rewards and costs of ending marriage from three sources-attrations in ma...
Article
The factors related to the occurrence of extramarital coitus (EMC) among persons whose marriages terminate in separation or divorce and the impact of participation in EMC on postmarital adjustment were examined. It was hypothesized that premarital coital experience, quality of marital sex, length of marriage, religiosity, and physical attractivenes...
Article
The circumstances surrounding the termination of marriage are examined in relation to the aftermath of marital separation. Social exchange theory provides a framework for representing the end of marriage. Data were collected from a nonprobability sample of 205 individuals in central Pennsylvania, who were first interviewed in depth soon after their...
Article
The dyadic adjustment scale is critically evaluated by reconsidering the factor structure of the scale and its subscales using a maximum likelihood, confirmatory factor-analysis procedure. A new sample is studied three years later from the same geographical area. High reliability was confirmed for the overall scale. The four subscale factors appear...
Article
Full-text available
Data from a longitudinal study of divorce and remarriage are examined to ascertain whether remarriage appears to be helpful in enhancing one's well-being following marital separation. Eight measures that collectively assess well-being were used to examine changes between the immediate postseparation period and a period approximately two and one-hal...
Article
A nonprobability purposive sample of 205 individuals separated 26 months or less was interviewed about their marital separation and its aftermath. Contrary to expectations based on earlier research and current theorizing, the findings indicate that support from and interaction with extended kin either are unrelated or negatively related to the adju...
Article
Responds to D. L. Thomas and J. E. Kleber's (see record 1982-21024-001) criticism of the authors' (see record 1981-30262-001) review article on marital quality. The authors acknowledge the logic of Thomas and Kleber's suggestions but object to their conclusion that there exists a need to review the recent marital quality research. (1 ref) (PsycIN...
Article
The doubling of the divorce rate between the mid-1960's and the mid-1970's was followed by a period of stability and a current slight rise. Despite the declining birth rate, the number of children involved in divorce is at an all-time high. Increases since 1970 in separation, divorce, and the postponement of marriage have resulted in nearly a doubl...
Article
The quality of marital relationships continues to be the most widely studied topic in the field. Trends during the 1970s in research on marital quality and related concepts (happiness, satisfaction, adjustment, etc.) are summarized. The decade saw more husbands in samples, more attention to couples and joint assessment of husbands and wives, use of...
Article
The dramatic increase in divorce in the United States over the past two decades has resulted in a need for closer examination of the factors associated with the adjustment to marital separation. This article reports a multivariate examination of health and social factors associated with post-separation adjustment In depth interviews were completed...
Article
A statewide mail survey of Pennsylvania junior and senior high school administrators and teachers, of all subject matter areas, was conducted to ascertain their perspective on nutrition education for students in grades 7–12. Of the 2,607 individuals who were sent a questionnaire, 1,366 responded; 96% were teachers and 4% were administrators. Only 2...
Article
The greater excess of women among blacks than among whites during the years in which mate selection and first marriage typically occur is documented. The extent to which this imbalance has implications for differential patterns of mate selection and marital history is explored through the use of data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census Current Popul...
Article
Never-married and formerly married adults living with unrelated adults of the opposite sex are contrasted with married couples living together. Social and economic correlates of these living arrangements and joint characteristics of the partners are described on the basis of national data from the Census Bureau's Current Population Surveys. An esti...
Article
High divorce rates and the traditionally discrepant ages at death for husbands and wives indicate a need for a more complete understanding of the paths to remarriage in contemporary America. This study uses data from the U.S. Bureau of the Census' Current Population Survey to examine the extent and timing of remarriage, social factors associated wi...
Article
This article examines the relative influences of the juvenile probation officer's perceptions of self and work on his or her opinions of delinquency and decisions made about juveniles. Self-administered questionnaires were completed by 255 juvenile probation officers. Results indicate that the officer who is treatment-service oriented is less likel...
Article
There has been a dramatic increase in the number of divorced persons in the United States during the last decade, resulting in a need for close examination of the factors associated with the adjustment to marital separation. This paper reports the effect of the legal process in one state—Pennsylvania—on adjustment to marital separation. Two hundred...
Article
The quality of marital relationships is the most studied topic pertaining to marriage and family life. Moreover, clinicians have become increasingly interested in this variable as divorce rates have climbed and as services for counseling and therapy have become more readily available and more widely accepted. These research and clinical needs neces...
Article
Failure to use contraception is a critical problem among American youth, since sexual activity is common, and illegitimacy and abortion rates are high among young women. This study investigates the relative influences of parents, peers, and partners on the contraceptive use of college men and women. Self-administered questionnaires were completed b...
Article
In-depth interviews were conducted with 61 unmarried, cohabiting individuals matched by gender, social class, and length of acquaintence with 61 noncohabiting, engaged persons and 61 cohabiting married persons. The unmarried cohabiters were significantly less committed to marriage than were the engaged and the married respondents. Nevertheless, the...
Article
Parents and educators have been concerned with the impact of sex education courses and sources of sex information on premarital sexual behavior. This study investigates different sources of sex information, including parents, peers, and others, and how they influence premarital sexual behavior among American college students. This exploratory resea...
Article
The assumption that parental influence in the sexual socialization process is likely to affect premarital sexual behavior is challenged in this article. The hypothesis that individuals brought up in sexually conservative homes will have less premarital heterosexual involvement than those from liberal home environments is tested in a secondary analy...
Article
A critical, but often neglected, concern in survey research is the use of recall data. This article identifies two sources of possible error in restrospective accounts, particularly of human sexual behavior. “Faulty recall” is unintentional false reporting due to poor memory or changing perception of past reality. “Falsified accounts” involve inten...
Article
This study reports on the development of the Dyadic Adjustment Scale, a new measure for assessing the quality of marriage and other similar dyads. The 32 item scale is designed for use with either married or unmarried cohabiting couples. Despite widespread criticisms of the concept of adjustment, the study proceeds from the pragmatic position that...
Article
Controversies exist regarding the effects of sex education in the schools and informal sex education obtained from parents, peers, the mass media, and other sources. Similarly, there is widespread interest in premarital sexual behavior, especially its determinants. This study presents several issues reflecting these concerns which have been the sub...
Article
Marital adjustment over the family life cycle is reexamined using data from probability samples of married couples studied in coordinated research projects in three different states—Iowa, Ohio, and Georgia. The paper attempts to provide both a methodological and substantive contribution by (1) introducing techniques of curvilinear regression and co...
Article
This article attempts to illuminate the understanding of swinging, or mate swapping, an increasingly common form of extramarital sexual activity. A theoretical formulation argues that swinging is a form of extramarital sexual activity which serves to define as good and acceptable a behavior that in other forms and in the past has been considered de...
Article
This article presents a summary of a larger study which investigated the sexual socialization (sexualization) process and its impact on subsequent premarital sexual behavior. The study was motivated by a number of social issues, including the influence of sex education and exposure to erotic materials. Secondary analysis of national data, consistin...

Citations

... In some cases, the nonresidential parent migrated from one family to the next, severing emotional ties to biological children and investing, instead, in relations with stepchildren; in other families, the nonresidential parent divided loyalties, balancing off obligations to biological and stepchildren; in still others, the stepparent played a marginal role as a stepparent and continued to devote primary attention to the children from the former marriage. Since these decisions were not always made in concert with the other interested parties, tensions and misunderstandings were common between former partners as well as within current marriages (Furstenberg, Spanier, & Rothschild, 1982). Further evidence of the problematic arrangements following divorce is furnished by data from a national survey of children conducted by Furstenberg and Zill in 1981. ...
... Divorce typically is a transitional family status. Eventually, nearly three fourths of all men and about three fifths of all women reenter marriage (Spanier & Furstenberg, 1987). But the interval between unions has been growing as remarriage rates have slowed during the past decade (Cherlin forthcoming). ...
... The stratification of life is hypothesized to predict variation in different dependent variables -marital quality and happiness, career satisfaction and aspirations, stress experience, emotional relationships, commitments, coping strategies and similar others (Anderson, Russell, & Schumm, 1983;Voydanoff & Kelly, 1984). Stages in life cycle are arbitrary breakups -with culture, presence of children, age of children, women's work involvement, length of marriage, age of individual -to be some dimensions that are utilized for stratification (Spanier, Lewis, & Cole, 1975;Mattessich & Hill, 1987). Whereas some studies have strongly recommended the efficacy of 'dimensions in combination' for higher predictability (Spanier et al., 1975), several others are of the notion that variables under study should be the determining factor for stratification; (Anderson et al., 1983) and family life cycle stages on the basis of age of children is best suited when married women and her life experience is the research condition (Spanier et al., 1975;Mattessich & Hill, 1987). ...
... Andrews, 1976). To what extent this stress arises from contact with the family law system and not just from the intrinsic burden of separation has rarely been considered ( Spanier & Anderson, 1979). It .is ...
... El interés por el estudio de las relaciones personales y las interacciones dentro del sis tema familiar se ha traducido en un número notable de publicaciones e investigaciones, tanto desde la perspectiva sociológica como desde la psicológica. Algunos trabajos relevantes, en este sentido, son los de L' Abate (1985), Macklin y Rubin ( 1983), Olson y McCubbin ( 1983), Patterson (1975), Spanier y Thompson (1984), Finkelhor, Gelles, Hotaling y Straus (1983) o Aldous (1982), entre otros muchos. ...
... Weeding out dissatisfying marriages (e.g. through divorce) certainly has an impact, but so do a variety of adjustment mechanisms (e.g., redefining aspirations and reference classes). Spanier and Lewis (1980) reviewed the literature on marriage quality in the seventies and reported that, just as in the sixties, people were still finding a negative correlation between mari tal satisfaction or happiness and having children. There were five studies in our four-year periond showing this association: Campbell (1981), Glenn and McLanahan (1982), Houseknecht (1979), Lupri and Frideres (1981) and Miller and Sollie (1980). ...
... For instance, Andersson (2002) pointed out that countries with relatively higher family-disruption rates also exhibit higher rates of remarriage. Children in stepfamilies fare worse compared to their counterparts in two-biological-parent families (Garasky 1995;Raley, Frisco, and Wildsmith 2005), and remarriages are less stable than first marriages (Coleman, Ganong, and Fine 2000;Cherlin 1978Cherlin , 1981Furstenberg and Spanier 1984;Halliday 1980). Some authors argue that it is the experience of multiple family transitions, rather than the experience of family dissolution or any particular family type, that has the most pronounced impact on children (Aquilino 1996;Raley, Frisco, and Wildsmith 2005). ...
... The Dyadic Adjustment Scale (DAS) is a 32-item selfreport questionnaire for couples, and questions are scored on 2-to 6-point scales depending on the item [37]. Total scores vary from 0 to 151 and measure dyad relationship quality, with higher scores indicating a better relationship [37,38]. The DAS is reliable and valid [37,38] and was administered in Niagara only. ...
... For instance, Kop (1976) found the highest divorce rates were among younger men, with a decrease from 40% if they were married at 19 years of age to 12% if they were married at 30 years of age. Spanier and Glick (1981) found that teenage marriages are particularly unstable. Marital disruption was found to be more likely if all the children are girls, especially among mothers with little education. ...
... To measure happiness and life satisfaction, we used Cantril's Ladder (Cantril, 1965Cantril, , 1981) and tests formulated by Czapí nski for his onion theory of happiness (Czapinski, 1992; Czapinski & Panek, 2009). The Cantril Ladder (Cantril, 1965Cantril, , 1981 ) is a popular measure of life satisfaction that is used in psychosocial research (Arnold, et al., 2005; Hagedoorn et al., 2000; Johnson, Thomas, & Matre, 1990; Kivett & Palmore, 1977; Luttik, Jaarsma, Jeeger, & van Veldhuisen, 2005; Schaar, 2003; Spanier & Lachman, 1980). It is a simple and understandable tool for all groups of respondents regardless of education. ...