Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz's scientific contributions

Publications (144)

Article
"Que o Ser Perfeitíssimo existe” de Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, com introdução e notas de Abel Lassalle Casanave (UFBA/CNPq), Griselda Gaiada (IEA Nantes), Marco Aurélio Oliveira da Silva (UFBA).
Article
Publicada em sete volumes entre 1710 e 1746, Miscellanea Berolinensia foi o principal jornal da Academia de Berlim (então chamada de Societas Regia Scientiarum), cuja fundação se deve ao próprio Leibniz em 1690, a dissolução da Societas ocorreu em 1744. A nova instituição, a Académie Royale des Sciences et Belles-Lettres de Prusse (Royal Academy of...
Article
Jakub Thomasius (1622–1684) byl jednym z najbardziej wplywowych nauczycieli Leibniza z okresu jego studiow filozoficznych w Lipsku (1661–1663). Pod jego kierunkiem mlody filozof sporządzil swą bakalaureacką Rozprawe o zasadzie indywiduacji . W latach 1663–1672 wymienili szesnaście listow (w tym piec autorstwa Thomasiusa), ktore zdradzają, jak wielk...
Article
Full-text available
Iš lotynų kalbos vertė Laurynas Adomaitis Versta iš: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, Sechste Reihe, Philosophische Schriften. Bd. 4. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1999, p. 1490–1505, 1524–1528, 1634–1640, 1641–1643.
Article
Full-text available
Versta iš: Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz. Sämtliche Schriften und Briefe, Sechste Reihe: Philosophische Schriften. Bd. 4. Berlin: Akademie Verlag, 1999, p. 1666–1674. Iš lotynų kalbos vertė Laurynas Adomaitis Communication from the Discussions with Fardella Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz
Article
Protogaea, an ambitious account of terrestrial history, was central to the development of the earth sciences in the eighteenth century and provides key philosophical insights into the unity of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz’s thought and writings. In the book, Leibniz offers observations about the formation of the earth, the actions of fire and water,...
Book
Die im Zeitraum 1668 bis 1676 entstandenen Schriften von Leibniz aus den Bereichen Nautik, Optik, Pneumatik und Technik werden in diesem Band präsentiert. Eine dynamische Online-Edition kann hier eingesehen werden: http://leibnizviii.bbaw.de
Book
Die etwa 150 Schriften dieses Bandes werden zum weitaus größten Teil hier erstmals veröffentlicht. Das thematische Spektrum reicht von der Reichspolitik über Fragen des Welfenhauses, das öffentliche Finanz- und Wirtschaftswesen, die Aussöhnung der Konfessionen und die Militärpolitik bis zu Literatur und Wissenschaft. Einen ersten Schwerpunkt bildet...
Article
nd Roger White has relayed positive comments he heard on his travels. Best of all, w have received enough contributim fill lids issue comfortably, and even to make a stat on the next. Computer Go Subscriptions We've created the first two issues as a sort of ov'-grown thought experiment, to see if there wcee enough interest to justify a regular bull...
Article
In the New Essays on Human Understanding, Leibniz argues chapter by chapter with John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, challenging his views about knowledge, personal identity, God, morality, mind and matter, nature versus nurture, logic and language, and a host of other topics. The work is a series of sharp, deep discussions by one gr...
Chapter
This paper is one of several which mark the most advanced stage reached by Leibniz in his efforts to establish the rules for a logical calculus. They are certainly later than August, 1690, when he wrote the logical studies given in Cout. OF., pages 232–37 and 421–23. The fundamental logical relations are still identity or coincidence, inclusion or...
Chapter
The year 1679 was one of the most creative in Leibniz’s life and the last he was to enjoy under the patron who had called him to Hanover. In this year the detailed plans for two projects formulated much earlier were revived, and many studies written in preparation for their execution. These were the universal encyclopedia and the great apologetic w...
Chapter
This religious interpretation of Leibniz’s thought is written in German and reveals his skill in finding a popular terminology for his metaphysical concepts (so, for example, Selbstbestand for ‘substance’, Unwesen for ‘matter’, etc.), a practice he had urged in the Preface to Nizolius many years earlier and for which he had pointed out the advantag...
Chapter
The many philosophical notes which Leibniz made in Paris have been only imperfectly and very incompletely published. Those translated here were edited by I. Jagodinski in 1913. Written hastily, often reflecting the excitement of initial, untested exploration, with sentences incomplete and opinions sometimes reversed within the same fragment, they i...
Chapter
Leibniz’s concern with theology was greatly stimulated by the Roman Catholic pietism of the court at Mainz. In this early period his chief theological interests were to prove the existence of God, to justify his ways with men, to establish the proofs of immortality, and to demonstrate the essential agreement of Catholic and Protestant doctrines of...
Chapter
As the letters to Tschirnhaus and Justel show (No. 19 and p. 195, note 6), Leibniz received a copy of Spinoza’s Opera posthumafrom G. H. Schuller, the literary executor, immediately after their publication, and assumed a critical attitude toward both the Ethics and the essay On the Improvement of the Understanding from the start. His reading notes...
Chapter
It was the Dutch mathematician and physicist Christian Huygens who helped Leibniz, in his Paris years, to master the literature of modern mathematics. It was also his discoveries in mechanics, in particular his early formulation of the laws of impact, and his later analysis of the compound pendulum, which provided the foundation for Leibniz’s theor...
Chapter
The first mature synthesis of Leibniz’s philosophical opinions is an essay without title which is described in a letter to the Landgrave Ernest of Hesse-Rheinfels on February 1/11,1686. Finding myself recently at a place with nothing to do for a few days, I wrote a little discourse on metaphysics, on which I should like to have the opinion of Mr. A...
Chapter
Leibniz’s intellectual achievements during the four years he spent in Paris, from March, 1672, to September, 16761, cannot be fully appraised until his papers from that period are completely published. The general impression that he forsook philosophy for mathematics is wrong; indeed, it contradicts his whole conception of the relation between the...
Chapter
Robert Boyle’s proposal, in his Free Inquiry into the Vulgarly Received Notion of Nature (1682), that the term ‘nature’ should be avoided and ‘mechanism’ substituted for it occasioned a controversy between John Christopher Sturm of Altdorf and Günther Christopher Schelhammer of Kiel in 1692–98, in which Sturm defended Boyle’s opinion, while Schelha...
Chapter
This work, which returns to the theme of No. 53, On Nature Itself, was written at the summer palace, Lützenburg (later Charlottenburg), near Berlin. Like the preceding, it reflects the reply which Leibniz was engaged in preparing to Locke’s Essay.
Chapter
Gabriel Wagner was a man of extended learning but with an insatiable appetite for controversy and conflict. Under the name of Realis de Vienna he published several works, including a criticism of Christian Thomasius which brought him into correspondence with Leibniz. Forced to leave Vienna, he settled in Hamburg in 1696 and there began a German wee...
Chapter
Leibniz agreed with the Cartesians that natural events are to be explained mechanistically, but he insisted that the consideration of final causes was of significance in the derivation of mechanical laws themselves. As example he submitted a demonstration of the laws of refraction and reflection as a special case, maximally determined, of an infini...
Chapter
After their winter of collaboration in Paris, Leibniz and Tschirnhaus continued to discuss mathematical and philosophical problems by letter.1On April 30, 1678, the latter wrote a long letter from Rome, in which the solution of higher equations was discussed, along with other mathematical questions. In the course of the letter it was proposed that...
Chapter
Jacob Thomasius had been one of the more influential of Leibniz’s teachers at Leipzig. Though he seems to have lectured only on rhetoric while Leibniz was in the university, he supervised his first dissertation, De principio individui; and the letters which Leibniz wrote to him after leaving Leipzig show the high respect which the pupil had for his...
Chapter
Leibniz’s shift of emphasis to a posteriori reasoning for the existence of God is nowhere better exemplified than in this essay, unpublished until 1840, when Erdmann included it in his edition. The new phase of his metaphysics is concerned with the implications of particularity and its difference from mere possibility. The problem of the paper is t...
Chapter
The popular reception of Leibniz’s Theodicy had the effect of establishing his reputation in even wider circles than before, and much of his last philosophical writing was done for this wider audience rather than for his scholarly correspondents and the readers of scientific journals. The circumstances and motives in writing the two best known of t...
Chapter
The criticisms to which the new infinitesimal calculus was subjected during the last decade of the 17th century were often grounded upon nothing more than a failure to understand its value or a distrust of novelty. Thus Huygens himself and the Abbé Gallois, an editor of the Journal des savants, seem not at once to have grasped the importance of the...
Chapter
In spite of the distractions of which he complained in the last years of his life, especially the burdensome history of the House of Brunswick of which he was never free, Leibniz had occasion to return to his earlier studies in mathematics and logic. This paper, first published from the Hanover manuscripts by Gerhardt, continues and pushes to a hig...
Chapter
‘The great Arnauld’, Jansenist opponent of the Jesuits and acknowledged to be the outstanding philosophical and theological controversialist of the time, was at the height of his fame and activity when Leibniz addressed his first letter to him. The occasion was a plan to promote Catholic support for the proposed Catholic Demonstrations (No. 5). Arn...
Chapter
Hobbes’s early influence on Leibniz is conspicuous, though Couturat has adequately refuted Tönnies’ effort to trace his logical method back to the English thinker (Cout. L., pp. 457–73). Leibniz was much impressed by both the De corpore and the De cive but sought to supplement them, the former with an Elementa de mente, the latter with a theologica...
Chapter
Leibniz’s first published account of his metaphysical ‘system’1appeared in the well-established Paris journal to which he had contributed scientific articles since his Paris days. Since its contents are directly related to the writings and controversies on dynamics in which he had been involved, its emphasis is not theological, like that of the Dis...
Chapter
Gilles Filleau (or Failaiseau) des Billettes was a pensioner of the Academy of Sciences in Paris and a distinguished expert in the arts and crafts, with wide and influental acquaintances. Like the Duke de Roanez, he had been a close friend of Pascal. Leibniz had known him during his Paris years and later called him “one of my oldest friends in Fran...
Chapter
Like Johann Christian Wolff, Michael Gottlieb Hansch (1683–1752) was one of the younger men who adopted Leibnizian ideas early in the new century and who entered into correspondence with their author. The following letter was published in his Diatriba de enthusiasmo Platonico in 1716; in 1728 he offered what Leibniz had frequently admitted he had h...
Chapter
Leibniz’s starting point in the principle of harmony, and the metaphysical consequences which he draws from it, are explicit in this letter to a jurisconsult in Kiel with whom he corresponded briefly. The implications of Leibniz’s determinism for the problems of freedom and of evil are briefly treated.
Chapter
There are many evidences of a heightened interest in religion during the first years which Leibniz spent at Hanover; among them are four dialogues on religion written around 1678. Parts of two of these are here translated. The first is satirical in mood and contrasts the true love of God with ecclesiastical fashions and superstitions. It may be con...
Chapter
In 1679 Leibniz thought of the logical calculus as an application of the more general science of characters to the problems of formal logic. Such an application would, he was convinced, put logic on a more universal basis and serve to convince men of the value of applying symbols to material truth as well. Of the two studies given here, the first w...
Chapter
The correspondence between Leibniz and Bartholomew des Bosses, Jesuit teacher of theology at the seminary of his order in Hildesheim, and after 1711 professor of mathematics at Cologne, contains Leibniz’s last and most extensive attempt to put his philosophy in acceptable Scholastic terms. Though Guhrauer found in it “the most complete and coherent...
Chapter
The Bernoulli brothers, John and James (the nephew Daniel had not yet come on the scientific scene), were among Europe’s outstanding mathematicians and among the first to champion Leibniz’s new infinitesimal analysis. They had entered into the solution of the great test problems of the 1690’s in keen, jealous rivalry with each other as well as with...
Chapter
The Dissertatio de arte combinatoria, which Leibniz published in 1666, was an expansion of the dissertation and theses submitted for disputation the same year to qualify for a position in the philosophical faculty at Leipzig. The work contains the germ of the plan for a universal characteristic and logical calculus, which was to occupy his thinking...
Chapter
Of the criticisms which the New System (No. 47) evoked, none was more penetrating than than that which Pierre Bay le attached to the article ‘Rorarius’ in the second volume of his Dictionnaire historique et critique appearing in 1697. His criticism covered many points but centered on the interpretation of the relation between mind and body. Leibniz...
Chapter
Upon its appearance in 1711, Shaftesbury’s Characteristics was sent to Leibniz by Pierre Coste, who had been given a number of copies to distribute to scholars for criticism (Coste to Leibniz, April 14, 1712 [G., III, 420]). Leibniz’s favorable reaction to the witty and penetrating observations of this English intuitionalist throws interesting ligh...
Chapter
Over 50 years ago Ernst Gerland published what was obviously a preliminary plan made by Leibniz in his early years at Hanover for a small work entitled the Elementa physicae (Ger., pp. 110–13). In a note Gerland expressed regret that Leibniz did not pursue this project, which promised so much. He seems not have observed that the folder of ten folio...
Chapter
The dialogue form had interested Leibniz in Paris, where he had paraphrased Plato, and he tried his hand at it frequently during the following years. BC. fittingly calls the present one a “Dialogue on the Connection between Things and Words”. Aimed explicitly at Thomas Hobbes’s position that truth is arbitrary, but also indirectly at Descarteis vie...
Chapter
Soon after his arrival in Hanover, Leibniz was sought out by a zealous Cartesian, Arnold Eckhard, professor of mathematics at Rinteln. Gerhard Molanus, the genial and learned abbot of Loccum, near Hanover, brought the two men together for a philosophical discussion of the Cartesian conception of being, particularly of the argument from God’s essenc...
Chapter
The project in legal reform in which Leibniz was engaged at Mainz with Herman Andrew Lasser took the form of a work on Rational Jurisprudence.Lasser took charge of the last two parts, concerned with the actual reform of the law; Leibniz undertook the first two — the Elements of Natural Law and the Elements of Contemporary Civil Law. The first princ...
Chapter
Leibniz’s increasing inclination to publish his philosophical conclusions is shown in this brief article inserted in the Leipzig scholarly journal In it he urges greater exactness in metaphysics and distinguishes his conception of active force from the ambiguous Scholastic principle of power. The article led to a correspondence with John Christophe...
Chapter
While in Italy Leibniz had written an extensive Dynamics (GM., VI, 281–514) which summarized his criticism of Descartes’s physical principles and at the same time supplemented what he regarded as an incompleteness in Newton’s hypotheses. The manuscript of this work he left at Florence with the Baron Bodenhausen, tutor of the sons of the Duke of Tus...
Chapter
This paper was published in the Histoire des ouvrages des savants in May, 1705, in the form of a letter to Basnage de Beauval, its editor, Leibniz had been asked by Jean le Clerc, editor of the Bibliothèque choisie, to give his opinion, based upon the theory of pre-established harmony, about the controversy between Bayle and Le Clerc over the exist...
Chapter
The critical notes which Leibniz wrote to the first two parts of the Principia philosophiae were intended to be the nucleus for a definitive judgment on Descartes’s entire system from Leibniz’s point of view and therefore summarized and united all the special criticisms of particular points which he had been making for the previous twenty years. In...
Chapter
Leibniz was induced by Boineburg to prepare an edition of a work published in 1553 by the Italian humanist, Marius Nizolius, and entitled On the True Principles of Philosophy, against Pseudo-Philosophers.1For this edition he wrote an introduction which he called ‘A Preliminary Dissertation on Editing the Works of Others, on the Scope of the Work, o...
Chapter
The 300th birthday of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz was widely observed in 1946 but nowhere more appropriately, though unintentionally, than in the complex ritual of exploding the fourth atomic bomb at Bikini on the exact anniversary day, July 1.1 It is not only that he was the first to argue that force is the essence of matter. It is rather that, seco...
Chapter
It is significant that at the same time at which he was defining his thought in Scholastic forms in the correspondence with Des Bosses, Leibniz had not abandoned the more popular exposition of his views in relation to Cartesian thought. This dialogue is the most successful of several criticisms of Malebranche; in form it is a continuation of that t...
Chapter
Herman Coming (1606–81), professor at Helmstädt, was one of the outstanding scholars and controversialists of his day, active in such diverse fields as medicine, jurisprudence (a founder of the history of law), philosophy, history, and theology. His correspondence with Leibniz had begun in 1670, when his friend Boineburg sent him a copy of the New...
Chapter
Leibniz’s first published paper on philosophical issues (in the mature period of his thought) is the result of his criticism of Descartes’s incomplete conception of truth and was clearly occasioned by the appearance of Arnauld’s attack on Malebranche’s theory of knowledge in the Des vraies et des fausses idées, though Leibniz did not study the cont...
Chapter
Henry Oldenburg was one of the secretaries of the London Royal Society and a correspondent of Spinoza and other scholars. Leibniz had exchanged letters with him intermittently since 1670, receiving from him important information about the affairs of the Royal Society and other matters of scholarly interest in England. It was Oldenburg who in 1676 t...
Chapter
The sharp issues raised between Leibniz’s physics and metaphysics and the conceptions of his English rival, Sir Isaac Newton, were clearly and bitterly drawn in the correspondence with Newton’s English follower, the theologian Samuel Clarke (1675–1729). The correspondence was mediated by Leibniz’s former pupil at Hanover, Caroline, Princess of Wale...
Chapter
Written on his journey from Nürnberg to Frankfort in 1667, this study of the psychology of learning, the organization of knowledge, and the logical bases of law was designed to attract the attention of John Philip of Schönborn, the elector of Mainz and political leader of the relatively independent Rhenish confederation, and to secure for Leibniz a...
Chapter
At the end of his long journey to Austria and Italy inquest of materials for the history of the House of Brunswick, Leibniz once more tried to resume his philosophical correspondence with Antoine Arnauld. Though the Italian stay had been filled with historical and practical interests, more theoretical work had not entirely lagged. The most importan...

Citations

... As etapas que seguiram o fato a mantiveram fora da reflexão teórica e se caracterizaram pelo seu entendimento como possibilidade das coisas, relativamente deslocado do que era mais próprio das relações entre as pessoas, conforme se pode constatar consultando os dicionários da época. Assim ainda podemos encontrá-la, por exemplo, no breve tratado de Leibniz intitulado "Novo sistema da natureza das substâncias e sua comunicação e da união que existe entre a alma e o corpo", publicado originalmente em 1695 (in Leibniz, 1997). ...
... The major distinction between psychological models of mental representation and process in this eld is between sentential and model-based theories. Stenning & Oberlander (1995) have clari ed the`graphical' nature of the model-based theories, in showing that the mental models method (Johnson-Laird 1983) is strongly equivalent to a rational reconstruction of the Euler's (1772) (and Leibniz' 1666(and Leibniz' /1966 method. In this paper, we show that the graphical algorithm is also isomorphic to a natural presentation of a sentential natural deduction method. ...
... 3 Leibniz also characterized analogy as a tool that allows us to conclude on the similarity of the objects based on their nature and the degree of how similar their properties can be. 4 Due to the symmetry in Maxwell's equations as well as the similarities of electric and magnetic fields, 5 the analogy approach enables us to gain new knowledge and establish the relationship between electric and magnetic phenomena. Furthermore, it also plays an important methodological role in cognitively understanding the entire physical process. ...
... These actions appear to be the result of a botched mixture of a colonial past, a failed decolonisation, a mistaken vision of globalisation and a very dangerous post-bipolar reconstruction." 30 As, e.g., Leibniz (1710) may have arrived at such a constatation from his theological teleology: "le meilleur des mondes possibles" (Caro 2014). 31 Pringsheimʼs (1961, 78) classical observation according to which "comparative law without the history of law is an impossible task" can be interpreted in this manner as well. ...
... The concept of the Data Calculator: computing data access method designs as combinations of a small set of primitives. (Drawing inspired by a figure in the Ph.D. thesis of Gottfried Leibniz who envisioned an engine that calculates physical laws from a small set of primitives[59].) ...
... Leibniz (1989), 643-653; see esp. par. ...
... However, not only the metaphor, but also the formulation in terms of communication between two systems remained central throughout the 17th century. For example, when Leibniz published his system in the Journal des Savants at the end of this century, he entitled his treatise "New systems of the nature and of the communication of substances, and of the union between the soul and the body" [32]. ...
... Zimmerman ([1998]) reports how the argument goes back at least to Broad in 1925. Sider ([2001, p. 226) notes that Leibniz ([1698], sect. 13) deploys essentially the same argument: but Leibniz's target is Descartes' doctrines about matter and motion. ...
... individual substance expresses everything else, it can be seen from its point of orientation as a perspective on the whole world, and thus "the universe is multiplied as many times as there are substances" (Leibniz, 1998a(Leibniz, , p. 61 [1541 Deleuze takes up this metaphor, but unlike Leibniz, he makes no assumptions about there being a common world that the perceptions of many things converge upon. This means that indeed the universe is as many as the number of perspectives: ...
... Again, Deleuze refers to mathematics, especially to the history of the calculus, to address this questionable definition and to show how difference can be a genetic principle prior to identity. In order to do so, he uses Leibniz's geometric interpretation of the calculus (Leibniz 1701). There, it is shown that the differential relation dy/dx continues to exist and has an expressible finite quantity, even in case that its terms have vanished. ...