Gordon L. Flett's research while affiliated with New York University and other places

Publications (378)

Article
This prospective longitudinal study evaluated changes in psychological distress among adolescents, pre‐pandemic to intra‐pandemic, the extent to which within‐person and between‐person differences in trait multidimensional perfectionism were associated with such changes, and the role of stress in explaining associations between perfectionism and psy...
Article
The interest in treating underlying core vulnerability factors or transdiagnostic processes has been a focus of much attention. In this paper we describe our application of group dynamic- relational psychotherapy to the treatment of perfectionism, a core personality vulnerability factor associated with various forms and types of dysfunction and dis...
Article
Full-text available
The current study investigated how perfectionism can be related to L2 learners’ achievement with motivation and two aspects of self-regulated learning as possible mediators. This study also evaluated the factor structure of the Big Three Perfectionism Scale (BTPS) in an Iranian sample. The participants were 495 Iranian high school students who comp...
Article
The tendency to hide and mask suffering and one's perceived imperfections is one of the biggest obstacles in treating those with prominent perfectionistic traits. In this single case, we present an integrative form of psychotherapy for patients with recurrent strategies aimed at neither displaying nor disclosing their perfectionism. Emily was a 26-...
Article
Full-text available
Background and Objectives: The impact of trait perfectionism on coping and affective response has been well-documented in laboratory performances, and yet little is known about the role played by perfectionistic self-presentation in performances beyond the effects of trait perfectionism. Design: We aimed to address this knowledge gap by examining t...
Article
Full-text available
The current research examined personality and individual difference factors associated with the perceived ability to adapt to the significant challenges accompanying the ongoing public health crisis concerning the COVID-19 pandemic. This cross-sectional study investigated the associations among self-reported adaptability to the pandemic and persona...
Article
The International Classification of Diseases 11th Revision (ICD-11) contains a dimensional model of personality disorder. Beyond general personality dysfunction, this model accommodates six personality descriptors depicting maladaptive personality characteristics. Perfectionism is a well-researched multidimensional personality disposition with stro...
Article
Full-text available
Research on adults indicates other-oriented perfectionism (requiring perfection from others) is associated with various consequential outcomes independent of self-oriented perfectionism (requiring perfection of the self) and socially prescribed perfectionism (believing others require perfection of the self). However, historically, the most widely u...
Article
Full-text available
The Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) is a theory-driven model of the relationship between perfectionism, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. However, to date, tests of the PSDM have not included anti-mattering (i.e., feelings of not mattering alongside feelings of insignificance and marginalization) as a mediator or suicide id...
Article
Full-text available
The Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) is a theory-driven model of the relationship between perfectionism, depressive symptoms, and suicide ideation. However, to date, tests of the PSDM have not included anti-mattering (i.e., feelings of not mattering alongside feelings of insignificance and marginalization) as a mediator or suicide id...
Preprint
Parental perfectionism (e.g., perfectionistic concerns) has been strongly implicated in adolescent psychological maladjustment such as depression and anxiety. However, little is known about the links between parental perfectionistic self-presentation (i.e., the interpersonal expressions of perfectionism) and adolescent psychological outcomes. Accor...
Article
Full-text available
The social expectations model posits that children become perfectionistic in response to the contingent self-worth associated with parental expectations and parental criticism. Alternatively, the social learning model contends children emulate their parents’ perfectionistic tendencies through observation and imitation. However, inconsistent finding...
Article
Perfectionism is a multidimensional personality construct with various components. Socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceived social pressures and expectations to be perfect) is one key element. This trait dimension represents a chronic source of pressure that elicits feelings of helplessness and hopelessness at extreme levels. Unfortunatel...
Article
Full-text available
Suicide prevention is a healthcare and social justice priority. Older adults have the highest rates of suicide and the highest COVID-19 fatality rates in North America. The combined impacts of social isolation, fear of infection, apathy, and hopelessness could amplify suicide risk among older adults, as appears to have been the case during the 2003...
Article
Full-text available
Previous work has focused on positive feelings of mattering, which pertain to the human need to feel significant. In the current article, we examine a complementary yet distinct construct involving feelings of not mattering that may arise from being marginalized and experiences that heighten a sense of being insignificant to others. We also describ...
Article
Full-text available
We summarize qualitative research conducted on the mattering construct and then describe a qualitative investigation focused on mattering as a key aspect of the relational factors which influence the learning and development of students. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 12 professors recognized for their teaching excellence. Specifica...
Article
Full-text available
While the importance of having self-esteem is widely recognized and has been studied extensively, another core component of the self-concept has been relatively neglected—a sense of mattering to other people. In the current article, it is argued that mattering is an entirely unique and complex psychological construct with great public appeal and ap...
Article
The current study examined the feasibility of adapting an existing measure to create a brief mattering measure suitable for use with adolescents. We then evaluated this brief measure by testing the hypothesis that mattering in adolescents is associated broadly with positive achievement outcomes and associated motivational orientations and behaviora...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, we sought to examine associations between dimensions of trait perfectionism and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms among a community sample of adults who experienced at least one traumatic event and determine whether the associations between trait perfectionism dimensions and PTSD symptomatology varied as a function of per...
Article
Full-text available
The current commentary and review examines the potentially protective role of feelings of mattering among elderly people during typical times and the current atypical times associated with the COVID-19 global pandemic. Mattering is the feeling of being important to others in ways that give people the sense that they are valued and other people care...
Article
Background Older adults have high rates of suicide, necessitating attention to psychological factors that confer risk for suicide. Hopelessness is significantly associated with psychological despair and suicide risk factors; however, research has been limited by unidimensional treatment of the construct. The purpose of the present study was thus to...
Article
Full-text available
The current study focused on the associations that feelings of not mattering have with life satisfaction, stress, and distress among students trying to cope with the uncertain and novel circumstances brought about by the COVID-19 pandemic. A sample of 350 Italian college students completed measures that included the General Mattering Scale and the...
Article
Full-text available
Are feelings of not mattering an antecedent of depressive symptoms, a consequence, or both? Most investigations focus exclusively on feelings of not mattering as an antecedent of depressive symptoms. Our current study examines a vulnerability model, a complication model, and a reciprocal relations model according to a cross-lagged panel model (CLPM...
Article
Full-text available
In the current article, we consider the broad question of “Why is perfectionism antithetical to mindfulness?” and we examine the implications for the treatment of perfectionists suffering from stress-related illnesses and disorders. In addition, we review past research on perfectionism and mindfulness. Finally, we also report two empirical studies...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction: The Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) posits that perfectionism confers risk for depression by promoting social disconnection. However, the specific indirect effect of social disconnection on the prospective relation of perfectionism dimensions with depression severity is not well understood. The aim of the current study...
Article
Full-text available
The current study sought to illustrate the vulnerability of people who feel like they do not matter by uniquely examining the extent to which feelings of not mattering are associated with insecure attachment styles, rumination, facets of self-criticism, and depression. Analyses of data from a cross-sectional sample of 247 university students establ...
Article
Full-text available
The current study evaluated factors that can help to account for the links between peer victimization and distress among 1039 adolescents. We assessed whether rejection sensitivity and self-esteem mediate the longitudinal associations between peer victimization and mental health problems. High school students completed a series of self-report quest...
Article
Full-text available
Theory and evidence converge to suggest perfectionism is a personality construct that matters a great deal and is linked with many consequential outcomes (e.g., depression, eating disorders, suicide, marital problems, and procrastination). With the multidimensional perfectionism construct turning 30 years of age, our review critically examines the...
Article
Full-text available
Decades of research implicates perfectionism in depressive symptoms. Yet, inconsistent findings, underpowered studies, and the tendency for researchers to assume one direction of influence have clouded understanding of whether perfectionism is a vulnerability factor for depressive symptoms, a complication of depressive symptoms, or both. Our primar...
Article
Full-text available
Perfectionism is considered a multidimensional and transdiagnostic personality style that can occur in severe forms of personality disorders. The aim of this study is to explore the acceptability and the feasibility of an integrative mindful compassion group intervention for patients who were diagnosed with personality disorders and reported promin...
Article
Objectives To initially assess psychometric properties of two abbreviated versions of the Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS): a 10-item Brief Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (BGSIS), and a 5-item Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale-Screen (GSIS-Screen). Methods A series of psychometric analyses was conducted, assessing the internal consistency,...
Article
Full-text available
There have been recent concerns about an “epidemic of loneliness” during the pandemic, given the pervasiveness of loneliness in the population and its harmful effects on health and well-being. Therefore, it is important to establish the correlates of loneliness. The purpose of the current study was to explore how loneliness relates to a construct t...
Article
Full-text available
Coaching athletes is highly rewarding yet stressful, especially at the elite level where media, fans, and sponsors can contribute to an environment that, if not well-managed by the coach, can lead to burnout. Coaches who display perfectionistic tendencies, such as striving for flawlessness, may be particularly vulnerable—even more so if they are ov...
Article
Full-text available
Previous research has linked feelings of not mattering to other people with mental health difficulties. While the link between feelings of not mattering and maladjustment has been extensively documented, little research has tested the possibility that this sense of not mattering is also associated with mental illness stigma. The present study teste...
Article
A key challenge in the ‘making of the psychologist’ is how to teach clinical case formulation, which goes beyond just listing the symptoms that make the ‘diagnosis’. One approach which has been both effective and popular among students entails employing case studies of individuals who are celebrities with known mental health conditions and then exp...
Article
Objective Perfectionism has been described as a multidimensional core vulnerability factor in various forms of dysfunction and disorders. Recently, we described our empirically supported‐dynamic‐relational treatment for perfectionism. This treatment integrates psychodynamic and interpersonal principles to reduce perfectionism and symptoms and enhan...
Article
Introduction: Perfectionism is a personality trait leading individuals to develop unrealistically high standards for performance accompanied by tendencies for overly critical self-evaluations. Onset of perfectionism may begin early in life, sometimes in young children. The Child-Adolescent Perfectionism Scale - Parents Report (CAPS–PR) is a 9-item...
Article
Full-text available
The stress generation model posits perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings generate stress and, in turn, depression. Alternatively, the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) maintains perfectionistic concerns and perfectionistic strivings confer risk for depression through social disconnection. However, inconsistent finding...
Article
This study investigated the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and performance satisfaction in response to challenging laboratory problem-solving tasks. In the laboratory session, 130 undergraduate students completed measures of perfectionism and stress and then attempted time-limited arithmetic and anagram tas...
Article
Full-text available
The existential model of perfectionism and depressive symptoms (EMPDS) posits difficulties accepting the past (i.e., viewing past experiences as incoherent, dissatisfying, and meaningless) explains when and why socially prescribed perfectionism (i.e., perceiving others as requiring perfection of the self) confers risk for depressive symptoms. Howev...
Article
Full-text available
Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (sars-CoV-2) is currently spreading in all the areas of the world. This ongoing pandemic has clear impacts in terms of the relevance of psychological needs. Psychological needs such as self-esteem, self-actualization, and relatedness only become relevant once basic physiological needs and safety and s...
Article
Numerous factors influence whether an individual is able and willing to seek professional help for psychological difficulties. One of these may be perfectionism, a multidimensional personality construct that has been linked to poor psychological adjustment. The current study investigated whether perfectionism traits and self‐presentational facets w...
Article
Full-text available
The Existential Model of Perfectionism and Depressive Symptoms (EMPDS) is a promising integrative model. According to the EMPDS, self-oriented perfectionism and socially prescribed perfectionism indirectly influence depressive symptoms through rumination and difficulty accepting the past. Yet, the extent to which self-oriented perfectionism, social...
Article
Full-text available
Introduction The current study investigates the effects of perfectionism discrepancies (PD) and social hopelessness (SH) on problematic social media use as conceptualized by the cognitive-behavioral model. Methods: A sample of 400 university students (52.3% women; mean age = 22.01 ± 1.99) completed measures assessing PD, SH, and problematic social...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: To assess the preliminary effectiveness of Meaning-Centered Men’s Groups (MCMG), a 12-session existentially-oriented, community-based, psychological group intervention designed to enhance psychological resiliency and prevent the onset or exacerbation of suicide ideation among men who are concerned about or struggling with the transition...
Article
Full-text available
Half a century of theoretical accounts, case histories, and evidence implies perfectionism limits the success of psychotherapy and makes it hard for people to participate in and benefit from close relationships. Likewise, intimate relationships are crucial determinants of the success of treatment. However, the extent to which specific types of rela...
Article
Full-text available
The psychological mechanisms that potentially underlie the negative correlation between narcissism and relationship satisfaction are unknown. This study examined the potential mediating role of perfectionistic self-presentation in the association between grandiose and vulnerable narcissistic traits and relationship satisfaction. The Actor-Partner I...
Article
Although research has established that feelings of not mattering are associated with distress, the factors and processes that contribute to these associations have not received much consideration. The current study was conducted to address three themes. First, mattering was evaluated from a motivational perspective by examining mattering and regula...
Article
Full-text available
Objectives: The negative impact of pre-treatment patient perfectionism on therapeutic alliance and outcomes has been well-documented. However, there is much to learn about how patient perfectionism impacts the development of the therapeutic alliance. Our study addressed this by examining the extent to which trait and self-presentational components...
Article
In this article, we introduce this second special issue on the assessment of perfectionism along with an overview of developments in the perfectionism field over the past 30 years following the shift to studying perfectionism as a multidimensional construct. We examine some key contributions over the past decade, including the proliferation of meta...
Article
The developmental model of perfectionism in the Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) posits that perfectionism may arise from insecure attachment (i.e., attachment anxiety and avoidance) and perceived defectiveness rooted in asynchronous or adverse parent-child relationships. To provide a test of the developmental portion of the PSDM, we...
Article
Full-text available
Perfectionism is a personality style involving the requirement for the self and/or others to be perfect or to present the self as perfect, and it is a vulnerability factor to many clinical and non-clinical problems in both children and adults. Hewitt, Flett, and Mikail's (2017) Perfectionism Social Disconnection Model (PSDM) posits that perfectioni...
Article
The objective of the present study was to develop and assess the validity of a short form of the Child–Adolescent Perfectionism Scale (CAPS). Two Portuguese samples composed of 756 adolescents were used to cross-validate the factorial structure of a nine-item Child–Adolescent Perfectionism Scale—Short Form (CAPS–SF). The CAPS–SF consists of a four-...
Article
In the current article, we describe the development and validation of a self-report measure of self-generated stress and its associations with measures of perfectionism, self-criticism, and distress. The Self-Generated Stress Scale is a seven-item inventory that taps the tendency to see oneself as someone who generates and adds to existing personal...
Article
In the current article, we describe the development and validation of the Mistake Rumination Scale as a supplement to existing trait and cognitive measures of perfectionism. The Mistake Rumination Scale is a seven-item inventory that taps the tendency to ruminate about a past personal mistake. Psychometric analyses confirmed that the Mistake Rumina...
Article
Perfectionistic automatic thoughts have been linked with depressive symptoms in numerous cross-sectional studies, but this link has not been assessed in longitudinal research. An investigation with two timepoints was conducted to test whether perfectionistic automatic thoughts, as assessed by the Perfectionism Cognitions Inventory (PCI), are contri...
Article
Objective: Advances in understanding of the perfectionism construct have been limited by an almost exclusive focus on a variable-centered approach. This study utilized a person-oriented approach to examine Hewitt and Flett’s (1991) conceptualization of multidimensional perfectionism in relation to health and well-being. Method: Cluster analysis was...
Article
Theories and research have alluded to the role of adverse childhood experiences in the origin and development of perfectionism. Yet, there is a paucity of research on the links between perfectionism and various categories of childhood adversity or maltreatment (e.g., abuse, neglect, and family dysfunction). The aim of this study was to explore the...
Article
Previous research has linked socially prescribed perfectionism (perceiving perfectionistic expectations from others) with personality dysfunction in clinical and nonclinical samples. However, the mechanism by which socially prescribed perfectionism is related to personality dysfunction is largely unknown. This study sought to test the hypothesis th...