Glyn W Humphreys's research while affiliated with University of Oxford and other places

Publications (895)

Article
Bearing in mind that cognitive control is a complex function that includes several processes, it is not clear exactly which ones deteriorate with age. In fact, controversial results have been found. For example, some studies indicate that age-related deficits are observed in proactive and not in reactive control, others show that it is reactive con...
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Evidence is presented for intermediate, wholistic visual representations of objects and non-objects that are computed online and independent of visual attention. Short-term visual priming was examined between visually similar shapes, with targets either falling at the (valid) location cued by primes or at another (invalid) location. Object decision...
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Prior work shows that the possibility of action to an object (visual affordance) facilitates attentional deployment (e.g., see Humphreys et al., 2010). We sought to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying this modulation of attention by examining ERPs to target objects that were either congruently or incongruently gripped for their use in the...
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There is ample evidence demonstrating intergroup biases on cognition and emotion. However, it remains unclear how exactly group identification influences these processes, with issues of context sensitivity and goal dependence remaining open to scrutiny. Providing a range of interdisciplinary material, the current review attempts to inform understan...
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Earlier work has demonstrated that attention is indirectly cognitively malleable by processes of self-association – processes by which agents explicitly associate an item with the self. We extend this work by considering the manipulation of attention to both salient and non-salient objects. We demonstrate that self-association impacts attentional p...
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Previous research on cross-culture comparisons found that Western cultures tend to value independence and the self is construed as an autonomous individual, while Eastern cultures value interdependence and self-identity is perceived as embedded among friends and family members (Markus and Kitayama, 1991). The present experiment explored these cultu...
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We report a new “now-bias” effect on simple perceptual matching between shapes and labels and examined the relation between this now-bias effect and the self-bias previously established with this task (Sui, He, & Humphreys, Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance, 38, 1105–1117, 2012). The perceptual biases favoring pre...
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Failures in prospective memory (PM) – that is, the failure to remember intended future actions – can have adverse consequences. It is therefore important to study those processes that may help to minimize such cognitive failures. Although multisensory integration has been shown to enhance a wide variety of behaviors, including perception, learning,...
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Sense of ownership is a ubiquitous and fundamental aspect of human cognition. Here we used model-based functional magnetic resonance imaging and a novel minimal ownership paradigm to probe the behavioural and neural mechanisms underpinning ownership acquisition for ourselves, friends and strangers. We find a self-ownership bias at multiple levels o...
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Self-related information is under many circumstances processed in a preferred and biased way, leading to what has been termed the self-prioritisation effect (SPE). The SPE has been demonstrated with arbitrary stimuli assigned to self and others, thereby controlling the influence of familiarity, and originally been attributed to facilitated perceptu...
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An in-group bias describes an individual’s bias towards a group that they belong to. Previous studies suggest that in-group bias facilitates approach motor responses, but disrupts avoidance ones. Such motor biases are shown to be more robust when the out-group is threatening. We investigated whether, under controlled visual familiarity and complexi...
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Change blindness is a phenomenon of visual perception that occurs when a stimulus undergoes a change without this being noticed by its observer. To date, the effect has been produced by changing images displayed on screen as well as changing people and objects in an individual’s environment. In this experiment, we combine these two approaches to di...
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The current study assessed a wide range of offense supportive cognitions in relation to the perpetration of physical intimate partner violence (IPV). This research used both implicit and explicit measures in a U.K. sample of 19 male IPV perpetrators recruited from a community-based IPV intervention program and 20 men from the community with no hist...
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The merging of information from different senses (i.e., multisensory integration) can facilitate information processing. Processing enhancements have been observed with signals that are irrelevant to the task at hand, and with cues that are non-predictive. Such findings are consistent with the notion that multiple sensory signals are sometimes inte...
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Previous research has demonstrated that in-group favouritism occurs not only in higher-level judgments such as reward allocation, but also in low-level perceptual and attentional tasks. Recently, Moradi, Sui, Hewstone, and Humphreys (2015) found a novel effect of in-group bias on a simple perceptual matching task in which football fans responded mo...
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People show biases to self-related information on a range of tasks. Key but controversial questions are whether self-related information is processed without attention, and whether self-related information determines what is attended. We examined this using patients showing visual extinction. We had patients associated shapes with themselves or the...
Article
The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is a neuropsychological battery designed to assess impairment to a variety of cognitive domains including language in patients with brain injuries. Twenty-two stroke participants and 16 gender-, age-, and education-matched controls were recruited in Hong Kong. The stroke participants were administered HK-BCoS...
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http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/13506285.2017.1330790 Multiple accounts have been proposed to explain category-specific recognition impairments. Some suggest that category-specific deficits may be caused by a deficit in recurrent processing between the levels of a hierarchically organized visual object recognition system. Here, we test...
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Studies have shown that attending to salient group relevant information could increase the BOLD activity across distributed neural networks. However, it is unclear how attending to group relevant information changes the functional connectivity across these networks. We investigated this issue combining resting states and task-based fMRI experiment....
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Studies have shown that attention prioritizes stimuli associated with the in-group. However, the extent to which this so-called in-group favoritism is driven by relevance is not clear. Here, we investigated this issue in a group of university rowers using a novel perceptual matching task based on the team label–color associations. Across three expe...
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We examined the effects of in-group relevance on inhibitory control in anti-saccades. In Experiment 1, following a central coloured cue, football fans were instructed to look at the target on pro-saccade trials or its mirrored position on anti-saccade trials. The targets were badges of participants’ favourite football team (in-group), its closest r...
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Introduction: The Birmingham Cognitive Screen (BCoS) is designed for use with individuals who have acquired language impairment following stroke. Our goal was to develop a Russian version of the BCoS (Rus-BCoS) by translating the battery following cultural and linguistic adaptations and establishing preliminary data on its psychometric properties....
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We assessed the factors influencing the planning of actions required to manipulate one of two everyday objects with matching dimensions but openings at opposite ends: a cup and a vase. We found that, for cups, measures of movement preparation to reach and grasp the object were influenced by whether the grasp was made to the functional part of the o...
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Sustained attention (SA) is among the most studied faculties of human cognition, and thought to be crucial for many aspects of behavior. Measuring SA often relies on performance on a continuous, low-demanding task. Such continuous performance tasks (CPTs) have many variations, and sustained attention is typically estimated based on variability in r...
Chapter
Originally published in 1987, this book, attempted to bring together work by researchers concerned with the functional and neurological mechanisms underlying visual object processing, and the ways in which such mechanisms can be neurologically impaired. The editors termed it a 'Cognitive Neuropsychological' approach, because they believed it tried...
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We measured changes in self and friend biases in perceptual matching in young and older participants. Participants learned associations between neutral geometric shapes and three personal labels (You, Friend, or Stranger), representing themselves, their named best friend, and a stranger not corresponding to anyone they knew. They then responded whe...
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The neural processes for action and language activate shared brain regions including the left inferior frontal, parietal and temporal-occipital cortices. However, it still remains unclear how action and language are related and what neural activity patterns are elicited within these shared cortical regions. In this study we examined the neural acti...
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We use an established neural network model of the primate visual system to show how neurons might learn to encode the gender of faces. The model consists of a hierarchy of 4 competitive neuronal layers with associatively modifiable feedforward synaptic connections between successive layers. During training, the network was presented with many reali...
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Although theoretical discourse and experimental studies on the self and reward biases have a long tradition, currently we have only a limited understanding of how the biases are represented in the brain and, more importantly, how they relate to each other. We used multi-voxel pattern analysis to test for common representations of self and reward in...
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Sociocultural research has established independence and interdependence as two fundamental ways of thinking about oneself and the social world. Recent neuroscience studies further demonstrate that these orientations modulate brain activity in various self- and socially related tasks. In the current study, we explored whether the traits of independe...
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Perceiving and selecting the action possibilities (affordances) provided by objects is an important challenge to human vision, and is not limited to single-object scenarios. Xu, Humphreys and Heinke (2015) identified two effects of implied actions between paired objects on response selection: an inhibitory effect on responses aligned with the passi...
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People show systematic biases in perception, memory, and attention to favor information related to themselves over information related to other people. Researchers have examined these biases in order to throw light on the nature of the self. We review this evidence in memory, face recognition, and simple perceptual matching tasks through objective...
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Experimental studies have shown that neurons at an intermediate stage of the primate ventral visual pathway, occipital face area, encode individual facial parts such as eyes and nose while neurons in the later stages, middle face patches, are selective to the full face by encoding the spatial relations between facial features. We have performed a c...
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Objectives: 1. Assess validity of the Oxford Cognitive Screen (OCS-Plus), a domain-specific cognitive assessment designed for low-literacy settings, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC); 2. Advance theoretical contributions in cognitive neuroscience in domain-specific cognitive function and cognitive reserve, especially related to...
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We present novel data on the role of attention in eliciting enhanced processing of stimuli associated with self. Participants were required to make pro- or anti-saccades according to whether learned shape-label pairings matched or mismatched. When stimuli matched participants were required to make an anti-saccade and when the stimuli mismatched a p...
Chapter
From the early days of experimental psychology, researchers have been interested in how social information modulates perceptual and cognitive processes. A major problem in methodology reflects a difficulty in quantifying the interaction between social factors and perceptual information. Recent advancement in mathematical psychology offers a powerfu...
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Orienting attention retrospectively to selective contents in working memory (WM) influences performance. A separate line of research has shown that stimulus strength shapes perceptual representations. There is little research on how stimulus strength during encoding shapes WM performance, and how effects of retrospective orienting might vary with c...
Data
Additional analyses results for Experiments 1–3. P-values for Experiments 1–3 when all volunteers were included in the analysis. Importantly, the results remained (largely) equivalent. The critical cueing effect on kappa in Experiment 2 but not Experiment 3, and on misbinding in Experiment 3 but not 2, remained significant regardless of exclusion c...
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The attentional system allows individuals to bias and enhance the processing of a pre-defined target in the visual field. This capability can be demonstrated using visual search, where a single target is identified within a varying number of distractors, which can share features with targets. When the process of visual search is interrupted by temp...
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Multisensory signals can enhance information processing even with task irrelevant sensory signals and cues, suggesting that some aspects of multisensory processing may be automatic. Nevertheless, the role of awareness in multisensory processing remains elusive. We aimed to investigate multisensory processing in a patient with posterior cortical atr...
Article
People show biases to self-related information on a range of tasks. One key controversial question is whether self-related information is processed without awareness, which then determines what is attended. We examined this using patients showing visual extinction. Extinction patients can respond to a single stimulus on their affected side but are...
Article
There are only a few studies on the brain networks involved in the ability to prepare in time, and most of them followed a correlational rather than a neuropsychological approach. The present neuropsychological study performed multiple regression analysis to address the relationship between both grey and white matter (measured by magnetic resonance...
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Temporal dynamics of attention have been in the spotlight of research since the earliest days of cognitive psychology. Typically, researchers describe two different aspects of the temporal fluctuations of attention: one is in intervals of milliseconds (phasic alertness), and the other over minutes or even hours (tonic alertness or sustained attenti...
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The data article includes reaction time and accuracy from four experiments. It descries three independent variables: the social meaning of geometric shape (include self, friend and stranger), the label of identify (self, friend and stranger), the body perceptive (first-person perspective and third-person perspective), see (Sun et al., 2016) [1].
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Being able to orient our attention to moments in time is crucial for optimizing behavioral performance. In young adults, flexible cue-based temporal expectations have been shown to modulate perceptual functions and enhance behavioral performance. Recent studies with older individuals have reported significant deficits in cued temporal orienting. To...
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The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is understood to be active when observers perceive three-dimensional (3D) structure. However, it is not clear how central this activity is in the construction of 3D spatial representations. Here, we examine whether PPC is essential for two aspects of visual depth perception by testing patients with lesions affect...
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Human visual search operates not only over space but also over time, as old items remain in the visual field and new items appear. Preview search (where one set of distractors appears before the onset of a second set) has been used as a paradigm to study search over time and space [Watson, D. G., & Humphreys, G. W. Visual marking: Prioritizing sele...