Glen MacKay's scientific contributions

Publications (21)

Article
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The Moose Horn Pass Caribou Fence site (KjRx-1) consists of three wooden fences located in a remote area of the Mackenzie Mountains in Canada's Northwest Territories. Situated in the traditional homeland of the Shúhtagot'ine (Mountain Dene), they were used to assist past hunters to harvest northern mountain caribou by channeling multiple animals to...
Article
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The study of faecal samples to reconstruct the diets and habitats of extinct megafauna has traditionally relied on pollen and macrofossil analysis. DNA metabarcoding has emerged as a valuable tool to complement and refine these proxies. While published studies have compared the results of these three proxies for sediments, this comparison is curren...
Article
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Indigenous peoples of Canada’s North have long made use of boreal forest products, with wooden drift fences to direct caribou movement towards kill sites as unique examples. Caribou fences are of archaeological and ecological significance, yet sparsely distributed and increasingly at risk to wildfire. Costly remote field logistics requires efficien...
Poster
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What combination of DNA metabarcoding primers works best to reconstruct changing species composition of Arctic vegetation over time? How do pollen, macro-fossil and DNA results from Pleistocene coprolites compare?
Article
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The Ice Free Corridor has been invoked as a route for Pleistocene human and animal dispersals between eastern Beringia and more southerly areas of North America. Despite the significance of the corridor, there are limited data for when and how this corridor was used. Hypothetical uses of the corridor include: the first expansion of humans from Beri...
Article
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This article is the first in the Alberta Lithic Reference Project series, the goal of which is to assist the identification of raw materials used for pre-contact stone tools in the province. Each article focuses on one raw material; the current article discusses a partially fused, glassy, vesicular rock that originates in Northwest Territories call...
Article
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Viruses preserved in ancient materials provide snapshots of past viral diversity and a means to trace viral evolution through time. Here, we use a metagenomics approach to identify filterable and nuclease-resistant nucleic acids preserved in 700-y-old caribou feces frozen in a permanent ice patch. We were able to recover and characterize two viruse...
Data
##Assembly-Data-START## Assembly Method :: Geneious v. R6 Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing; 454 ##Assembly-Data-END##
Data
##Assembly-Data-START## Assembly Method :: Geneious v. R6 Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing; 454 ##Assembly-Data-END##
Data
##Assembly-Data-START## Assembly Method :: Geneious v. R6 Sequencing Technology :: Sanger dideoxy sequencing; 454 ##Assembly-Data-END##
Article
Full-text available
Oral and written historical records indicate that the Mackenzie Inuit traveled up the Mackenzie River from the Arctic Coast to procure lithic raw material in the interior from a quarry at the mouth of the Thunder River, which is known locally by the Gwich'in of the lower Mackenzie Valley as Vihtr'ii Tshik. We evaluate this proposition using non-des...
Article
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Inspired by the groundbreaking investigation of ice patch archaeology in Yukon Territory, the authors began exploring the Mackenzie, Selwyn, and Richardson Mountains for ice patch archaeological sites in 2000. Through remote sensing analysis, followed by intensive field surveys in the Selwyn and Mackenzie Mountains, we documented eight ice patch si...
Article
Full-text available
Permanent ice patches in the western Canadian Subarctic have been recently identified as sources of cryogenically preserved artifacts and biological specimens. The formation, composition, and constancy of these ice patches have yet to be studied. As part of the Northwest Territories (NWT) Ice Patch Study, ground-penetrating radar (GPR) and ice cori...
Article
Full-text available
We examine the mitochondrial genetic stability of mountain woodland caribou (Rangifer tarandus caribou) in the Mackenzie and Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, over the last 4000 years. Unlike caribou populations in the Yukon, populations in the Northwest Territories show no evidence for mitochondrial genetic turnover during that period, whic...
Article
Full-text available
Discussions of the development of past hunting equipment generally focus on lithic and bone projectile points and foreshafts, as these are often the only elements remaining in archaeological sites. In the last 15 years, the archaeology of alpine ice patches has provided a unique opportunity to analyze hunting equipment over time and gain knowledge...
Article
Full-text available
Alpine ice patches are unique repositories of cryogenically preserved archaeological artefacts and biological specimens. Recent melting of ice in the Selwyn Mountains, Northwest Territories, Canada, has exposed layers of dung accumulated during seasonal use of ice patches by mountain woodland caribou of the ancestral Redstone population over the pa...
Article
Full-text available
The NWT Ice Patch Study was developed in partnership with the Shuhtagot'ine residents of Tulita, Northwest Territories, Canada. This paper explores how Shuhtagot'ine traditional knowledge, collected through the direct participation of Elders in our archaeological fieldwork, science camps with Elders and youth, Elder interviews, and traditional land...
Article
a b s t r a c t A partial steppe bison (Bison priscus) carcass was recovered at Tsiigehtchic, near the confluence of the Arctic Red and Mackenzie Rivers, Northwest Territories, Canada in September of 2007. The carcass includes a complete cranium with horn cores and sheaths, several complete post-cranial elements (many of which have some mummified s...

Citations

... DNA metabarcoding provides a useful method for monitoring plant use across wide spatiotemporal scales, such as multiple countries or regions [90] and, when compared with historical data, time periods over decades or centuries [38, 91,92]. The reproducibility of DNA metabarcoding allows for continued sampling of foraging across a species' entire flight period, providing an understanding of plant selection at specific time points. ...
... For example, multispectral airborne LiDAR has the potential for predicting boreal tree species composition [71][72][73]. GNWT is also increasingly using remotely piloted aircraft systems (RPAS, also known as drones) to acquire data for research and other applications [74][75][76]; such data could extend the network of field plots currently limited by physical access and resource availability. The strategic acquisition of RPAS data (specifically point clouds, both LiDAR and photogrammetric), as well as cross-disciplinary leverage of existing RPAS archives and other data, would extend the availability of forest structure information across an ecologically broader range of forest types than what the existing network of FI plots currently offers. ...
... The potential attribution of a proto-Apachean identity to the Promontory cave occupants is an underlying interest in our research group. Triggered by the massive White River Ash east lobe eruption at AD 846-848, a small founding population of Apachean ancestors may have gradually made their way south in ensuing centuries (e.g., Achilli et al. 2013;Kristensen, Andrews, et al. 2019;Kristensen, Hare, et al. 2019;Kristensen et al. 2020). Promontory caves material culture linkages to the Subarctic include moccasins constructed in a characteristically Subarctic style (Bata Shoe Museum classifications BSM 2[Bb] and BSM 2[Ab]), fine leather from a sophisticated hide-processing tradition, and distinctive artifacts such as chi-thos (tabular bifaces used for hide softening), which are common in the Subarctic but unknown in Fremont assemblages (Ives, Froese, et al. 2014;Webber 1989). ...
... Pre-contact artifacts made from some rock types in Alberta can be misidentified due to a lack of accessible reference materials with standardized nomenclature and high-resolution photographs. This is the sixth in a series of articles in the Alberta Lithic Reference Project (Kristensen et al. 2016a;Kristensen et al. 2016b;Kristensen et al. 2016c;Kristensen et al. 2018;Kristensen et al. 2019a), the goals of which are to illustrate and analyse archaeological raw materials used in the province and spur new research agendas. The current article focuses on porcellanite, a pyrometamorphic stone used in southern and central Alberta for over 10,000 years. ...
... It also contrasts with paleoenvironmental reconstructions of Pedersen et al. (2016) that characterize the corridor area around Fort St. John, British Columbia (∼600 km west of our study area) as closed or uninhabitable until after 12.8 ka. Our results are consistent with the work of Heintzman et al. (2016) that describes the presence of a biome capable of supporting bison and other large mammals, including humans, by ca. 13.0 ka in the central deglacial corridor. ...
... Remote sensing of coarse woody debris Caribou fences are made up of coarse woody debris (CWD) that combined can be several hundred metres to kilometres long (Andrews et al. 2012b), hence lessons in CWD detection using remote sensing directly relate to the documentation of these features. Challenges in CWD field sampling techniques (Ståhl et al. 2001;Woldendorp et al. 2004), as well as the relevance of dead wood in a host of forest ecosystem functions , have sparked an interest in applying remotely sensed data for this purpose. ...
... Ice patches consist of thin accumulations of ice generally overlaid by firn, i.e., a metamorphized snow that survived at least one ablation season and in which the pore space is at least partially interconnected (Cogley et al. 2011). Perennial ice patches exist continuously for centuries or millennia, whereas semi-permanent ice patches persist for several consecutive years but disappear completely occasionally during warm summers (Meulendyk et al. 2012;Woo and Young 2014;Ødegård et al. 2017). They are, thus, distinguished from snow patches (also referred to as late-lying snow patches or snowbank) that melt every summer. ...
... Artifacts have been melting out of cryogenic environments across the globe (Dixon et al. 2014). From ice patches in Alpine regions (Andrews and MacKay 2012;Reckin 2013), to glaciers, snow fields and permafrost contexts, the archaeological heritage of cryogenic environments is under threat. However, not all archaeological sites are equally endangered. ...
... Six years later, arrows, atlatl darts, and paleozoological material were reported from Yukon ice patches (Farnell et al. 2004), and a long-term program was initiated to rescue these finds. Pretty soon, similar finds, but fewer in number, appeared elsewhere in western Canada (Northwest Territories [Andrews, MacKay, and Andrew 2012] and British Columbia [Hebda, Greer, and Mackie 2017]), in Alaska (Dixon, Manley, and Lee 2005;Vander-Hoek et al. 2012), and in the U.S. part of the Rocky Mountains (Lee 2012). More finds appeared in the Alps, as well (Hafner 2015). ...
... Political and economic desires did not bridge the geographic gap or linguistic barrier of Dene and Inuit-Yupik people, at least not for prolonged periods required for formal kinship and corridors of economic exchange to develop (Dumond, 1980;Janes, 1973;Morrison, 1991;Ousley, 1995;Rasic, 2016;Szathmary, 1979). Dene and Inuit interactions vacillated from warfare to relative peace and this seemed to limit the transfer of language, DNA, and technology (Birket- Smith, 1930:33;Hearne, 1795:338;Heine et al., 2007;Janes, 1973;Lamb, 1970: 208;MacKay et al., 2013). ...