Gillian King's research while affiliated with University of Toronto and other places

Publications (223)

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Transition to adult life can be a challenging time for disabled youth and their families. This article describes the collaborative creation of Transitions Theatre, a research-based reader’s theatre activity based on narrative interviews with eight disabled youth (aged 17–22) and seven parents. Analysis of these interviews generated two opposing yet...
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Plain English summary Researchers, patients, and families who collaborate in childhood disability research can benefit from training on how to engage with each other authentically and meaningfully, i.e., where all parties feel supported and valued. We used a codesign approach to identify aspects of the research process where challenges might arise...
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Purpose To better understand and visualise how and why mothers’ and service providers’ expectations for therapy can change over time spanning their journeys and careers in the paediatric rehabilitation system. Methods Narrative analysis was used to construct two parallel collective stories that illustrate and explain phases and turning points of d...
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Purpose: To use stories about mothers and service providers negotiating expectations for therapy to illuminate processes contributing to power differences within partnerships. Methods: This narrative study presented stories from three mothers and three service providers. Stories were co-constructed between participants and researchers and analyzed...
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Purpose: To synthesize knowledge about social participation interventions targeting relational outcomes for young people with physical and developmental disabilities. Method: An umbrella review with a narrative synthesis was conducted to integrate findings of review articles examining social participation interventions targeting relational outcomes...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we examine the applications and contributions of ethnographic approaches in children’s rehabilitation. Central to our argument is the idea that ethnography is a sensibility, meaning, a particular mindset that both informs, and flows from, ethnographic methods of data collection. We begin by presenting our definition of ethnographic...
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Purpose The purpose was to synthesize qualitative literature and identify indicators of life success (positive life outcomes and experiences) that can help in understanding resiliency in the context of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Methods This scoping review involved searching nine online databases for population (TBI) and context (qualitative li...
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Background Parents of children with disabilities often report stress, depression, and anxiety. This review identified screening tools and practices that pediatric rehabilitation service providers can use to screen the mental health of parents of children with disabilities Methods An interdisciplinary team and patient partner completed the systemat...
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Purpose: To explore solution-focused coaching (SFC) as a means to enhance pediatric rehabilitation practitioners’ development of listening skills. Methods: Six clinicians each participated in two SFC sessions with an experienced coach who used a practice model developed for pediatric rehabilitation (SFC-peds). The transcribed interviews were analyz...
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Purpose Youth Facilitators (YFs) are peer service providers (SPs) with childhood-onset disabilities working in pediatric rehabilitation teams. This study explored the YF role focusing on what work YFs do, the perceived facilitators and challenges pertinent to the role integration process, and the evolution of the role over the study period. Method...
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Purpose: Listening in healthcare practice is often overlooked. This article addresses the misconception that listening in rehabilitation and healthcare is a simple skill, and proposes a conceptual framework of effective listening in healthcare conversations, based on conceptualizations, attributes, and outcomes associated with listening. Method:...
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Purpose: To propose a holistic approach and an accompanying tool to facilitate conversations about expectations of therapy in pediatric rehabilitation based on meanings generated through metaphor. Methods: In this study, five parents and nine service providers took part in narrative interviews. Topics included the content and development of expe...
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Background: Consultant pediatricians represent a potential resource for increasing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic capacity; however, little is known about how they perceive their roles in ASD diagnosis. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine the perspectives of rural consultant pediatricians regarding their perceived ro...
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The purpose of this review was to identify the quantity, breadth, and methodological characteristics of literature examining parent perspectives of autism spectrum disorder diagnosis, synthesize key research findings, and highlight gaps in the current literature. A systematic search was conducted for the period January 1994–February 2020. One hundr...
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Aims To examine goal attainment, engagement, and the stances used by coaches providing a solution-focused coaching intervention (SFC-peds) for young people with cerebral palsy pursuing friendship goals. Methods The case study involved two clients with cerebral palsy (a young child and his mother, and a youth) and their service providers. An interp...
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Purpose To explore engagement principles and contextual conditions in high-engagement therapy sessions involving youth with disabilities and service providers. Method From a larger project on therapy engagement, a dyadic case analysis was conducted involving three youth ages 8–15 with disabilities and their service providers. Participants were int...
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Military service can include numerous adverse events. As such, resiliency has been considered as a means of potentially helping active-duty personnel face adversity and be better prepared for the demands of military service. However, research in military contexts has been hindered by use of disparate conceptualizations, definitions, and measures of...
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Purpose To examine parents’ views of the benefits of residential immersive life skills programs for youth with disabilities. Method Three- and 12-month post-session interviews were held with ten parents of youth with disabilities who had attended one of three residential immersive life skills programs in one of three years of data collection. A de...
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Aims Perspectives of children with and without disabilities on social inclusion are seldom sought in the childhood disability literature, impeding the ability to provide inclusive experiences for all children. This qualitative study explored meaningful aspects of social inclusion from the perspectives of children with and without disabilities in an...
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Children with impairments are known to experience more restricted participation than other children. It also appears that low levels of participation are related to a higher prevalence of mental health problems in children with neurodevelopmental disorders (NDD). The purpose of this conceptual paper is to describe and define the constructs mental h...
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Aims: This qualitative evaluation study assessed perceived impacts of a solution-focused coaching (SFC) training rolled out in a Canadian pediatric rehabilitation hospital from the perspective of clinical service providers. Methods: Thirteen clinical service providers were interviewed six months after receiving 2-day SFC training. Participants retr...
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Purpose Inclusive recreation programs can have individual and community impacts for children with and without disabilities. However, studies that explore the impact of such programs on children’s attitudes are mixed. The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives of children with and without disabilities on the individual impact of an in...
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Purpose To examine the psychometric properties of a parent-report measure of engagement in pediatric rehabilitation. Method 113 parents (of children 4 months to 18 years, varying in diagnoses) were recruited from standard outpatient/inpatient, early intervention, and life skills programs, sampled from different sites in Canada, the US, and Austral...
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Purpose The aim was to examine parents’ experiences of engagement in a friendship-making intervention for youth with physical and developmental disabilities. Method This mixed methods study used a convergent parallel design where quantitative and qualitative data were collected concurrently, analyzed independently, and then merged into an overall...
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Purpose This study explored the meaning of the after-hours social experiences of youth with disabilities in a residential life skills program. After-hours experiences occur outside of formal program hours, primarily in the evenings. Method Five youth with cerebral palsy (three females) participated in an exploratory photo elicitation study while a...
Article
Purpose: This study generated an understanding of familial resiliency following an adolescent's stroke and what resiliency-related outcomes were important to this family. Design and methods: A qualitative case study design was used to collect data during an in-person interview. The interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed using thematic a...
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This study investigated self‐regulation and resiliency in one's search for reemployment. Although trait‐based approaches are central to many resiliency conceptualizations, recent research has found that self‐regulation (affective, behavioral, and cognitive) contributes to predicting resiliency‐related outcomes. We hypothesized that self‐regulation...
Chapter
Discussing how participation can be seen as a means to an end not only for the person but also in the intervention process and in support systems having programs for support children and youth with disabilities
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Purpose: To examine how conceptualizations of caregiver adaptation to traumatic brain injury have changed over time. The objectives were to identify research traditions, adaptive outcomes assessed in these traditions, and psychosocial variables associated with adaptive outcomes. Methods: A meta-narrative review was conducted on 29 identified articl...
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Purpose: To examine the opportunities, experiences, and outcomes of a transition program for youth with disabilities. Methods: Over three years, in a prospective study, 29 youth (17 males) attending residential immersive life skills programs reported on their experiences in 55 activity settings in which opportunities were also rated using standardi...
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Backgrounds: Resiliency has attracted a growing interest in paediatric rehabilitation as a key capacity for disabled children and their families to thrive. This study aimed to identify measures used to assess resiliency of disabled children/youth and their families and critically appraise the current use of resiliency measures to inform future res...
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Background: The ultimate goal of therapeutic intervention is meaningful participation in one’s world. For people with Cerebral Palsy (CP), limitations can often become a focus of care. Aim: Our purpose was to investigate the impact of a Solution-Focused Coaching intervention designed for pediatric rehabilitation (SFC-peds) on the attainment of part...
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Purpose: To examine solution-focused coaching (SFC) as a means to enhance clinicians’ professional development. Methods: Six pediatric rehabilitation clinicians (three physical, two occupational, and one behavior therapist) each received two SFC sessions targeting clinical listening goals. Conversational intervals were noted in session transcriptio...
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Purpose: To investigate client (youth/caregiver) and service provider engagement in outpatient pediatric rehabilitation therapy sessions. Methods: In an ethnographic study, five research assistants attended 28 outpatient sessions, mostly delivered by occupational, physical, and speech-language therapists, and rated signs of client, provider, and re...
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Background: Canadian hospitals are not currently prepared to meet the psychosocial needs of children with disabilities as services are rooted in a biomedical care model. Objective: To describe a practical and holistic framework for pediatric rehabilitation hospitals to meet the health care needs of children and their families. Method: An environmen...
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Fostering successful interprofessional collaboration remains a challenge in pediatric rehabilitation. A coaching approach can enhance client-centered care and provide a transdisciplinary framework for collaboration. The purpose of this longitudinal study was to evaluate the impact of Solution-Focused Coaching in Pediatric Rehabilitation (SFC-peds)...
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Introduction: Residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs are designed for youth with disabilities and facilitate the development of adaptive behaviors for life skills required to navigate adulthood. This study explored parents' experiences of the RILS program journey, shifts in parenting approaches, and the implications of those shifts. Me...
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Background: Professional support in pediatric and rehabilitation care environments has been recommended as a means to build youth competence in life skills during their transition to adulthood. Life skills are the essential psychosocial competencies and interpersonal skills needed to manage one's life. Residential immersive life skills (RILS) prog...
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Aims: This qualitative descriptive study explored perceived impacts of solution-focused coaching in pediatric rehabilitation (SFC-peds) from the viewpoint of experienced therapists. Methods: Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with six participants (four occupational therapists and two physical therapists) who had incorporated SFC-pe...
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Purpose: Integrating children with and without disabilities in recreation programs is assumed to promote inclusion. How social inclusion is facilitated in recreation settings, however, is not fully known. This study aimed to explore how social inclusion is supported in a recreation program. Materials and methods: A generic qualitative methodology w...
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Aims: The aim of this paper is to provide a holistic description of the nature, formation and impact of parents’ therapy related expectations. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study drew from initial and follow up interviews with 20 parents of children ≤ 6 years who had a developmental disability or delay and used therapy services at a childre...
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Statement of Purpose: Residential Immersive life skills (RILS) programs are unique programs for youth with disabilities. These programs enable youth to develop adaptive behaviors required to navigate adulthood. This study explored the emergence of emotional literacy development for youth who attended RILS programs. Methods: This study draws on twen...
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Aims: This preliminary study examined the effects of a participation-based friendship intervention for youth with physical and developmental disabilities on their goal attainment, social self-efficacy, and engagement in program sessions. Methods: Before and after the eight-session intervention, five youth with physical and developmental disabilitie...
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Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs are unique programs for youth with disabilities. Situated, experiential, psychoeducational and strengths‐based learning approaches expose youth to opportunities and experiences that can facilitate the development of adaptive behaviours. This study examined the pedagogy of RILS programs to facilitate...
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Purpose: Parents of children with disabilities are at increased risk of mental health challenges, yet it is unclear whether parent mental health screening should be considered in the context of children’s rehabilitation. Methods: A nonsystematic narrative review was conducted guided by a framework for assessing the effectiveness of proposed health...
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Purpose: To provide a theoretically grounded understanding of engagement in interactive computer play-based motor therapies by children with cerebral palsy in home settings. Methods: A motivational framework for engagement and its relationship with three contemporary theories (self-determination theory, expectancy-value theory, social cognitive the...
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Purpose: To conduct a qualitative investigation of engagement in pediatric rehabilitation therapy. Methods: Interviews were conducted with 10 youth, 10 caregivers, and 10 service providers. Transcripts were analyzed thematically using an inductive approach. Results: Themes illustrated three perspectives: engagement as a connection with components o...
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Objective: In the knowledge base examining experiences of childhood brain injury, the perspectives of children with brain injury are notably lacking. This failure to represent the voices of pediatric clients has resulted in an incomplete knowledge base from which to inform evidence-based rehabilitation practice. In this paper, we examine why the pe...
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Despite the importance of students without special needs’ perspectives in promoting successful social inclusion strategies in the classroom, their perspectives are not well represented in the literature. The purpose of this scoping review was to summarise the perspectives of students without special needs around the social inclusion of students wit...
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Introduction Children with physical disabilities are rarely included in interventions to promote healthy lifestyles, despite being at higher risk for suboptimal dietary and physical activity behaviours. The Children and Teens in Charge of their Health study explores the feasibility and acceptability of conducting a randomised controlled trial (RCT)...
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Purpose: There is a growing movement in pediatric rehabilitation to understand how approaches addressing aspects beyond body function contribute to enhanced psychosocial well-being. Among such approaches is the use of creative arts. A scoping review was undertaken to synthesize the current literature on performance and visual arts-based programs a...
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Purpose: Children’s resiliency is seen as important in pediatric rehabilitation, but is seldom the focus of research or intervention. This article presents a resiliency framework to inform pediatric rehabilitation research, service design, and practice. Methods: The development of the framework was guided by a transactional, life course perspective...
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Purpose: Residential immersive life skills programs provide youth with the skills and outlooks needed to adopt new roles in life. Observed program opportunities and service providers' perceptions of opportunities were examined to determine program fidelity. Service providers' views of how the programs work were also examined. Method: 107 activit...
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Objective: To examine intervention strategy use in residential immersive life skills (RILS) programs. Methods: The Service Provider Strategies-Checklist was used to record the strategies used in 100 activity settings across two summers at three RILS program sites. Activity settings were categorized by activity type and session format. Relative occu...
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There is a growing trend in traumatic brain injury (TBI) rehabilitation, and research, to focus on the processes of adaptation following the injury. Resiliency is an umbrella term describing the range of personal protective factors, environmental supports and resources, as well as self-regulatory processes, engaged in response to adversity. An affe...
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BACKGROUND Wait times for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnosis contribute to delayed access to ASD interventions, which are most effective at young ages. General paediatricians (GPs) represent a potential resource for increasing diagnostic capacity and decreasing wait times for ASD diagnostic assessments. No current research has yet to solicit...
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Family-Centered Care (FCC) represents the ideal service delivery approach in pediatric rehabilitation. Nonetheless, implementing FCC as intended in clinical settings continues to be hindered by knowledge gaps. One overlooked gap is our understanding of clients' therapy expectations. This perspective article synthesizes knowledge from the mental hea...
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Aim: Client engagement is assumed to affect therapy outcomes. This study examined service providers' perceptions of youth engagement in solution-focused coaching sessions focusing on participation-oriented goals for youth with cerebral palsy. Method: Service providers completed the Pediatric Rehabilitation Intervention Measure of Engagement-Serv...
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Social media (social media) is a critical component of youth culture, and may provide a useful platform for exploring young people's authentic voices. This narrative review considers how researchers are exploring the experiences of youth with disabilities using social media. Five health and social science databases were searched using terms related...
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Aims: A qualitative study was conducted to investigate family experiences and outcomes of Solution-Focused Coaching in pediatric rehabilitation (SFC-peds). Methods: Two interviews (5 months apart) were conducted with nine sets of family members who had received SFC-peds, within the past 6 months, from therapists with 3-10 years of experience usi...
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Aim: To examine the conceptual and clinometric properties of measures for parent engagement in developmental or rehabilitation interventions for children and youth (<18 years of age). Methods: Four electronic databases were searched. Studies were included if they reported measures of at least one domain of parent engagement (i.e. affective, cogn...
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Purpose: The Pediatric Rehabilitation Intervention Measure of Engagement-Observation (PRIME-O) version was designed to capture signs of affective, cognitive and behavioral involvement for clients and service providers and in the client-provider interaction. Methods: Phase 1 examined interrater consensus and construct validity of a pilot version, us...
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Objective: Community general pediatricians (CGPs) are a potential resource to increase capacity for autism spectrum disorder (ASD) diagnostic assessments. The objective of this study was to explore factors influencing CGPs' perspectives on and practices of providing ASD diagnoses. Methods: This qualitative study used a constructivist modified gr...
Chapter
The Effective Listening and Interactive Communication Scale (ELICS) is a self-assessment of listening and communication skills in the context of pediatric rehabilitation practice. This 24-item scale measures: Receptive Listening (mindful attention to understand the client's situation), Exploratory Listening (dialogue to elicit information and estab...
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Date Presented 3/31/2017 This scoping review synthesizes the available evidence on typically developing students’ perspectives about social inclusion in mainstream schools and recommends classroom inclusion strategies based on these perspectives. Primary Author and Speaker: Brydne Edwards Contributing Authors: Debra Cameron, Gillian King, Amy McPhe...
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to describe how an Academic Health Science Centre, providing pediatric rehabilitation services, research, and education, developed a Centres for Leadership (CfL) initiative to integrate its academic functions and embrace the goal of being a learning organization. Design/methodology/approach Historical documen...
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Purpose: A paradigm shift is taking place in pediatric rehabilitation research, practice, and policy - a shift towards the real-life contexts of clients rather than requiring clients to navigate the world of pediatric rehabilitation. This article proposes a conceptual framework to bring about a broader awareness of clients' lives and transactional...
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Participation has a subjective and private dimension, and so it is important to hear directly from youth about their experiences in various activity settings, the places where they "do things" and interact with others. To meet this need, our team developed the Self-Reported Experiences of Activity Settings (SEAS) measure, which demonstrated good-to...
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Background Health care portals have the potential to provide consumers with timely, transparent access to health care information and engage them in the care process. Objective The objective was to examine the use, utility, and impact on engagement in care and caregiver-provider communication of a client/family portal providing access to electroni...
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Purpose: This article describes how service providers use a set of practical strategies to create an inclusive leisure space in Spiral Garden, an arts-mediated outdoor summer day program for children with and without disabilities. Methods: This study was guided by an interpretive qualitative approach. Fourteen Spiral Garden service providers par...
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Aim: To examine participation-preference congruence, regional differences in participation-preference congruence, and predictors of whether children with cerebral palsy participate in preferred activities. Method: The sample (n=236) included 148 males and 88 females aged 10 to 13 years, living in Victoria, Australia (n=110), Ontario (n=80), or Q...
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Rehabilitation research investigating activity participation has been largely conducted in a realist tradition that under-theorises the relationship between persons, technologies, and socio-material places. In this Canadian study we used a post-critical approach to explore activity/setting participation with 19 young people aged 14 to 23 years with...
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Purpose: Identify strategies youth perceive will optimize their engagement in goal pursuit in life skills and transition programs using an engagement framework involving affective, cognitive, and behavioral components. Methods: A qualitative descriptive design was used. Two semi-structured interviews were conducted with seven youth. The first was i...
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Background Young people with disabilities often lag behind their typically developing peers in the achievement of adult roles, which has been attributed to a lack of opportunities to develop critical life skills. Residential Immersive Life Skills (RILS) programs provide situated learning opportunities to develop life skills alongside peers and away...