Gerhard P. Hancke's research while affiliated with Nanjing University of Posts and Telecommunications and other places

Publications (432)

Article
In dense, interference-prone 5G NB-IoT networks, device-to-device (D2D) communication can reduce the network bottleneck. We propose an interference-avoidance resource allocation for D2D-enabled 5G NB-IoT systems that consider the less favorable cell edge narrowband user equipment (NUEs). To reduce interference power and boost data rate, we divided...
Article
Full-text available
Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) technology is rapidly expanding as a technology with long distance connectivity, low power consumption, low data rates and a large number of end devices (EDs) that connect to the Internet of Things (IoT) network. Due to the heterogeneity of several applications with varying Quality of Service (QoS) requirement...
Article
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Artificial intelligence is a branch of computer science that attempts to understand the essence of intelligence and produce a new intelligent machine capable of responding in a manner similar to human intelligence. Research in this area includes robotics, language recognition, image identification, natural language processing, and expert systems. I...
Conference Paper
The concept of the Internet of Things (IoT) has increased in prominence as the demand for device interconnectedness increases worldwide. Numerous technologies have been proposed to provide the required technology and network infrastructure. Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) have emerged as a popular preference, providing low-power, long-range co...
Article
This paper investigates the threat of password leakage from sensors on mobile phones and smart wearables. We investigate attack methods for recovering a short random number entered on PEDs using a combination of data collected by from microphone, accelerometer and gyroscope in devices on the person entering the number. We take into consideration fe...
Article
The ever-increasing requirements of demand response dynamics, competition among different stakeholders, and information privacy protection intensify the challenge of the optimal operation of microgrids. To tackle the above problems, this article proposes a three-stage optimization strategy with a deep reinforcement learning (DRL)-based distributed...
Conference Paper
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With limited processing, energy and storage along with a deadline sensitive operational environment, the combination of the Industrial IoT (IIoT) with distributed ledger technologies (DLTs) could serve to introduce intolerable latency into network processes; counteracting the potential advantages that come from combining the two technologies. In an...
Article
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Group communication enables Internet of Things (IoT) devices to communicate in an efficient and fast manner. In most instances, a group message needs to be encrypted using a cryptographic key that only devices in the group know. In this paper, we address the problem of establishing such a key using a lattice-based one-way function, which can easily...
Article
The ever-increasing false data injection (FDI) attack on the demand side brings great challenges to the energy management of interconnected microgrids. To address those aspects, this article proposes a resilient optimal defensive strategy with the distributed deep reinforcement learning (DRL) approach. To evaluate the FDI attack on demand response...
Article
Due to the existence of different stakeholders, it makes competitive game characteristic in hybrid energy systems (HESs). Combined with the high-dimensional complexity and output uncertainty of distributed energy resources, the optimal operation of HESs can be a more challenging problem. Here, this article proposes a potential game-based two-layere...
Article
The connectivity and intelligence of IoT equipment offer improved services, but several technical challenges have emerged in recent years that hinder the widespread application of IoT, e.g., security and safety. Cyber-security and privacy countermeasures are widely used in IoT equipment, and many studies have been conducted. However, an important a...
Article
Micro-grid dispatch is facing a great challenge since the system security and economic cost are often time-varying with different requirements. In this paper, a novel multiple time-scale dispatch model is firstly constructed with considering load voltage and frequency dynamics of islanding awareness, which is limited with rate-of-change of frequenc...
Article
Due to the uncertain output of intermittent energy resources and dynamic communication topology, it brings a great challenge for the optimal security control of isolated power system. To address this problem, this article proposes a two-level optimal control strategy with event-triggered switching mechanisms. For ensuring the security of the isolat...
Article
Distance-bounding (DB) protocols are used to verify the physical proximity of two devices. Thresholds and error correction codes (ECCs) are two methods to provide error-resilience for DB protocols working in noisy environments. However, the threshold method adds overheads and the ECC method increases the adversary success probability, compared to t...
Article
Energy efficiency is an important quality-of-service requirement that needs to be considered when designing an efficient MAC protocol for a WBAN system due to the limited power resources of biomedical sensor devices. To address this, an energy-aware multi-group hybrid MAC (MG-HYMAC) protocol is proposed in this work to improve energy efficiency as...
Conference Paper
A popular technology used for deploying Internet of Things (IoT) networks is Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN). These networks are designed for large scale deployments but the Quality of Service (QoS) levels achievable depends on the traffic volume and profile generated by the IoT use case(s). LoRaWANs are sensitive to the presence of downlink...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
Long Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) is a networking technology that is rapidly growing in the Internet of Things (IoT) implementations under Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN). The main goal of LoRaWAN is to optimise the coverage range, capacity, cost and battery life of the network. A vital LoRaWAN characteristic is the Adaptive Data Rate (AD...
Article
Nowadays billions of smart objects are connected to the internet and interact with the cloud. Remote monitoring, control systems, and data analysis becomes more intelligent with the huge amount of data been collecting and crowdsourcing. To reduce data transmission and improve executive efficiency, computing and storing functions are executed toward...
Article
Every year, over 4700 traffic fatalities and 75000 crash injuries involve pedestrians in the United States. Effective solutions are urgently needed to prevent vehicle-pedestrian collision accidents. Many driving assistance systems are proposed to address this problem, however, they require additional infrastructures that may result in higher costs...
Article
The boring and repetitive task of monitoring video feeds makes real-time anomaly detection tasks difficult for humans. Hence, crimes are usually detected hours or days after the occurrence. To mitigate this, the research community proposes the use of a deep learning-based anomaly detection model (ADM) for automating the monitoring process. However,...
Article
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Future generation power grids will require the introduction and deployment of distributed energy resources to meet modern day load requirements. Consequently, we expect to see a rise in microgrids (MGs) existing as part of the main grid (grid-connected) or independent (islanded). Contained in these microgrids are a combination of energy resources s...
Article
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The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a lightweight web transfer protocol designed based on the REST architecture standardized by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) to meet and accommodate the requirements of the constrained Internet of Things (IoT) environments. Managing congestion control in a resource‐constrained lossy network w...
Conference Paper
Recently, machine learning (ML) classifiers are being widely deployed in many intelligent transportation systems towards improving the safety and comfort of passengers as well as to ease and enhance road navigation. However, the comparative performance analyses of different ML classifiers within the confines of road anomaly detection remain unexplo...
Article
Physical layer secret key generation scheme is a preferred solution designed for resource-constrained IoT devices. But it suffers from a severe attack, the signal manipulating attack which aiming at controlling the generated key. Existing solutions either can not prevent all kinds of signal manipulation attacks or require working in full-duplex mod...
Article
The papers in this special section focus on sustainable and intelligent precision agriculture. Human society has experienced three industrial revolutions from mechanization, and electricity to information automation. Every industrial revolution significantly alters the form of agricultural industry from labor-intensive farming, mechanized productio...
Article
The strong stochastic nature of wind power generation makes it extremely challenging to accurately predict and support the planning and operation of modern power systems with significant penetration of renewable energy. This article proposes a two-step wind power prediction method, which consists of two phases: long time-scale coarse prediction and...
Research Proposal
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Call for papers: https://2021.ieee-indin.org/special-sessions/ss-07-industry-4-0-in-agriculture/ Focus The three previous industrial revolutions (from Industry 1.0 to Industry 3.0) gradually modified the form of agricultural activities. The traditional labor-intensive agriculture has been replaced by industrial agriculture through the adoption of...
Article
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The increasing strain on ageing generation infrastructure has seen more frequent instances of scheduled and unscheduled blackouts, rising reliability on fossil fuel based energy alternatives and a slow down in efforts towards achieving universal access to electrical energy in South Africa. To try and relieve the burden on the National Grid and stil...
Article
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Internet of things (IoT) is a concept that is currently gaining a lot of popularity as a result of its potential to be incorporated into many heterogeneous systems. Because of its diversity, integrating IoT is conceivable in almost all fields, including the healthcare sector. For instance, a promising technology in the healthcare sector known as wi...
Article
The limited coexistence capabilities of current Internet of Things (IoT) wireless standards produce inefficient spectrum utilization and mutual performance impairment. The problem becomes critical in industrial IoT (IIoT) applications, which have stringent quality-of-service (QoS) requirements and very low error tolerance. The constant growth of wi...
Article
Exposure to environmental noise has harmful effects on human health for both physiological and mental aspects, such as annoyance, sleep disorders, cardiovascular disease, or even permanent hearing impairment. This problem is further exacerbated in industrial environments, where millions of workers are exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, noise...
Article
Full-text available
When authenticating a group of RFID tags, a common method is to authenticate each tag with some challenge-response exchanges. However, sequentially authenticating individual tags one by one might not be desirable, especially when considering that a reader often has to deal with multiple tags within a limited period, since it will incur long scannin...
Chapter
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RFID is widely used in many security sensitive areas. Researchers proposed many theoretical attacks and security implementation models on RFID devices. To test these theories and models is challenging and difficult task. In this paper, we use three common-off-the-shelf security testing platforms i.e. PN532, TI RF430CL330H and Chameleon Mini, to tes...
Article
Indoor positioning systems provide positioning capability to a wide array of applications. Although indoor positioning, in general, is challenging, harsh industrial environments pose unique challenges to wireless positioning, particularly in underground mining. This article reviews the state of the art of wireless positioning in underground mines....
Article
Self-adaptive threshold adjustment algorithms (SATAs) are required to reconfigure their parameters autonomously (i.e. to achieve self-parameter adjustment) at runtime and during online use for effective signal detection in cognitive radio (CR) applications. In this regard, a CR system embedded with the functionality of a SATA is termed a self-recon...
Chapter
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We present the concept of relay attacks, and discuss distance-bounding schemes as the main countermeasure. We give details on relaying mechanisms, we review canonical distance-bounding protocols, as well as their threat-model (i.e., covering attacks beyond relaying) stemming from the authentication dimension in distance bounding. Advanced aspects o...
Chapter
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As an integral technology growing Industry 4.0 solutions, the Internet of Things paradigm is becoming increasingly pervasive in industrial application spaces. However, increasing instances of malicious attacks on industrial processes are observed as an effect resulting from the exposure of sensitive, isolated, safety-critical operations to the wide...
Article
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Parameter-based adaptive threshold estimators (ATEs) are widely used for signal detection in cognitive radio (CR) systems. However, their performance deteriorates under dynamic spectra conditions owing to a lack of valid methods to accurately self-tune the different parameters of such ATEs. In this article, we address this limitation by proposing a...
Article
Multi-functional grid-tied inverters (MFGTIs) have been investigated recently for improving the power quality (PQ) of microgrids (MGs) by exploiting the residual capacity (RC) of distributed generators. Several centralized and decentralized methods have been proposed to coordinate the MFGTIs. However, with the increasing number of the MFGTIs, it de...
Article
Due to the high resistance/reactance (R/X) ratio of a low-voltage microgrid (LVMG), virtual complex impedance-based $P-\dot {V}/Q-\omega $ droop control is adopted in this article as the primary control (PC) technique for stabilizing the system. A distributed event-triggered restoration mechanism (ETSM) is proposed as the secondary control (SC) t...
Article
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging paradigm that enables many beneficial and prospective application areas, such as smart metering, smart homes, smart industries, and smart city architectures, to name but a few. These application areas typically comprise end nodes and gateways that are often interconnected by low power wide area network (L...
Article
This study proposes a hybrid MAC protocol that can efficiently and effectively optimize the communication channel access of a WBAN multi-class system. The proposed protocol consists of two major processes that include the contention phase (CP) and the transmission phase (TP). In the CP, only the biomedical devices that have health packets to transm...
Article
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Narrowband Internet of Things (NB-IoT) is a type of low-power wide-area (LPWA) technology standardized by the 3 <sup xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML" xmlns:xlink="http://www.w3.org/1999/xlink">rd</sup> -Generation Partnership Project (3GPP) and based on long-term evolution (LTE) functionalities. NB-IoT has attracted significant intere...
Article
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There has been an increasing number of attacks against critical water system infrastructure in recent years. This is largely due to the fact that these systems are heavily dependent on computer networks meaning that an attacker can use conventional techniques to penetrate this network which would give them access to the supervisory control and data...
Article
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The large-scale deployment of sensor nodes in difficult-to-reach locations makes powering of sensor nodes via batteries impractical. Besides, battery-powered WSNs require the periodic replacement of batteries. Wireless, battery-less sensor nodes represent a less maintenance-intensive, more environmentally friendly and compact alternative to battery...
Article
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The novel coronavirus (COVID-19), declared by the World Health Organization (WHO) as a global pandemic, has brought with it changes to the general way of life. Major sectors of the world industry and economy have been affected and the Internet of Things (IoT) management and framework is no exception in this regard. This article provides an up to da...
Article
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Face recognition is an efficient technique and one of the most preferred biometric modalities for the identification and verification of individuals as compared to voice, fingerprint, iris, retina eye scan, gait, ear and hand geometry. This has over the years necessitated researchers in both the academia and industry to come up with several face re...
Article
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Long-Range Wide Area Network (LoRaWAN) is a fast-growing communication system for Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN) in the Internet of Things (IoTs) deployments. LoRaWAN is built to optimize LPWANs for battery lifetime, capacity, range, and cost. LoRaWAN employs an Adaptive Data Rate (ADR) scheme that dynamically optimizes data rate, airtime, an...
Article
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The Internet of Things (IoT) is rapidly becoming an integral component of the industrial market in areas such as automation and analytics, giving rise to what is termed as the Industrial IoT (IIoT). The IIoT promises innovative business models in various industrial domains by providing ubiquitous connectivity, efficient data analytics tools, and be...
Article
An Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Network is an emerging industrial IoT network for collaborative UAV communication and management. The open architecture and dynamic topology, which provide functional benefits, unfortunately make UAVNs more vulnerable to a variety of attacks. In UAVNs malicious nodes not only eavesdrop the communications between UAV nodes...
Article
Canals are constructed world-widely to divert water from rich to acid areas. Since water resource is fairly limited, it is essential to perform canal control efficiently to improve water-delivery performance. A promising solution is to leverage model predictive control (MPC), which calculates the desired canal action at each time step via reliable...
Article
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The forward consecutive mean excision (FCME) algorithm is one of the most effective adaptive threshold estimation algorithms presently deployed for threshold adaptation in cognitive radio (CR) systems. However, its effectiveness is often limited by the manual parameter tuning process, as well as by the lack of prior knowledge pertaining to the actu...
Preprint
Full-text available
The limited coexistence capabilities of current Internet-of-things (IoT) wireless standards produce inefficient spectrum utilization and mutual performance impairment. The entity of the issue escalates in industrial IoT (IIoT) applications, which instead have stringent quality-of-service requirements and exhibit very-low error tolerance. The consta...
Article
Full-text available
This article researched the security and application of smart locks in Internet of Things environments in the domain of computer and engineer science and symmetry. Smart locks bring much convenience for users. However, most smart lock systems are cloud-based and it is problematic managing and enforcing the permissions of an authorized device if the...
Article
The three previous industrial revolutions profoundly transformed agriculture industry from indigenous farming to mechanized farming and recent precision agriculture. Industrial farming paradigm greatly improves productivity, but a number of challenges have gradually emerged, which have exacerbated in recent years. Industry 4.0 is expected to reshap...
Article
Full-text available
This paper explores the security vulnerability of Personal Identification Number (PIN) or numeric passwords. Entry Device (PEDs) that use small strings of data (PINs, keys or passwords) as means of verifying the legitimacy of a user. Today, PEDs are commonly used by personnel in different industrial and consumer electronic applications, such as ent...