Gerald Mayr's research while affiliated with Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle and other places

Publications (355)

Article
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We describe a new species of Rhynchaeites from the early Eocene London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, UK), which is represented by a partial skeleton comprising a skull and most major postcranial bones. Multiple further partial skeletons are assigned to Rhynchaeites sp. and include skeletal elements that are rarely preserved in Paleogene birds....
Article
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We report the first records of the leptosomiform taxon Plesiocathartes from the early Eocene London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, UK). Two species could be distinguished, one of which is described as Plesiocathartes insolitipes , sp. nov. (the other is classified as Plesiocathartes sp.). We furthermore describe two small leptosomiform-like bir...
Article
The Daniels collection of fossil birds from the early Eocene London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, UK) contains multiple specimens of the Psittacopedidae and Zygodactylidae, which are here for the first time studied in detail. The Psittacopedidae include Parapsittacopes bergdahli, Psittacomimus eos, gen. et sp. nov., ?Psittacopes occidentalis,...
Article
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Knowledge of the Palaeogene avifauna of East Asia is scarce, and only a few fossils have been described thus far. A tarsometatarsus from the upper Eocene Na Duong Basin represents the first Palaeogene fossil bird from Vietnam. The fossiliferous sediments in the Na Duong Basin originated from an aquatic ecosystem but also yielded terrestrial animal...
Article
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The Frankfurt specimen of the early-branching ceratopsian dinosaur Psittacosaurus is remarkable for the exquisite preservation of squamous (scaly) skin and other soft tissues that cover almost its entire body. New observations under Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence (LSF) reveal the complexity of the squamous skin of Psittacosaurus, including several u...
Article
We describe a partial skeleton of a fossil owl (Strigiformes) from the early Eocene London Clay of Walton‐on‐the‐Naze (Essex, UK). The holotype of Ypresiglaux michaeldanielsi, gen. et sp. nov. is one of the most complete specimens of a Palaeogene owl and elucidates the poorly known ecomorphology of stem group Strigiformes. Whereas most of the postc...
Article
Explanations of pantropical distributions are challenging for taxa that diverged during the Cenozoic, after Gondwana broke apart. The ‘boreotropics hypothesis’ suggests that pantropical birds originated in the Laurasian forests. Extant parrots (Psittaciformes) are one the most species‐rich pantropical avian clades, but their known evolutionary hist...
Article
We describe a stem group representative of Gaviiformes (loons or divers) from the early Eocene London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, UK). The holotype of Nasidytes ypresianus gen. et sp. nov. is a partial skeleton including the mandible and all major limb bones. The new species is the oldest unambiguously identified loon and the most substantia...
Article
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The Eocene taxon Masillaraptoridae includes long-legged, raptorial birds, the phylogenetic affinities of which are poorly resolved. Here, fossils from the London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, U.K.) are described, which corroborate the hypothesis that masillaraptorids are stem group representatives of the Falconiformes (falcons). Two partial sk...
Article
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Knowledge of the higher-level phylogenetic relationships of birds has grown substantially during the past two decades due to the application of genomic data. However, the nomenclature of higher-level taxa has not become more stable, due to the lack of regulation of taxon names above the level of superfamily by the ICZN, and the usage of rank-based...
Article
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Buttonquails (Turnicidae) are morphologically derived, quail-like members of the avian order Charadriiformes (shorebirds) that live in Old World dry tropical and subtropical open habitats. The morphological disparity between modern buttonquails and other shorebirds is bridged by Paleogene stem-group turnicids, which have a less specialised morpholo...
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We describe leg bones of a larger-sized representative of the Anatidae from the Tortonian of the Hammerschmiede clay pit in southwestern Germany. Allgoviachen tortonica, n. gen. et sp. differs from most other representatives of the Anatidae in tarsometatarsus characters. The holotype is among the most substantial records of an anatid from this stra...
Preprint
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The Frankfurt specimen of the early-branching ceratopsian dinosaur Psittacosaurus is remarkable for the exquisite preservation of squamous (scaly) skin and other soft tissues that cover almost its entire body. Newly detected details revealed under Laser-Stimulated Fluorescence (LSF) reveals the complexity of the squamous skin of Psittacosaurus , in...
Chapter
The Tinamiformes were long considered to be the sister group of the flightless palaeognathous birds, which were classified as “ratites”. However, current molecular analyses congruently supported a clade including the Tinamiformes, Casuariiormes, and Apterygiformes. Accordingly, flightlessness must have evolved independently within several palaeogna...
Chapter
Many readers will be acquainted with phylogenetic terminology and avian osteology, and it is beyond the scope of the present work to provide an in-depth overview of these topics, each of which could fill a book on its own. For those less familiar with essential terms and definitions, these are outlined in the present chapter, which also introduces...
Chapter
The taxa included in the present chapter form a clade in most current analyses of molecular data. These birds are part of the Anomalogonatae, or “higher land bird assemblage,” of earlier authors and exhibit disparate feeding adaptations and habitat preferences, even though most species are adapted to an arboreal way of living. The representatives o...
Chapter
Earlier analyses of morphological data recovered the Piciformes or the Coraciiformes as the closest relatives of the Passeriformes, whereas all current molecular data sets congruently support a sister group relationship between the Psittaciformes and the Passeriformes. Parrots and passerines differ in many aspects of their external and internal mor...
Chapter
The three clades discussed in the following are obtained in varying positions in current phylogenetic analyses, and their inclusion in the present chapter is not meant to reflect close affinities. It should be mentioned, however, that some analyses supported a sister group relationship between the Mirandornithes and the Charadriiformes, and others...
Chapter
The affinities of the taxa included in the present chapter have long been—and for most parts still are—difficult to resolve. The Opisthocomiformes (hoatzins) remain a phylogenetic enigma and are recovered in disparate positions in different analyses of molecular data. Several other notoriously difficult-to-place taxa, such as the Columbiformes (dov...
Chapter
Galloanseres, the clade including galliform and anseriform birds, is supported by virtually all analyses of different kinds of molecular data and also resulted from analyses of morphological data. A recent study obtained an early Eocene date for the split of galliform and anseriform birds, some 55 million years. However, this divergence estimate is...
Chapter
There is strong molecular support for a clade including the non-monophyletic “Pelecaniformes” except the Phaethontiformes (tropicbirds), as well as the Sphenisciformes (penguins), Gaviiformes (loons), Procellariiformes (tubenoses), and the taxa of the non-monophyletic “Ciconiiformes”. This “waterbird clade” was termed Aequornithes, and the Phaethon...
Chapter
The Paleogene period witnessed major tectonic and climatic events that are likely to have shaped various aspects of avian evolution. Owing to the formation of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current after the separation of South America and Australia from Antarctica, there was an onset of global cooling toward the early Oligocene. Changes in continental...
Chapter
Sequence-based analyses do not support the monophyly of diurnal birds of prey, and even though the Cathartidae, Sagittariidae, Pandionidae, and Accipitridae form a clade in these studies, the Falconidae are usually united with the Cariamiformes, Psittaciformes, and Passeriformes. However, a clade including these four taxa is not recovered in all se...
Article
In several taxa of Neornithes (crown group birds), the lacrimal/ectethmoid complex exhibits small bones, the comparative osteology of which is poorly studied. Some of these ossicles – which are commonly known as uncinate bones (ossa uncinata or ossa lacrimopalatina) – were already described two centuries ago, but knowledge of their distribution and...
Article
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We describe the fossil cranium of a pheasant-sized galliform land bird from latest Eocene or earliest Oligocene marine rocks of the Jansen Creek Member, Makah Formation (Washington State, USA), which is the only three-dimensionally preserved cranium of a Paleogene representative of the Galliformes. The specimen was freed from a hard calcareous nodu...
Article
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A partial skeleton of the putative stem group roller Septencoracias is described from the early Eocene London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, UK). With an age of about 55 million years, the bones represent one of the earliest fossil records of a coraciiform bird. The new fossil reveals that the proximal pedal phalanges of the three anterior toes...
Article
We report new specimens of the Plotopteridae from Washington State (USA), an area where these flightless seabirds underwent significant diversification during the late Eocene and Oligocene. To date, five plotopterid species from western Washington have been formally named. Specimens previously assigned to Tonsala buchanani Dyke, Wang, and Habib, 20...
Conference Paper
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Avec plus d’un an de retard suite à la crise COVID (Anthropocène supérieur), nous présentons ici un squelette partiel d’un hibou fossile de grande taille qui entretemps a déjà été publié (Mayr et al., 2020). Ce retard n’est toutefois pas réellement préjudiciable étant donné que le spécimen a été découvert il y a déjà plus de 30 ans dans les couches...
Article
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The occurrence of lateral openings and pleurocoels (lateral fossae) in the corpus of the thoracic vertebrae of extant and fossil neornithine birds is reviewed, with both features having been identified as osteological correlates of the avian pulmonary system. Openings mainly occur in larger species with a high overall bone pneumatization but do not...
Article
We describe new fossils from the late Eocene of Mongolia, which show that the crane-like Eogruidae and Ergilornithidae are stem group representatives of the Struthioniformes (ostriches). Currently, both taxa are unanimously assigned to the neognathous Gruiformes (cranes and allies). However, ergilornithids show a progressive reduction of the second...
Article
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Archaeotrogons have long been known from late Eocene and Oligocene localities in France, where limb bones are abundantly represented. The phylogenetic affinities of these birds, however, have remained elusive. Although archaeotrogons are now considered to be representatives of the Strisores, the clade including ‘caprimulgiform’ and apodiform birds,...
Article
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A survey is given of the morphological variation of the coracoscapular joint of neornithine birds. In Mesozoic stem group representatives, the coracoid exhibits a deeply concave cotyla scapularis, which articulates with a globose tuberculum coracoideum of the scapula. This morphology is likely to be functionally related to the development of a powe...
Article
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We report new avian remains from the early Eocene Nanjemoy Formation of the Fisher/Sullivan site in Virginia, USA. The fossil material includes the first records of the Messelasturidae, Psittacopedidae, and Zygodactylidae from the Nanjemoy Formation, with these taxa being widespread and fairly common in coeval North American and European sites. Psi...
Article
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Taiwan accommodates more than 600 avian species, including about 30 endemic ones. As yet, however, no fossil birds have been scientifically documented from Taiwan, so that the evolutionary origins of this diversified avifauna remain elusive. Here we report on the very first fossil bird from Taiwan. This Pleistocene specimen, a distal end of the lef...
Article
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Recent genomic data sets have resolved many aspects of higher-level phylogenetic relationships of birds. Eleven phylogenomic studies provide congruent support for a clade formed by Procellariiformes, Sphenisciformes, Ciconiiformes, Suliformes and Pelecani-formes. This clade is here named 'Feraequornithes' following the rules and requirements of the...
Article
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Recent genomic data sets have resolved many aspects of higher-level phylogenetic relationships of birds. Eleven phylogenomic studies provide congruent support for a clade formed by Procellariiformes , Sphenisciformes , Ciconiiformes , Suliformes and Pelecaniformes . This clade is here named ‘ Feraequornithes ’ following the rules and requirements o...
Article
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Tynskya eocaena is an early Eocene bird with a raptor-like skull and semi-zygodactyl feet, whose description is based on a skeleton from the North American Green River Formation. In the present study, three-dimensionally preserved bones of a new species of Tynskya, T. waltonensis, are reported from the London Clay of Walton-on-the-Naze (Essex, UK)....
Article
Recognition of the zygodactyl parrots (Psittaciformes) as the closest extant relatives of passerines (Passeriformes) shed new light on the affinities of various Paleogene birds with a zygodactyl foot, which are now considered to be stem group representatives of the Passeriformes. However, most of these taxa are known only from compression fossils,...
Article
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We report a small hawk-like diurnal bird from the early Oligocene (30–31 million years ago) of Poland. Aviraptor longicrus, n. gen. et sp. is of a size comparable with the smallest extant Accipitridae. The new species is characterized by very long legs, which, together with the small size, suggest an avivorous (bird-eating) feeding behavior. Overal...
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We address the identity of putative ovarian follicles in Early Cretaceous bird fossils from the Jehol Biota (China), whose identification has previously been challenged. For the first time, we present a link to the botanical fossil record, showing that the “follicles” of some enantiornithine fossils resemble plant propagules from the Jehol Biota, w...
Article
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Presumably, due to a rapid early diversification, major parts of the higher-level phylogeny of birds are still resolved controversially in different analyses or are considered unresolvable. To address this problem, we produced an avian tree of life, which includes molecular sequences of one or several species of ∼ 90% of the currently recognized fa...
Article
The brown coal mines of the Geiseltal were among the most important middle Eocene fossil localities and constitute the reference sites for the Geiseltalian stage of the European Land Mammal Mega Zones. Here, an updated review of the Geiseltal avifauna is given. Thirteen species are represented by diagnostic bones and can be referred to avian higher...
Article
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The comparative morphology of juvenile avian skulls is poorly known. Here, we survey the shape of the squamosal (os squamosum) across juvenile skulls of avian higher‐level clades. In all palaeognathous birds, the rostral end of the squamosal does not surpass the parietal and does not reach the frontal. This morphology is likely to be plesiomorphic...
Article
We describe a partial skeleton of a large-sized owl from Wasatchian strata of the Willwood Formation (Wyoming, U.S.A.). The holotype of Primoptynx poliotauros, gen. et sp. nov., includes all major postcranial bones and is one of the most substantial Paleogene records of the Strigiformes. The fossil shows that owls exhibited a considerable morpholog...
Article
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We describe a partial skull of a very large crane from the early late Miocene (Tortonian) hominid locality Hammerschmiede in southern Germany, which is the oldest fossil record of the Gruinae (true cranes). The fossil exhibits an unusual preservation in that only the dorsal portions of the neurocranium and beak are preserved. Even though it is, the...
Article
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We compared the osteology of the late Eocene to early Miocene penguin‐like Plotopteridae from the North Pacific Basin with that of Paleocene stem group representatives of the Sphenisciformes and identified previously unrecognized similarities and differences. New data on the osteology of plotopterids, like the shape of the caudal end of the mandibl...
Article
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We report fossils of the darter Anhinga pannonica Lambrecht, 1916 from two late Miocene (Tortonian, 11.62 and 11.44 Ma) avifaunas in Southern Germany. The material from the hominid locality Hammerschmiede near Pforzen represents the most comprehensive record of this species and includes most major postcranial elements except for the tarsometatarsus...
Article
We appreciate the comments of Buffetaut and Angst on our recent study of a Gargantuavis-like pelvis from the Late Cretaceous of Romania. We consider some of their points to be valid, but maintain our conclusion on the likely absence of a glycogen body in Gargantuavis and the lack of fusion of the pelvic elements in the acetabular region. Both chara...
Article
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The early/middle Eocene Palaeotis weigelti is a flightless bird, which occurs in the fossil localities Messel and Geiseltal (Germany). The species is assigned to the Palaeognathae and some authors considered it to be a stem group representative of the Struthionidae (ostriches). Even though several partial skeletons have been found, the osteology of...
Article
We describe a well-preserved pelvis from the Maastrichtian Sanpetru Formation of the Hateg Basin in Romania. The fossil closely resembles the pelvis of Gargantuavis philoinos from the Ibero-Armorican Peninsula, but differs in a smaller size and a few morphological features. It constitutes the first record of Gargantuavis outside the Ibero-Armorican...
Article
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The Cenozoic Pelagornithidae, or pseudotoothed birds, are characterized by unique bony projections along the cutting edges of the beak. These birds were previously known from late Paleocene to Pliocene fossil sites and some species reached wingspans up to 6.4 m. Here we describe a partial skeleton of a small‐sized pelagornithid from the early Paleo...
Article
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Mayr, G., De Pietri, V.L., Love, L., Mannering, A. & Scofield, R.P., 9 August 2019. Leg bones of a new penguin species from the Waipara Greensand add to the diversity of very large-sized Sphenisciformes in the Paleocene of New Zealand. Alcheringa XX, xxx–xxx. ISSN 0311-5518 We describe a new large-sized species of the Sphenisciformes (penguins) fro...
Data
An infographic abstract for the article "Characterization of melanosomes involved in the production of non-iridescent structural feather colours and their detection in the fossil record" | June 2019 | Journal of The Royal Society Interface 16(155) | DOI: 10.1098/rsif.2018.0921
Article
We describe a nearly complete, three‐dimensionally preserved skull of a new albatross species from the late Pliocene (3.0–3.4 million years ago) Tangahoe Formation of New Zealand. Aldiomedes angustirostris, n. gen. et sp. has only about 90% of the length of the skull of the smallest extant albatross and is the geologically youngest record of a smal...
Article
Non-iridescent structural colour in avian feathers is produced by coherent light scattering through quasi-ordered nanocavities in the keratin cortex of the barbs. To absorb unscattered light, melanosomes form a basal layer underneath the nanocavities. It has been shown that throughout Aves, melanosome morphology reflects broad categories of melanin...
Article
The early Miocene charadriiform bird Becassius charadriioides De Pietri and Mayr, 2012, from the Saint-Gérand-le-Puy area in France, was originally described as a member of uncertain affinities within the shorebird clade Scolopaci (jacanas, seedsnipe, painted-snipe, sandpipers, and allies). Following a re-assessment of the material attributed to th...
Article
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We describe new avian remains from Paleocene localities of Belgium and France. Four bones from the early to middle Selandian of Maret (Belgium) are among the earliest Cenozoic avian remains known from Europe and include the oldest temporally well constrained European records of the Gastornithidae, as well as tentative records of the palaeognathous...
Article
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We describe an assemblage of 54 avian bones from early Eocene marine sediments of the Ampe quarry near Egem in Belgium. The fossils belong to at least 20 species in more than 11 higher-level taxa. Well-identifiable specimens are assigned to the Odontopterygiformes, Galliformes, Messelornithidae, Apodiformes, Halcyornithidae, Leptosomiformes (cf. Pl...
Article
We survey the known avian fossils from Ypresian (early Eocene) fossil sites of the North American Okanagan Highlands, mainly in British Columbia (Canada). All specimens represent taxa that were previously unknown from the Eocene of far-western North America. Wings from the McAbee site are tentatively referred to the Gaviiformes and would constitute...
Article
Upupiformes is the avian clade including extant hoopoes (Upupidae) and wood hoopoes (Phoeniculidae). Upupiform birds are abundantly represented in some Eocene fossil sites and are also known from early Miocene localities, but the fossil record in between is surprisingly scant. This gap of over 25 million years is bridged by two skeletons from the e...
Article
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In 1862, a fossil feather from the Solnhofen quarries was described as the holotype of the iconic Archaeopteryx lithographica. The isolated feather’s identification has been problematic, and the fossil was considered either a primary, secondary or, most recently, a primary covert. The specimen is surrounded by the ‘mystery of the missing quill’. Th...
Article
We revisit the holotype of Calcardea junnei Gingerich, 1987 from the latest Paleocene (Clarkforkian) of the Willwood Formation (Wyoming, USA). The species is based on a partial skeleton and was originally assigned to the Ardeidae (herons). As we show, this classification cannot be upheld and Calcardea Gingerich, 1987 more closely resembles the taxo...
Article
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Some of the most varied colors in the natural world are created by iridescent nanostructures in bird feathers, formed by layers of melanin‐containing melanosomes. The morphology of melanosomes in iridescent feathers is known to vary, but the extent of this diversity, and when it evolved, is unknown. We use scanning electron microscopy to quantify t...
Article
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The occurrence of casques, frontal humps, and other bony cranial protuberances in birds is reviewed. Several previously overlooked examples are reported and casques of some rare taxa are for the first time figured. Bony cranial protuberances are most widespread among galloanserine birds, which is particularly true for helmet-like casques on top of...
Article
Passeriform birds exhibit previously unreported differences in the course of the arteria ophthalmica externa in the middle ear, which can easily be traced through examination of the involved osseous structures. In the Suboscines and most of the Oscines outside the clade Passerida, the arteria ophthalmica externa runs in the same osseous canal as th...
Article
Three-dimensionally preserved skulls of small Paleogene land birds are very rare. Here, we describe a cranium and associated partial postcranial remains of an early Eocene stem group roller (Aves: Coraciiformes) from the London Clay of the Isle of Sheppey (England). The fossil shows features of the skull and vertebral column in great detail. It is...
Article
For the first time, isolated maxillary bones of juvenile neornithine birds are examined and compared. Contrary to the anatomical terminology currently employed, the avian maxillare exhibits five rather than four processes. In addition to the praemaxillary, jugal, nasal, and maxillopalatine processes, all palaeognathous and many neognathous birds al...
Article
The Sandcoleidae are stem group representatives of the Coliiformes (mousebirds). These birds are among the most abundant medium-sized arboreal birds in some early and middle Eocene fossil sites of Europe and North America, and they are particularly well represented in the German locality Messel. Here, new sandcoleid fossils from Messel are reported...
Article
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Confuciusornis sanctus has been heralded as a bird with an ancestrally diapsid skull, although this does not match its phylogenetic position as determined by other skeletal features. Based on 13 cranial specimens in European collections, we demonstrate that the observed scaffolding in the temporal region is highly derived and comparable to some of...
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We describe the earliest temporally well‐constrained fossil that can be assigned to the Ardeidae (herons), from the lowermost Oligocene (32.0‐33.0 million years ago) of Belgium. The specimen, a partial tarsometatarsus, belongs to a small species and is described as Proardea? deschutteri n. sp.. It exhibits the characteristic tarsometatarsus morphol...
Article
The Paleocene locality of Menat (Puy-de-Dôme, France) has yielded several avian fossils, which remained poorly studied, even though some were found almost a century ago. Here, we review some of the material in public collections and show that those birds from Menat, which are at least tentatively identifiable, resemble taxa from early Eocene fossil...
Article
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We describe a partial skeleton of a new stem group representative of the Sphenisciformes from the mid-Paleocene Waipara Greensand in New Zealand, which represents the best-preserved and most complete Paleocene penguin found so far. Sequiwaimanu rosieae, n. gen. et sp., is the fourth penguin species from the Waipara Greensand, which previously yield...
Article
Numerous new fossils have driven an interest in reproduction of early birds but direct evidence remains elusive. No Mesozoic avian eggs can be unambiguously assigned to a species, which hampers our understanding of the evolution of contact incubation, which is a defining feature of extant birds. Compared to living species eggs of Mesozoic birds are...
Article
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One of the notable features of penguin evolution is the occurrence of very large species in the early Cenozoic, whose body size greatly exceeded that of the largest extant penguins. Here we describe a new giant species from the late Paleocene of New Zealand that documents the very early evolution of large body size in penguins. Kumimanu biceae, n....
Article
A tarsometatarsus of a large anseriform bird from the late Oligocene/early Miocene of the Saint-Gérand-le-Puy area in France is assigned to the distinctive taxon Paranyroca, which was before only known from the early Miocene of North America. Paranyroca may be a stem group representative of Anatidae and its tarsometatarsus exhibits a peculiar chara...
Article
New bird fossils from the late Eocene/early Oligocene Makah Formation and the Oligocene Pysht Formation on the Olympic Peninsula (Washington State, USA) are described. A partial skeleton from the Pysht Formation includes the first reported tarsometatarsus of Tonsala hildegardae Olson, 1980, a wing-propelled diving bird of the taxon Plotopteridae. I...
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Orbitozygomatic junctions (bony connections between the postorbital and zygomatic processes) and secondary temporal fenestrae have long been known to occur in a few avian species, but no comprehensive study of this phenomenon has ever been published. Having surveyed all non-passerine and most passerine families, we established that the orbitozygoma...
Article
The cranial openings of nervus hypoglossus, the 12th cranial nerve, are for the first time studied across a broad range of higher avian taxa. This nerve plays an important role in the innervation of the syrinx and exits the skull through a variable number of foramina. Most previous authors described 2–3 foramina nervi hypoglossi (FNH) for neornithi...
Article
Although various kinds of organic molecules are known to occur in fossils and rocks, most soft tissue preservation in animals is attributed to melanin or por-phyrins. Lipids are particularly stable over time—as diagenetically altered ‘geolipids’ or as major molecular constituents of kerogen or fossil ‘geopoly-mers’—and may be expected to be preserv...
Article
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Albatross fossils have been collected from the late Oligocene Lincoln Creek Formation and the early/middle Miocene Astoria Formation near the townsite of Knappton, Pacific County, Washington (USA). The albatross from the Lincoln Creek Formation, Diomedavus knapptonensis, n. gen. et sp., is smaller than all extant albatrosses and represents the olde...
Article
We restudy the holotype specimen of the alleged fossil auk Petralca austriaca from early Miocene marine deposits of the Austrian locality Pucking, which was considered the earliest European representative of Alcidae (auks). The specimen is a partial skeleton consisting mainly of wing bones on two slabs. A recent re-preparation yielded new data on t...