Georgene G. Eakes's research while affiliated with East Carolina University and other places

Publications (10)

Article
Chronic sorrow is the presence of pervasive grief-related feelings that have been found to occur periodically throughout the lives of individuals with chronic health conditions, their family caregivers, and the bereaved. These feelings emerge in response to an ongoing disparity that results from the loss of the anticipated “normal” lifestyle of the...
Article
This study investigated the occurrence of chronic sorrow among individuals who experienced the death of a loved one. In-depth interviews were conducted with fourteen parents who had experienced the death of a child, ten people who had suffered the death of their spouses, and ten individuals who had had a family member die. Interviews were transcrib...
Article
To introduce a middle-range nursing theory of chronic sorrow that presents this sorrow as a normal response to ongoing disparity due to loss. Chronic sorrow is the periodic recurrence of permanent, pervasive sadness or other grief related feelings associated with a significant loss. The theory provides a framework for understanding and working with...
Article
This article describes the initiation and evolution of the support group component of a cardiac rehabilitation pilot program. It also outlines how the group was initiated and discusses the group's development during the 20 weeks of its existence. The description of this nurse-facilitated support group provides a model for clinicians interested in i...
Article
The purpose of the study was to pilot a family centred brief solution-focused therapy model (BSFT) with families and clients diagnosed with schizophrenia. A control group of clients and their families received traditional outpatient therapy, while an experimental group of clients and their families were treated with a BSFT model. All participants w...
Article
BACKGROUND: Chronic sorrow was described by Olshansky (1962) to explain a perva sive, psychologic reaction that he observed in parents of mentally retarded children. He believed that the sorrow was a normal, not a neurotic, response to their situation and relatedly, thought clinicians would intervene differently with these parents if they held a si...
Article
This study investigated the incidence of chronic sorrow in parents of chronically mentally ill children. A convenience sample of 10 parents (four couples and two mothers) of adult children diagnosed with either schizophrenia or bipolar disorders were interviewed using the Burke/NCRCS Chronic Sorrow questionnaire (Caregiver Version). Findings showed...
Article
This qualitative study was designed to examine the presence of chronic sorrow in diverse populations of individuals with chronic or life threatening conditions and to identify strategies for coping with feelings of chronic sorrow. Chronic sorrow was defined as a pervasive sadness that is permanent, periodic, and progressive in nature. The sample co...
Article
Multiple sclerosis, one of the most common chronic disabilities among young adults, may potentiate the occurrence of chronic sorrow. Chronic sorrow differs from acute grief because it is permanent, periodic, and progressive in nature; it may be a normal component of chronic illness and disability. This study describes one woman's experience with mu...
Article
Research on the phenomenon of chronic sorrow has been limited to samples of parents of children with disabilities. The Nursing Consortium for Research on Chronic Sorrow was formed to study this concept in individuals with chronic illness and their family caregivers across the life span. Although no research on this concept has focused on a life-spa...

Citations

... The shortest duration since perinatal loss was chosen to be 7 weeks because the crisis of acute grief generally ends 6 weeks after experiencing a loss [20], [21], therefore, parents may enter chronic sorrow experience after this point [22]. The longest duration was chosen to be 3 years because parents who have suffered from child loss tend to begin to move on with their lives after 3 years since their child's death [13], [16]. ...
... Assim, a Teoria de Médio Alcance da Tristeza Crônica foi desenvolvida de forma indutiva, usando a análise de conceito, ampla revisão da literatura, revisão crítica da pesquisa e validação em estudos qualitativos e quantitativos de várias situações de perda. 10,15,16,[18][19][20][21] Quanto ao critério de consistência interna, o modelo de análise e avaliação sugere que, para que esse parâmetro seja mantido, é necessário analisar os aspectos semânticos e estruturais do contexto e do conteúdo da teoria. 11 Porém a Teoria da Tristeza Crônica atende ao critério de consistência interna. ...
... Additional research included caregivers and spouses as well as individuals themselves as they interpreted their experiences of chronic sorrow. Studies were completed on chronic sorrow as experienced by a spouse of a chronically mentally ill disabled husband (Hainsworth, Busch, Eakes, & Burke, 1995) and an adult child or a spouse of someone with Alzheimer's dementia (Lindgren, Connelly, & Gaspar, 1999;Mayer, 2001). Chronic sorrow was also reviewed as it occurred for individuals themselves with chronic diseases such as arthritis (Shea, 1986), catastrophic injuries (Dewar & Lee, 2000), multiple sclerosis (Isaksson, Gunnarsson & Ahlström, 2007;McKeown, Porter-Armstrong, & Baxter, 2003), and Parkinson's disease (Lindgren, 1996;Hobdell, 1996). ...
... Second, the interview instrument was developed based on the Burke/Eakes Chronic Sorrow Assessment tool [24]. This instrument consisted of six questions: (1) "How did you experience fetal/baby death?" (2) "How did you feel when you found out that your fetus/baby had died?" (3) "How do you feel right now when you recall the events of your fetal/ baby death?" (4) "When do those feelings reappear?" ...
... Furthermore, the flexibility demonstrated by facilitators in their practice was felt to benefit engagement. This differs from other successful studies using BSFA in educational (Cepukiene & Pakrosnis, 2011;Daki & Savage, 2010;Franklin et al., 2008;Froeschle et al., 2007;Newsome, 2004;Springer et al., 2000) or family contexts (Chung & Yang, 2004;Eakes et al., 1997;Kenney, 2010;Huang 2001;Naude, 1999;Zimmerman et al., 1996), which were delivered through groups or family settings. The current study highlights the powerful impact that targeted one-to-one interventions can have in parental engagement in education, and more work is needed to identify key factors behind the intervention's success. ...
... Assim, a Teoria de Médio Alcance da Tristeza Crônica foi desenvolvida de forma indutiva, usando a análise de conceito, ampla revisão da literatura, revisão crítica da pesquisa e validação em estudos qualitativos e quantitativos de várias situações de perda. 10,15,16,[18][19][20][21] Quanto ao critério de consistência interna, o modelo de análise e avaliação sugere que, para que esse parâmetro seja mantido, é necessário analisar os aspectos semânticos e estruturais do contexto e do conteúdo da teoria. 11 Porém a Teoria da Tristeza Crônica atende ao critério de consistência interna. ...
... Literature also confirms that chronic diseases involve loss of independence [38,44]. Patients cannot live the life they lived before or the life they imagined living [38], often referred to as 'chronic sorrow' which reflects long-term periodic sadness in reaction to continuous personal and social losses that are part of chronic illness or disability [45,46]. Previous research demonstrated how dependency increases negative emotions as well as reducing self-efficacy, which is important in order to cope properly [47]. ...
... Chronic sadness characterized with spells of pervasive melancholy, sorrow, or other grief-related experiences could explain why women who experienced perinatal loss had an increased risk of postnatal depression. 75 We found C-section a relevant correlate of PPD in SSA. It is said to be initiated by surgical trauma and the financial burden of the procedure and stigmatization for surgery in Africa, particularly in Nigeria. ...