George R. Crowley's research while affiliated with Troy University and other places

Publications (17)

Article
Full-text available
Can an electorate use the projected life expectancy of a lifetime-appointed chief executive to enforce binding, informal term limits? Informal term limits based on the life expectancy of a chief executive candidate at election would enable an electorate to exercise discretion in adjusting tenure lengths to minimize expected turnover and tenure-leng...
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The foundational model of distributive politics predicts a positive relationship between the number of legislative districts and the level of inefficiency of projects approved by the legislature—Weingast, Shepsle, and Johnsen's “Law of 1/n.” This relationship has been tested extensively in the empirical literature, with mixed results. This article...
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Recent events, including the failed recall of Wisconsin Governor Scott Walker and the Chicago teachers strike, have shed light on the relationship between state fiscal policy and public-sector union power. While a literature has developed focusing on various aspects of the link between public-sector unions and government policy, scholars have yet t...
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Full-text available
Term limits have been known to reduce electoral accountability by removing the possibility of reelection, thus affecting economic policy choices (i.e., the ‘lame duck’ effect). We show that the magnitude and statistical significance of this effect is influenced by the expected length of a future career. By using incumbent age as a proxy for expecte...
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The enormous impact that economic freedom can have on economic outcomes makes an understanding of the factors or forces affecting its level paramount. To what extent do citizen preferences regarding the role of government in the economy drive the level of or changes in economic freedom? We explore this question using a new index of voting in the U....
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Continual deficits have become nearly synonymous with budgeting in modern democracies. In Deficits, Debt, and Democracy, Richard Wagner notes the peculiar nature of the problem writing, “While living within a budget can be difficult, most people manage to do it…Even elected legislators seem to do this with their personal accounts…It is different, h...
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A large literature on the ‘flypaper effect’ examines how federal grants to states at time period t affect state spending (or taxes) at time period t. We explore the fundamentally different question of how federal grants at time period t affect state tax policy in the future. Federal grants often result in states creating new programs and hiring new...
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This article proposes an empirical framework based on a synthesis of the seminal “Law of 1/n” and “Leviathan” theories, which models the relationship between government spending and the number of jurisdictions in a federal system as determined by the interplay of the costs related to centralized government (which fall as the number of jurisdictions...
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This paper examines the impact of dynastic political privilege on the behavior of incumbents. Incumbents have opportunities to serve themselves at the expense of voters, but society can design political institutions to mitigate these principal‐agent problems. Dynastic political privilege may be one such mechanism. We argue that the possibility that...
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This note describes an approach to teaching the public choice perspectives on voting using an episode from Comedy Central’s animated television show, South Park. The episode titled, “Douche and Turd,” demonstrates the near-zero value of an individual vote, the intrinsic value individuals place on the act of voting itself, problems arising when vote...
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Several theories suggest that states’ choices of constitutional rules are at least partially a function of neighboring constitutions. This paper provides the first analysis of spatial dependence of specific provisions within state constitutions in the United States. The analysis effectively makes constitutional rules endogenous, contributing to a r...
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The international development community has encouraged investment in physical and human capital as a precursor to economic progress. Recent evidence shows, however, that increases in capital do not always lead to increases in output. We develop a growth model where the allocation and productivity of capital depends on a country’s institutions. We f...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose The paper aims to apply the ideas found in the paper of Adam Smith, the pre‐eminent eighteenth century economist, to the field of management. Design/methodology/approach The paper provides a brief biography of Smith, summarizes his main contributions, and then applies them to contemporary management practices. Findings Adam Smith was the...
Article
This paper reexamines whether fiscal decentralization constrains Leviathan government. Using panel data for Pennsylvania, we compare actual property tax rates to the Leviathan revenue-maximizing rates for municipalities, school districts, and counties. Using spatial econometric methods we also estimate the degree of spatial dependence at the three...

Citations

... The move from the popular assembly to an electoral college Smith et al. (2021), composed of all persons with a certain economic position, or at any rate chosen by the doge, provoked many changes in the social dynamics as well as the institutional design, possibly including-according to Smith et al. (2021), who quote Maranini as mentioned in Coggins and Perali (1998) as the origin of the idea-informal term limits to avoid doges accumulating power individually and for their families during long tenures. Following up this law, the last years of the XII century saw the approval of other laws imposing term limits on other offices, from council positions to lower-ranking clerical offices Lane (1973). ...
... Venetian patricians did not utilize turn-taking in office (or even terms or term limits) for the doge. Instead, they overwhelmingly elected elderly candidates, close to death, to the dogeship to informally, and bindingly, term limit their executive (Smith et al. 2019). ...
... Mobilizing campaign donations and votes for its endorsed politicians is an accomplishment that the NYSTA and the UTNY did not successfully achieve prior to amalgamating. The NYSUT has been so in influencing in the local and state political scenes because public sector unions are a powerful special-interest group comprising a sizable number of potential voters (Crowley and Beaulier, 2018). Public workers, including teachers, display a higher degree of voter turnout than other social groups. ...
... 2 Electoral costs could include adverse health consequences owing to stress (Chang and Meyerhoefer 2020). 3 Leguizamon and Crowley (2016) explore the relationship between the effects of the loss of electoral accountability associated with term limits and incumbent's age; they provide evidence that term limits imposed on older incumbents have less effect on policy choice because such officeholders face already shortened time horizons. when the term in office is comparatively lengthy. ...
... Bjornskov and Potrafke (2013) subsequently apply a largely similar analysis to the US states and find that Republican governors also deregulate labour markets. Crowley, Dove, and Sutter (2017) find that voter ideology, as measured by a score of US Congressional votes, predicts the Economic Freedom of North America index. Most recently, Czegledi and Newland (2018) find that pro-capitalist ideology across the world correlates with the Economic Freedom of the World index. ...
... Examining US states, Matsusaka (1995, 2001) demonstrated that spending increases with the size of legislative upper chambers, but not with the size of lower chambers. Primo (2006) and Crowley (2015) found that, while the size of the upper chamber has significant, positive effects on the level of spending, the size of the lower chamber has significant, negative effects. ...
... The final entry in this list refers to the animated show South Park's treatment of the 25 choice being presented to voters in the 2016 US presidential election. The episode highlights the "near-zero value of an individual vote, the intrinsic value individuals place on the act of voting itself, problems arising when voters must choose amongst undesirable candidates rather than issues, and the role of political campaigning" (Hoffer & Crowley, 2013). ...
... Some scholars oppose that when the transfer payment of the central government is reduced, local governments will increase their financial efforts to obtain more revenue to make up for the shortage caused by the transfer payment reduction. Therefore, transfer payment has a positive incentive effect (Buettner, 2006;Egger et al., 2010;Sobel and Crowley, 2014). Liu and Zhao (2011) discussed the impact of total transfer payment, equal transfer payment and, tax rebates on the tax efforts of the local government. ...
... The loss of electoral accountability in the final term has received considerable scrutiny in the empirical literature, with mixed results (Alt et al. 2011;Bender and Lott 1996;Besley 2006;Besley andCase 1995a, b, 2003;DeBaker 2012;Lott 1987Lott , 1990Sieg and Yoon 2017). No consistent economic or policy distortion associated with term limits is found, and depends on the incumbents' future prospects, including running for higher political office (Besley and Case 1995a;Lott and Reed 1989;Laband and Lentz 1985;Crowley and Reece 2013;Leguizamon and Crowley 2016). 13 The elections of pirate ship captains offer an example of such systems operating historically (Leeson 2007(Leeson , p. 1067). ...
... The ultimate errors produced by spatial models are assumed to be independently distributed and conform to normal distribution. W is a 48 × 48 spatial weight matrix, W( Fij ) denotes the spatial weight matrix of an ecological network at the county level, and ε is the error (Hays et al., 2010;Crowley, 2012). was observed in the suburban Dongxihu District. ...