George M. Zinkhan's research while affiliated with Springfield Clinic and other places

Publications (207)

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Cultural influences play an important role in explaining differences between consumer behavior patterns across countries. These differences may, in tum, determine the success or failure of a product or service introduction in a different country from the one where it was originally successful. International marketers sometimes find it to be a chall...
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In-store field experiments and laboratory experiments have been frequently used in retailing and marketing research. This paper reviews the relative benefits and liabilities associated with field and laboratory experiments. We find that both of these approaches have contributed in the past to retailing and marketing knowledge.
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Some terms are so basic to a discipline that it is difficult to define them using only other terminology from within a discipline. The concept of corporate image is one such foundational term. The purpose of this paper is to review the various definitions of corporate image which have been proposed over the years and to attempt to develop a synthes...
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This research focuses on understanding brand authenticity. Based on two qualitative studies and previous research in authenticity, two key antecedents are identified, stability and rarity, each of which are proposed to consist of four sub-dimensions. Using SEM to analyze the data from a survey (n = 248), the results support the hypotheses that stab...
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Utilizing online communication channels is important for firms as they strive to manage customer relationships. Using media richness theory, we examine the factors of effective communication that are related to information cues, personalization, and speed in two different situations. This paper offers eight propositions to stimulate future research...
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Consumer ethnocentrism is a potential barrier to international trade. Although this concept has been investigated over many decades in the U.S. market, there is a scarce research addressing ethnocentrism in transitional economies (e.g., Russia). If consumer ethnocentrism is a major factor in the Russian marketplace, under what conditions can its ne...
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The impact of astrological signs on personality traits has often been investigated in the area of psychology. Every person is born into a specific astrological sign (e.g., Aquarius, Taurus). However, the effect of astrological signs has not been systematically studied in the marketing literature. Here, we apply the notion of zodiac signs to explain...
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The Internet provides an alternative method for reaching retail consumers, and E-tailing is attracting considerable attention from practitioners and scholars. The present study aims to develop a better understanding of Internet shopping (with a special emphasis on explaining consumer patronage behavior). Our focus is on the “C” side of B-to-C comme...
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What is Ethics? What is Advertising? The contemporary philosopher, William Frankena (1973), has defined ethics as a set of moral principles directed at enhancing societal well-being. Frankena reduces those moral principles to two: beneficence (doing good) and justice (being fair). Another contemporary philosopher, Geoffrey Warnock (1971), lists fou...
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Recent attention has been paid to the use of citation analysis as an approach to examining relative journal quality and prestige, as well as the relative scholarly status of academic communities and disciplines. The fundamental notion is that citations are objective indicators of knowledge use by scholars and knowledge flows among academic communit...
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This paper presents a communication model and nominal definition of advertising images on the Internet, here called the netvertising image (Stern 2001). The model and attribute-based definition facilitate the construction of a formal language system for theory development and hypothesis testing specific to images in the multimedia context. The nece...
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Do Brazilian and U.S. advertisers employ different themes in print advertisements? If so, what can we conclude about cross-cultural differences in values? In our study of automobile ads that appeared in the business magazines of Brazil and of the U.S. during the 1970s, we found that (1) urban themes were used more frequently in Brazilian ads than i...
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The dimensional structure and validity of three different advertising response profiles (Wells' reaction profile, Leavitt's multidimensional profile, and Schlinger's Viewer Response Profile) are examined. The dimensions underlying Wells' reaction profile appear stable. The Leavitt profile displays acceptable stability, but the Schlinger profile doe...
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The Web is an increasingly important component of promotional strategy for many organizations. To date, most advertising research has focused on banner ads. In the present study, home pages as promotional vehicles are evaluated. Specifically, we examine the influence of perceived home page complexity on communication effectiveness, as measured by a...
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Since its introduction, television content has had important effect on the way we behave and think. Using samples from two countries (the U.S. and Korea), the present study investigates the effects of compulsive buying tendencies on attitudes toward advertising. The results suggest that audiences' compulsive buying tendencies create negative attitu...
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Leisure activities are considered here as a subset of consumption, and we are interested in the relationship between gender schema and leisure activities. In order to test rival predictions about gender schema, sex-typing of leisure activities is related to two individual difference measures: gender personality (Bem 1981) and gender-role attitudes...
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This study explores the meaning and essence of a relatively new phenomenon-electronic (EDating) in regards to its relationships and effects on gender. In our phenomenology, we look at the Internet-based form of EDating via the experiences of college-aged singles in the U.S. First, we explore the emergence of the EDating Internet dating phenomenon w...
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Valentine’s Day is a day associated with lavish consumption, rituals, expectations, and commercialism. Much of the romance is displayed with store-bought and marketing-driven exchanges, contrary to the unique personalized and intimate nature sometimes associated with Valentine’s Day. The objective of our multi-method study is to provide insight int...
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We seek to advance understanding of consumers’ resistance manifest in the Valentine’s Day market. Our objectives include: to introduce a definition of 'market resistance', to understand and explain consumer experiences that are associated with resistance to a market and its related events, to show what consumers are moving towards via their acts of...
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Recently, pharmaceutical manufacturers have increased the amount of nonbranded, disease-education focused, direct-to-consumer advertisements. A comparison to branded, product-specific, ads was examined through a series of survey questions measuring consumer attitudes and the role of involvement. Nonbranded ads compared favorably to branded ads and...
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A recent trend in DTC advertising has been the increasing presence of nonbranded, or help-seeking, ads. These ads make no mention of a branded medication, using only the pharmaceutical manufacturer as an identifier. Though these ads have been around since the inception of DTC, no direct comparison to the branded counterpart has been conducted in th...
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In this article, we employ a case‐study method to investigate the learning processes used to negotiate brand meaning within an anti‐brand community. The negotiation of brand meaning is a social process where community members engage in brand‐related discourses, interpretations, and sense‐making. Situated within new social movement theory, we invest...
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This paper builds on consumer storytelling theory and childhood memory research by proposing that earliest childhood memory stories are useful for developing brand myths and providing relevance to iconic brands. This article investigates consumers' childhood memories with Coca-Cola and finds that memories from early childhood are more predictive an...
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Internet-based developments are generating opportunities for enhancing business-to-business operations. One approach involves the adoption of e-collaborative networks, which have the potential to strengthen communications between the members of a value-chain network. An effective communication interface within the value chain is central to the clie...
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Reviews the film, The other Boleyn girl directed by Justin Chadwick (2008). Sibling rivalry is apparent in both human and animal behaviors. Sisters fight over clothes; brothers wrestle to see who is strongest. In The other Boleyn girl (2008), Mary and Anne Boleyn battle for the love of the king of England and compete to provide him with a male he...
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Reviews the book, Handbook of consumer psychology by Curtis P. Haugtvedt, Paul M. Herr, and Frank R. Kardes (see record 2007-16424-000 ). This Handbook presents a series of chapters that are related to the common goal of understanding consumers' cognitive, affective, and behavioral responses to marketplace activities. Studies draw on diverse litera...
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Understanding how consumers perceive corporate marketing activities is important for academic researchers and practitioners alike. Using a cross-national survey in the USA and South Korea, we examine the effects of country, gender, urbanisation and marketing communications (i.e., TV advertising) on consumers' attitudes towards firms' various market...
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Effects of mere exposure have been widely investigated in the area of advertising, consumer behaviour and social psychology. However, mere exposure theory presents an inherently passive audience perspective ('What does advertising do to consumers?'). Using a cross-national sample from the US (n = 280) and South Korea (n = 958), this study proposes...
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Reviews the film, Wall-E directed by Andrew Stanton (2008). This movie is the latest computer-animated movie by Academy Award-winning writer-director Andrew Stanton ( Finding Nemo, A Bug's Life), offers a glimpse into a future where the Earth's environment is ravaged and humans are entirely dependent on technology. The film provides insight into t...
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Academic research presents an important information source that consumers, firms, and public policy makers use for decision making. This paper reviews and synthesizes the literature in marketing journals to examine whether empirical studies thoroughly addresses the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act (NLEA) objectives. Findings indicate that a lar...
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To provide a future vision of alternative viewpoints moving forward in creativity research, four different perspectives are offered. The first perspective, “Wildfire 2008: Creativity with a Human Touch,” offers surprising humanistic and individualistic practitioner insights from breakthrough campaigns. The second viewpoint, “Creative and Effective...
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Reviews the film, Indiana Jones and the Kingdom of the Crystal Skull by Steven Spielberg (2008). America's classic adventure hero is back. This film represents the fourth installment in the legendary action film series, directed by Steven Spielberg and co-written by George Lucas. True to traditional Indiana Jones style, the film includes fantastic...
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The Internet provides a fast, efficient and cost-effective alternative for communication, transaction, and distribution. In this study, consumers’ Web-based chatting behavior across three countries (i.e., the U.S., Canada, China) is explored, using an Internet survey of Web-based chatters. Results indicate that chatters’ Internet use does not affec...
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This article explores the expansion of brand meaning within a spectacular, retail environment. Spectacular retailing environments include themed retailing, brandscapes, flagship brand stores, themed entertainment brand stores, themed flagship brand stores, and brand museums. This research uses an extended case-study method to investigate the World...
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As a result of evolving technology, opportunities for innovative pricing strategies continuously emerge. The authors provide an updated taxonomy to show how such emerging strategies relate to recent technological advances. Specifically, they cite increased availability of information, enhanced reach, and expanded interactivity as three technologica...
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Interactivity is a key feature of Web sites. This article identifies the determinants that enhance user perceptions of interactivity in a communication scenario in which consumers send instant messages to an e-store. Two conceptualizations of interactivity-telepresence theory and interactivity theory-predict that different antecedents (e.g., the nu...
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This article applies a theory-of-the-firm perspective to gain insights about a just allocation of economic resources by the marketing system. It discusses three groups of firm perspectives (i.e., economic theories, contingency theories, and marketing-oriented theories of the firm) and their implications for (1) the definition of distributive justic...
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In this study, the authors test a conceptual model that explains the subjective well-being (SWB) of nations. The authors include traditional predictors (e.g., human rights) and marketing variables (e.g., advertising expenditure, retailing indexes) in their model. They are especially interested to see to what extent marketing activities are associat...
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In this essay, the authors provide a commentary on the American Marketing Association's current definition of marketing. After briefly outlining the evolution of marketing definitions, they challenge several aspects of the most recent definition. In particular, they stress that the new definition may not reflect the expanse of current marketing tho...
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Extending resistance theories, this article examines multi-method data spanning over seven years of events related to a holiday market. In the context of Valentine's Day, the authors present findings and develop knowledge on anti-consumption and alternative consumption. Specifically, this article introduces the recurring events of gift-resistance,...
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Governments around the globe have long collected large amounts of information to achieve their goals. The emergence of the Internet has provided new opportunities for information exchange between governments and their citizens. This article presents illustrative examples of this information exchange, identifies associated ethical problems, examines...
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Reviews the book, The Psychology Behind Trademark Infringement and Counterfeiting by J. L. Zaichkowsky (see record 2006-08556-000). In this book, Zaichkowsky discusses the issue of counterfeit or fake goods. For instance, New York City is famous for its street vendors who sell fake Rolex watches. Zaichkowsky, who is a marketing professor at Simon...
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Marketing communication intensity (i.e., the ratio of advertising and promotional expenditures to sales) has been an important topic for both business managers and academics. Here, we investigate cross-sectional and time-series variation of communication intensity due to: type of offering (product versus service) and type of market (consumer versus...
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In this article, the authors introduce the concept that people's earliest and defining product memories can be used as a projective tool to help managers more fully understand consumers' relationships to their products. The authors use a study on three generations of automobile consumers to illustrate how these memories symbolize the consumer-brand...
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In this article, the authors introduce the concept that people's earliest and defining product memories can be used as a projective tool to help managers more fully understand consumers' relationships to their products. The authors use a study on three generations of automobile consumers to illustrate how these memories symbolize the consumer–brand...
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The Internet provides an alternative method for reaching retail consumers, and e-tailing is attracting considerable attention from practitioners and scholars. This chapter aims to develop a better understanding of Internet shopping (with a special emphasis on explaining consumer patronage behavior). Two conceptual models of consumer online patronag...
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We explore the impact of privacy disclosures on online shoppers’ trust in an e-tailer through a two-phase study. In the first study, we use a between-subjects factorial design to test whether the presence of an online privacy policy influences consumer trust and find that consumers are likely to respond more favorably to a shopping site with a clea...
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The retail patronage idea includes such key concepts as store choice and frequency of visit. In this study, the authors synthesize previous empirical studies through a formal, critical review of retailing literature. The meta-analysis suggests that various predictors (e.g., service, product selection, quality) are strongly related to shoppers’ reta...
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Generalizability of results is an important issue in academic research. We have attempted to identify some of the major issues related to this topic and to propose consequent guidelines for research practices. Any working researcher knows all too well how difficult it can be to gain access to data and get good samples. Fortunately, academic researc...
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This study investigates the relationship between audience involvement-a critical audience state in humorous advertising-and the responses to humorous ads. It is hypothesized that the degree to which the audience is involved with the ad determines how the ad humor is processed because the functions that ad humor plays vary depending on the state of...
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Reviews the book, American Mythos: Why Our Best Efforts to Be a Better Nation Fall Short by Robert Wuthnow (see record 2006-04135-000 ). This book focuses on many of the challenges that America faces as a democratic and free society. The author, Robert Wuthnow, a professor of sociology at Princeton University, suggests that underlying narratives an...
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Attraction and substitution effects have been shown to be important determinants of brand choice when a new brand is added to a choice set. A simple framework is proposed for predicting the effect on relative market shares when a new brand is added to the choice set in an experimental setting. The study attempts to replicate previous results concer...
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It may be easier to describe “what not to do” than it is to describe “what to do” when writing a conceptual or theoretical article. In this sense, the five “wrong way” signs may be of limited value. Nonetheless, it is our experience that quite a number of marketing manuscripts sometimes wander down one of these streets where strong theory is rarely...
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For a variety of reasons, Wal-Mart is a transnational brand which has, at the same time, many fans and many detractors. Despite considerable criticism and opposition, the firm is accelerating in growth and retains a strong customer base. One reason for this growth and loyalty is that Wal-Mart generates intrinsic value through its brand name and bra...
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To date, the marketing literature on gift giving has focused on two approaches or paradigms—economic and relational exchange. This study adopts a different perspective, proposing a community paradigm to provide a holistic view of gift giving. The data (based on 20 in-depth interviews and 2 group interviews) suggest that, on the Internet, social net...
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Social norms and networks are important to understand consumer behavior. Here, we reexamine normative influences on impulsive buying (Rook and Fisher 1995) within a different cultural context, South Korea. Results of Study 1, with a general consumer sample from South Korea, confirms prior findings in the United States that the relationship between...
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In the past 40 years, marketing scholarship has made tremendous advances. Our methods are diverse and relatively sophisticated. As a brief perusal of any marketing textbook (or journal) indicates, we have developed approaches for solving important managerial problems. Consumer behavior, sales management, and advertising have been distinct fields of...
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This study builds on prior work in advertising by investigating issues associated with the dimensional representation of memory for print advertisements and the antecedent factors that relate to those dimensions. Of particular interest to this research are answers to questions associated with whether memory for print ads is unidimensional or multid...
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The open source (OS) movement allows us to re-vision corporate branding from a corporate to a coproducer perspective. Corporations own their brands and unilaterally determine their positioning and evolution. Power and control are centralized and hierarchical: producers produce brands, which customers then consume. With OS, power and control are rad...
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As a backlash against capitalism, there is a growing resistance to transnational brands and corporate globalization. To cite a few trends, consumers are opposing global brands and expressing concerns about corporate practices related to environmental issues and human rights. The purpose of this study is to investigate the current anti-brand social...
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Internet technology facilitates “faceless” transactions. At the same time, a new set of risks arises. In this article, we focus on the Internet-related risks associated with identity theft. Specifically, our objectives are to explain electronic-based identity theft (i.e., cyber-identity theft) and to explore the impact of cyber-identity theft on co...
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A narrative review is presented, within the organizing framework of a meta-analysis, of econometric models reported in the business literature that estimate the effect of advertising and promotional spending on the market value of the firm. Results from published market valuation models are aggregated, and various model specifications are appraised...
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In summary, it is important, from time to time, to step back and consider the publication process, as it exists in marketing and as it operates forJAMS. As part of this consideration, the issue of journal quality is paramount. As mentioned above, there are many ways to assess journal quality, and each method has its advantages and its limitations....
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For a variety of reasons, distance learning (DL) is an attractive option in higher education. Drawing upon six years of experience with a customized M.B.A. program, we identify trends, factors for success, and potential advantages and disadvantages associated with distance learning. We develop a three-step process for implementing and evaluating a...
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Development in emerging economies leads to a cohabitation of traditional and modern forms of retailing. This diversity allows for centuries' old consumer behavior patterns to continue along with new options. The street markets or Feira Livres1 of São Paulo, Brazil demonstrate how consumption patterns are culturally determined. Participant observati...
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The marketplace is a human invention that simultaneously delivers a standard of living and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas. In the 21st century, we see the ‘marketspace’ as an innovation that has potential to enhance human experiences. In this commentary, we explore how emerging technology (e.g. the Internet) is transforming the marketp...
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The Internet and related technologies have created opportunities for enhanced pricing strategies. The consequences of these pricing strategies have important managerial and public policy implications. Here, we identify five technology-enhanced pricing strategies that have come to prominence. Each strategy is introduced by one or two (short) case st...
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As e-shopping becomes more popular, there is an increasing interest in trying to understand the key factors that affect e-shopping experiences. Here, we explore key factors that shape young consumers' e-shopping experiences, and we attempt to identify differences between factors shaping positive and negative experiences. Applying a critical inciden...
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The marketplace is an ancient human development that simultaneously delivers a standard of living and serves as a forum for the exchange of ideas. Here, we briefly touch upon the highlights associated with the evolution of the marketplace and show its influences on society. We also discuss how the "marketspace" of emerging technology (e.g., the Int...
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The Internet provides an alternative method for reaching retail consumers, and e-tailing is attracting considerable attention from practitioners and scholars. This chapter aims to develop a better understanding of Internet shopping (with a special emphasis on explaining consumer patronage behavior). Two conceptual models of consumer online patronag...
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This paper examines involuntary possession disposition associated with a natural disaster. Results of a naturalistic investigation involving group and depth interviews with wildfire survivors are consistent with previous research proposing that disposition is a symbolic and meaningful process. Overall, these consumers’ reactions to possession threa...
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The growth in direct-to-consumer advertising(DTCA)over the past two decades has facilitated the communication of prescription drug information directly to consumers. Data from a 1999 national survey are employed to determine the factors influencing consumers' opinions of the utility of DTC ads for health care decision making. We also analyze whethe...
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Este Documento es producto del trabajo de Académicos del Departamento de Administración Research on risk is built on a complex array of diverse and sometimes inconsistent definitions, constructs, models, and outcomes. This study examines various literatures to formulate an integrated framework for the conceptualization of perceived-risk processing....
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Compulsion to buy is an important but neglected aspect of consumer behavior. This research uses cross-cultural data from the USA and South Korea to study compulsive consumption behavior by focusing on individual factors. Three compulsive consumption behaviors (i.e. compulsive buying, compulsive substance abuse, and compulsive gambling/lottery play)...
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The health care system contains many actors, stakeholders and clients. The majority of articles on health care in the business administration literature report empirical results that are relevant to one or two or three of these stakeholders. Here, we make some progress toward identifying these key stakeholders and the complex relationships among th...
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Understanding how to exploit networks and gain network effects is critical to success i n the network economy. Object-orientation (OO), the commonly accepted methodology for building software, also provides a readily understood and concise set of concepts for comprehending business network structures. The underlying principles of OO serve as a guid...
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We have entered the age of the ubiquitous network. The future of business is being shaped by the interplay of strategic thinking and network technology advances, affecting company, supplier, and customer interactions in the production and consumption of value and creating an entirely new toolbox that will change marketing forever. Predicated on the...
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The health care system contains many actors, stakeholders and clients. The majority of articles on health care in the business administration literature report empirical results that are relevant to one or two or three of these stakeholders. Here, we make some progress toward identifying these key stakeholders and the complex relationships among th...
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Full-text available
Consumers make numerous product decisions every day. This decision-making process depends on the information processing style employed. A key factor here is the complexity of a consumer's cognitive structures (i.e., the sophistication of the structures used to organize information). Although this construct, cognitive complexity, holds much promise...
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Netvertising, or ''advertising on the internet'', is attracting much attention from advertising and marketing researchers. However, surprisingly little is known about its new features as compared to other forms of advertising and the implications of the new medium for advertisers. Here, we focus on the following issues: the opportunities and challe...
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The World Wide Web has the potential to change much about consumer behavior and consumer communication. Web-based chatting, the focus of this study, is one example. In this article, we provide an illustrative description of various consumer chatting situations, examine the motivations underlying Web-based chatting, and discuss the ways in which cha...
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To what extent does direct-to-consumer prescription drug advertising communicate detailed technical information (e.g., relevant to risks, warnings, indications, contraindications, adverse effects)? This study examines whether consumers attend to the brief summary of risk information in product-specific print direct-to-consumer advertisements and wh...