George Luber's research while affiliated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other places

Publications (61)

Chapter
As the nation’s public health agency, CDC recognizes that climate change poses a multifaceted and potentially significant threat to domestic public health. To facilitate climate change preparedness in public health, the agency developed the Climate and Health Program, which is housed in the National Center for Environmental Health. The program’s mi...
Article
During the past several decades, unprecedented global changes in climate have given rise to an increase in extreme weather and other climate events and their consequences such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, heat waves, wildfires, and air pollution. These climate effects have direct impacts on human health such as premature death, injuries...
Article
Implications: Extreme weather and climate events affect human health by causing death, injury, and illness, as well as having large socio-economic impacts. Climate change has caused changes in extreme event frequency, intensity and geographic distribution, and will continue to be a driver for change in the future. Some of these events include heat...
Chapter
The environmental effects of climate change are likely having negative impacts on the health of the 13.1 million residents of the circumpolar north. In this chapter, we describe an observational epidemiologic study that collected surveillance data on local environmental changes and associated health outcomes from residents of communities in Northwe...
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We created a measure to help comprehend population vulnerability to potential flooding and excessive heat events using health, built environment and social factors. Through principal component analysis (PCA), we created non-weighted sum index scores of literature-reviewed social and built environment characteristics. We created baseline poor health...
Data
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Supplemental introduction, methods, and references for study of Climatic Influences on Cryptoccoccus gattii Populations, Vancouver Island, Canada, 2002–2004.
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Vancouver Island, Canada, reports the world's highest incidence of Cryptococcus gattii infection among humans and animals. To identify key biophysical factors modulating environmental concentrations, we evaluated monthly concentrations of C. gatti in air, soil, and trees over a 3-year period. The 2 study datasets were repeatedly measured plots and...
Chapter
This chapter describes how basic principles and practices of public health can be applied to addressing climate change. It views mitigation (reducing greenhouse gas emissions or otherwise slowing climate change) as a form of primary prevention, and adaptation to climate change as a form of secondary prevention. The chapter describes how major publi...
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Climate change, an increase in overall average temperature and frequency of extreme weather events, will influence human populations and exert stress on the current and future built environment. Most contemporary climate models indicate that climate change will have heterogeneous impact globally, and its effects are expected to be more severe in ur...
Chapter
As the nation’s public health agency, CDC recognizes that climate change poses a multifaceted and potentially significant threat to domestic public health. To facilitate climate change preparedness in public health, the agency developed the Climate and Health Program, which is housed in the National Center for Environmental Health. The Program’s mi...
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Full-text available
Background: Public health is committed to evidence-based practice, yet there has been minimal discussion of how to apply an evidence-based practice framework to climate change adaptation. Objectives: Our goal was to review the literature on evidence-based public health (EBPH), to determine whether it can be applied to climate change adaptation,...
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Background: Patients with acute heat illness present primarily to emergency departments (EDs), yet little is known regarding these visits. Objective: We aimed to describe acute heat illness visits to U.S. EDs from 2006 through 2010 and identify factors associated with hospital admission or with death in the ED. Methods: We extracted ED case-le...
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Climate change is anticipated to have several adverse health impacts. Managing these risks to public health requires an iterative approach. As with many risk management strategies related to climate change, using modeling to project impacts, engaging a wide range of stakeholders, and regularly updating models and risk management plans with new info...
Article
Climate change will likely have adverse human health effects that require federal agency involvement in adaptation activities. In 2009, President Obama issued Executive Order 13514, Federal Leadership in Environmental, Energy, and Economic Performance. The order required federal agencies to develop and implement climate change adaptation plans. The...
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Background: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the leading cause of lower respiratory tract infections in young children globally, with the highest burden in low- and middle-income countries where the association between RSV activity and climate remains unclear. Methods: Monthly laboratory-confirmed RSV cases and associations with climate data...
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Climate change has the potential to influence the earth's biological systems, however, its effects on human health are not well defined. Developing nations with limited resources are expected to face a host of health effects due to climate change, including vector-borne and water-borne diseases such as malaria, cholera, and dengue. This article rev...
Conference Paper
As the nation's public health agency, CDC uses its prevention expertise to help state and city health departments investigate, prepare for, and respond to the health effects that climate change may have on people. CDC's Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative (CRSCI) helps states and cities develop ways to anticipate these health effects by appl...
Conference Paper
The 3rd US National Climate Assessment (NCA) is currently being conducted under the auspices of the Global Change Research Act of 1990 which requires a report to the President and the Congress every four years that integrates, evaluates, and interprets the findings of the U.S. Global Change Research Program (USGCRP); analyzes the effects of climate...
Conference Paper
In response to the need for a comprehensive approach to tackle the health effects of climate change, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has initiated a range of activities to provide greater insight and guidance to public health agencies. One of the major initiatives under way is the Climate-Ready States and Cities Initiative...
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Background: Although many climate-sensitive environmental exposures are related to mortality and morbidity, there is a paucity of estimates of the public health burden attributable to climate change. Objective: We estimated the excess current and future public health impacts related to respiratory hospitalizations attributable to extreme heat in su...
Article
Climate change will impact health through a variety of pathways - both direct and indirect. Identifying the specific link between climate-related hazards and vulnerability will require the integration of socio-environmental, meteorological, and health data. An enhanced monitoring and tracking system is critical for public health efforts to identify...
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Climate change is expected to have a range of health impacts, some of which are already apparent. Public health adaptation is imperative, but there has been little discussion of how to increase adaptive capacity and resilience in public health systems. We explored possible explanations for the lack of work on adaptive capacity, outline climate-heal...
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Although ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) is the most common seafood intoxication worldwide, its burden has been difficult to establish because there are no biomarkers to diagnose human exposure. We explored the incidence of CFP, percentage of CFP case-patients with laboratory-confirmed ciguatoxic meal remnants, cost of CFP illness, and potential ris...
Conference Paper
While there is scientific consensus that climate change is occurring and will have significant effects on human health, there are numerous challenges for public health agencies in being able to anticipate, prepare for and respond to the effects. In response to the need for a comprehensive approach to tackle the health effects of climate change, the...
Conference Paper
It is clear that climate change will bring a host of adverse health impacts, some of which are already apparent, and that some exposures will be outside public health's coping range. Public health adaptation efforts are in their infancy, and most adaptation to date has been reactive, not planned. There is no consensus regarding the integration of p...
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Climate change and associated increases in climate variability will likely further exacerbate global health disparities. More research is needed, particularly in developing countries, to accurately predict the anticipated impacts and inform effective interventions. Building on the information presented at the 2009 Joint Indo-U.S. Workshop on Climat...
Conference Paper
Environmental Public Health Indicators (EPHIs) quantify direct and/or indirect links between environmental hazards, exposure, and health risk. As the effects of climate change are increasingly felt by local first-responder agencies, a health surveillance tool using climate-specific EPHIs downscaled to the local level is needed to provide the necess...
Conference Paper
Population vulnerability to climate change aligns with pre-existing societal inequalities. Vulnerable groups include the economically marginalized, children, the elderly, and minority communities. In addition to social components, aspects of the built environment like land use practices can further exacerbate the impacts of climate change, culminat...
Conference Paper
With disrupted hydrological cycles, increased stagnant air masses, and frequently occurring extreme weather events, climate change poses a serious risk to health. As science confirms the presence and ever increasing threats of climate change, local actors have emerged in the absence of a global consensus to engage in the climate dilemma. Many U.S....
Article
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Extreme heat events are the number one cause of weather-related fatalities in the United States. The current system of alert for extreme heat events does not take into account intra-urban spatial variation in risk. The purpose of this study is to evaluate a potential method to improve spatial delineation of risk from extreme heat events in urban en...
Article
This article was submitted without an abstract, please refer to the full-text PDF file.
Article
This article was submitted without an abstract, please refer to the full-text PDF file.
Article
Climate change science points to an increase in sea surface temperature, increases in the severity of extreme weather events, declining air quality, and destabilizing natural systems due to increases in greenhouse gas emissions. The direct and indirect health results of such a global imbalance include excessive heat-related illnesses, vector- and w...
Article
The association between climate change and the frequency and intensity of extreme heat events is now well established. General circulation models of climate change predict that heatwaves will become more frequent and intense, especially in the higher latitudes, affecting large metropolitan areas that are not well adapted to them. Exposure to extrem...
Conference Paper
Increasing concern over the health implications of global climate change necessitates the need to better monitor the impacts of our changing climate on health, especially paying attention to the proportion of the population most vulnerable. The present study examines the relationship of heat-related incidents in the City of Phoenix, Arizona from 20...
Article
Heat waves kill more people in the United States than hurricanes, tornadoes, earthquakes, and floods combined. Recently, international attention focused on the linkages and impacts of human health vulnerability to urban climate when Western Europe experienced over 30,000 excess deaths during the heat waves of the summer of 2003-surpassing the 1995...
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There is scientific consensus that the global climate is changing, with rising surface temperatures, melting ice and snow, rising sea levels, and increasing climate variability. These changes are expected to have substantial impacts on human health. There are known, effective public health responses for many of these impacts, but the scope, timelin...
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In October 2004, the Florida Department of Health (FLDOH) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assessed human exposure to ultra-low volume (ULV) aerial application of naled. Teams administered activity questionnaires regarding pesticide exposure and obtained baseline urine samples to quantify prespray naled metabolite levels. Fo...
Article
Although mercury is toxic, few studies have measured exposure in children who handled elemental mercury briefly. In 2004, a student spilled approximately 60 milliliters of mercury at a Nevada school. Within 12 hours, all students were removed from the source of exposure. We conducted an exposure assessment at the school. We administered questionnai...
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Consecutive outbreaks of acute aflatoxicosis in Kenya in 2004 and 2005 caused > 150 deaths. In response, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the World Health Organization convened a workgroup of international experts and health officials in Geneva, Switzerland, in July 2005. After discussions concerning what is known about aflatoxins...
Article
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In April 2004, one of the largest aflatoxicosis outbreaks occurred in rural Kenya, resulting in 317 cases and 125 deaths. Aflatoxin-contaminated homegrown maize was the source of the outbreak, but the extent of regional contamination and status of maize in commercial markets (market maize) were unknown. We conducted a cross-sectional survey to asse...

Citations

... Cultural adaptation of DASH is straightforward for food group recommendations but less so with nutrients (13) . Individuals lack data on nutrient composition of cultural foods that are not easily accessible to the public (13) , which requires substantial resources from both program participants and implementers (22)(23)(24)(25) . In addition to cultural adaptation of food-and nutrition-related materials, counseling sessions or food environment assessments were also included as part of the interventions. ...
... In a 2-year period comparing urban and rural sites, they found urbanization, which they considered a surrogate for climate change, correlated with larger ragweed plant size, earlier presence of pollen, and increased pollen concentrations. Hess and colleagues 6,10 investigated pollen trends and their associations with temperature and morbidity using data from 51 pollen monitoring stations around the United States, though their work has not yet been published in full. ...
... In a 2-year period comparing urban and rural sites, they found urbanization, which they considered a surrogate for climate change, correlated with larger ragweed plant size, earlier presence of pollen, and increased pollen concentrations. Hess and colleagues 6,10 investigated pollen trends and their associations with temperature and morbidity using data from 51 pollen monitoring stations around the United States, though their work has not yet been published in full. ...
... Over the past 100 years, the average temperature in the alpine region has risen by nearly 2 • C, which is almost twice as large as the average global increase; however, the last 30 years have seen a particularly rapid rise, with frequent severe weather events [1,2]. As temperatures warm, future climate change will not only alter surface temperature and precipitation patterns [3], but will also affect ecosystems and biomes, leading to changes in the physiological metabolism, geographical distribution, and population size of plants, particularly those of alpine origin [4,5]. ...
... Issue) : 2022 ity and day-to-day decision-making (Bogardi, 2006). Analyzing vulnerability is commonly based on both qualitative and quantitative approaches (Manangan et al., 2015). Quantitative approaches are formed through analyzing existed data such as reports, statistic data, and spatial datasets. ...
... Older adults are among the most at risk, especially those with age-associated chronic conditions linked with heat-vulnerability (e.g., cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes, obesity) (Bouchama et al., 2007;Kenny et al., 2010;Semenza et al., 1999;Vandentorren et al., 2006). The global population is aging characterization of factors associated with heat-vulnerability (Frumkin et al., 2015). It is widely appreciated that impaired physiological responses to heat exposure contribute to reduced thermotolerance in older adults, especially those with common age-associated chronic conditions (Flynn et al., 2005;Haines and Ebi, 2019;Kenney et al., 2014;Kenny et al., 2010). ...
... CDC's climate and health work began in 2006, and the Climate and Health Program was formally established in 2009 with congressional funding [11]. The program is the national leader in empowering communities to protect human health from a changing climate through implementation of a three-pronged approach: ...
... Vegetation cover plays an important role in assessing the population's heat vulnerability due to the ability to adjust the temperature of the surrounding environment through photosynthesis. The abundance of vegetation determines the local ability to adjust to extreme heat to a certain extent [65,66]. MODIS satellite products were used to capture vegetation covers, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI), and Fractional Vegetation Cover (FVC) [67][68][69]. ...
... The increased temperature is adversely affecting the biophysical characteristics of the environment (Shrestha and Bawa 2012;Kumar et al. 2016) and transforming precipitation patterns (Poudel 2012(Poudel , 2018Pokharel et al. 2020;Paudel et al. 2021). It is also disturbing and dislocating human-nature relationships (Crate 2008;Fiske et al. 2014) including TWFK. Our findings reveal that the farmers have knowledge of rain patterns intertwined with environmental markers and nonenvironment makers, but these patterns have now become unpredictable and uncertain. ...
... The issue of UHI effect has been reported to impair the urban environment and human health in a number of ways. According to Lulla et al. (2015) as cited in Zhang et al. (2019), the rise in temperature may increase the temperature of standing water and affect the diversity of life within. It may cause changes in patterns of wind and rain. ...