George Lakoff's research while affiliated with University of California, Berkeley and other places

Publications (61)

Article
Full-text available
Public discourse on highly charged, complex social and political issues is extensive, with millions of sentences available for analysis. The discourse is rife with metaphors that manifest vast numbers of novel metaphorical expressions. More and more, to understand such issues, and to see who is saying what and why require statistically-based, big d...
Article
Originally a keynote address at the International Society for Research on Emotion (ISRE) 2013 convention, this article surveys many nonobvious ways that emotion phenomena show up in natural language. One conclusion is that no classical Aristotelian definition of “emotion” in terms of necessary and sufficient conditions is possible. The brain natura...
Article
“Language and Emotion” (2015) showed a number of nonobvious ways in which the nature of emotion can be studied via the way that emotions are expressed, mostly unconsciously, in language. The results given there have come mostly from cognitive linguistics, structured neural computation, and embodied cognition taken together. The references given, su...
Book
Cómo la ciencia cognitiva reabre las preguntas filosóficas centrales: • La mente está inherentemente encarnada • El pensamiento es principalmente inconsciente • Los conceptos abstractos son en gran parte metafóricos Estos son tres grandes hallazgos de la ciencia cognitiva. Se terminaron más de dos milenios de especulación filosófica a priori acerc...
Article
Full-text available
An overview of the basics of metaphorical thought and language from the perspective of Neurocognition, the integrated interdisciplinary study of how conceptual thought and language work in the brain. The paper outlines a theory of metaphor circuitry and discusses how everyday reason makes use of embodied metaphor circuitry.
Chapter
The social sciences, of course, study the material causes of social and political effects: poverty, hunger, illness, homelessness, lack of education, joblessness, disparity of wealth, and so on. But how people think also has social effects: How do people understand morality, markets, the proper role of government, the nature of institutions, and so...
Article
From the late 1950s until 1975, cognition was understood mainly as disembodied symbol manipulation in cognitive psychology, linguistics, artificial intelligence, and the nascent field of Cognitive Science. The idea of embodied cognition entered the field of Cognitive Linguistics at its beginning in 1975. Since then, cognitive linguists, working wit...
Article
Narratives structure our understanding of the world and of ourselves. They exploit the shared cognitive structures of human motivations, goals, actions, events, and outcomes. We report on a computational model that is motivated by re-sults in neural computation and captures fine-grained, con-text sensitive information about human goals, processes,...
Article
There is a mistaken perception that ‘metaphor theory’ and ‘conceptual blending’ are competing views, and that there is some argument between us over this. The real situation is this: We have been good friends and colleagues for over forty years, and we remain so. We fully respect, and make use of, each other’s work. We are both scientists, who do b...
Article
The neural revolution is changing our understanding of the brain and the mind in radical ways, and that is no less true in the theory of metaphor. It is 30 years since Mark Johnson and I wrote Metaphors We Live By in 1979. Though the fundamental outlines of what we discovered remain as valid today as they were then, developments in brain science an...
Article
Rips et al. appear to discuss, and then dismiss with counterexamples, the brain-based theory of mathematical cognition given in Lakoff and Núñez (2000). Instead, they present another theory of their own that they correctly dismiss. Our theory is based on neural learning. Rips et al. misrepresent our theory as being directly about real-world experie...
Article
Some Empirical Results About The Nature Of Concepts George Lakofl' University of California at Berkeley It is diflicult to write anything short about concepts once one has written a 600—page book on the subject (Lakoli, 1987). What I will try to do is try to set down as briefly and succinctly as possible some of the basics of what has been learned fro...
Chapter
This chapter considers the mystery of how art presents gaps, disparities, and improvisations that invite-and even insist on-our participation in the act of reconciliation or completion and connection. Art seems ultimately to be about playing as if we human beings could step outside the bounds of our physical limitations by opening the imagination t...
Article
Concepts are the elementary units of reason and linguistic meaning. They are conventional and relatively stable. As such, they must somehow be the result of neural activity in the brain. The questions are: Where? and How? A common philosophical position is that all concepts-even concepts about action and perception-are symbolic and abstract, and th...
Article
Our system of justice requires that trials be maximally fair. It is part of what holds this society together. Indeed, it is part of the genius of the justice system to have a kind of balance between strict and nurturant morality within the judicial system, so that the system itself provides a kind of moral and political balance. Daubert v Merrell D...
Article
Why cognitive linguistics requires embodied realism MARK JOHNSON and GEORGE LAKOFF In our book Metaphors We Live By (1980), we presented evidence that taking the existence of conceptual metaphor seriously would require a massive rethinking of many foundational assumptions in the Western philosophical tradition concerning meaning, conceptualization,...
Article
For me, this is an exciting time to be a cognitive scientist and a cognitive linguist. Cognitive Linguistics has developed rapidly and with enormous success over the past two decades, providing a cognitively based account of language. When results in cognitive linguistics are taken together with results in the other cognitive sciences, a radically...
Chapter
It was discovered in the late 1970s that the mind contains an enormous system of general conceptual metaphors—ways of understanding relatively abstract concepts in terms of those that are more concrete. Much of our everyday language and thought makes use of such conceptual metaphors. This chapter claims that the system of conceptual metaphor that f...
Book
George Lakoff and Mark Johnson take on the daunting task of rebuilding Western philosophy in alignment with three fundamental lessons from cognitive science: The mind is inherently embodied, thought is mostly unconscious, and abstract concepts are largely metaphorical. Why so daunting? "Cognitive science--the empirical study of the mind--calls upon...
Article
Full-text available
This paper presents an implemented computational model of lexical development for the case of action verbs. A simulated agent is trained by an informant giving labels to the agent's actions (here hand motions) and the system learns to both label and carry out similar actions. Computationally, the system employs a novel form of active representation...
Chapter
My early work was part of the first generation of Cognitive Science. First generation Cognitive Science assumed Putnam’s Functionalism, the idea that the mind could be studied independent of the body in terms of its functions, and that the mind’s functions could be represented using formal symbol systems. The meanings of the symbols were to be give...
Article
Full-text available
The L 0 project at ICSI and UC Berkeley attempts to combine not only vision and natural language modelling, but also learning. The original task was put forward in (Feldman et al. 1990a) as a touchstone task for AI and cognitive science. The task is to build a system that can learn the appropriate fragment of any natural language from sentence-pict...
Article
We may not always know it, but we think in metaphor 2 . A large proportion of our most commonplace thoughts make use of an extensive, but unconscious, system of metaphorical concepts, that is, concepts from a typically concrete realm of thought that are used to comprehend another, completely different domain. Such concepts are often reflected in ev...
Chapter
The topic of this paper arose several years ago during a conversation with Chuck Fillmore, whose theory of case grammar brought the study of semantic roles into generative linguistics. When I asked Fillmore what he thought the main problem with case grammar had been, he replied that it was the proliferation of semantic roles, or what were then call...
Article
Full-text available
Cognitive Science, whose genesis was interdisciplinary, shows signs of reverting to a disjoint collection of fields. This paper presents a compact, theory-free task that inherently requires an integrated solution. The basic problem is learning a subset of an arbitrary natural language from picture-sentence pairs. We describe a very specific instanc...
Article
a ‘a '4 ..J'.;= PHILOSOPHICAL PSYCHOLOGY, VOL. 2, NO. 1, I989 55 Philosophical Speculation and Cognitive Science GEORGE LAKOFF Linguistics Department, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, U.S.A. Lycan’s book Logical Form in Natural Language raises important general issues, issues that transcend the specific issues discussed in the book, whi...
Article
Metametaphorical Issues The Metaphorical Logic of Rapel George Lakoff University of California at Berkeley and Mark Johnson Southern Illinois University There is a classical theory of metaphor that says that metaphor is merely a matter of naming -- of attaching words to concepts they ordinarily wouldn't go with. The naming theory contrasts with the...
Article
The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure ou...
Book
The now-classic Metaphors We Live By changed our understanding of metaphor and its role in language and the mind. Metaphor, the authors explain, is a fundamental mechanism of mind, one that allows us to use what we know about our physical and social experience to provide understanding of countless other subjects. Because such metaphors structure ou...
Article
This chapter discusses the cognitive science of mathematics, particularly the conceptual metaphors used in mathematics. It seeks to characterize exactly what mathematical ideas are. Studying the nature of mathematical ideas changes what we understand mathematics to be and it even changes the understanding of particular mathematical results. The rea...
Article
Traducción de: Metaphors We Live by Estudio filosófico-lingüístico acerca de la metáfora, vista como una expresión del lenguaje cotidiano que incide en la percepción, el pensamiento, los procesos de significación y la acción de los humanos.
Article
Résumé La syntaxe structurale de Tesnière repose sur le concept central de connexion. Ce concept renvoie à une conception organiciste et dynamique (non logique) de l'energeia et de la performance linguistiques. A ce titre, il est d'une essence foncièrement différente de celle des règles formelles gouvernant les descriptions symboliques et logiques...
Article
Metafory, kterými žijeme. Brno: Host, 2002, 280 stran, ISBN 80-7294-071-6 (signatura knihovny ÚMV 49 649). Francis A. Beer – Christ'l De Landtsheer (eds.): Metaphorical World Politics. East Lansing: Michigan State University Press, 2004, 342 stran, ISBN 0-87013-762-3 (sig-natura knihovny ÚMV 52 022). Andreas Musolff: Mirror images of Europe. Metaph...

Citations

... Kövecses (2015) distinguishes three types: Source-related, target-induced, and context-dependent creativity. There are two subtypes of source-related creativity: "Source-internal", involving cases that can be described as elaboration and extension (Lakoff and Turner 1989), and "source-external," operating with the so-called the "range of the target" phenomenon, where a particular target concept (e.g. HAPPINESS) receives novel, additional vehicles (e.g. ...
... 8). Lakoff and Johnson (1980) state that metaphors are an expression of thought structures and "our ordinary conceptual system, in terms of which we both think and act, is fundamentally metaphoric in nature" (p. 3). ...
... Regarding this question and problem, Abrahamson and Mechsner consider Piaget's pioneering notion of the sensorimotor grounding of would-be abstract ideas, such as number (Piaget, 1945). We are less aligned with the cognitive semantics theory of conceptual metaphor (Lakoff & Núñez, 2000; see Abrahamson, 2020Abrahamson, , 2021b or with authors promoting "assembled" views of cognition, where mind and objects share in agential status (de Freitas & Sinclair, 2014). Instead, we take a strong stance by following the guiding idea that concrete and would-be abstract mental spaces and activities can be integrated in a unified framework, submitting that all human mental processes basically involve the same categories of spaces, objects, and actions (cf. ...
... Both in its institutionalized and personalized forms, radiologists' professional language contains many descriptions of causal impressions [21,42,45] and extends to animated impressions. Language not only conveys information but also offers the radiologist's body certain affordances to act while amplifying causal relations of a particular region. ...
... G. Lakoff et al. [9] explains metaphors as systematic projections between two cognitive spaces. One of these is the source whereas the other is the target sphere, through the process of cascading changes in the semantic hierarchy. ...
... Rather than drawing on the 'lexical approach' to speculate the mental mechanism of emotion concepts as commonly practiced in the field of cognitive linguistics [17][18][19][20][21], the embodiment of emotion concepts, grounded by modern embodied cognitive science, particularly interoceptive neuroscience, can be broadly parsed along two neural axes. The first is afferent body-to-brain 'interoception', encompassing the signaling and representation of changes in the physiological state translated within the brain into feeling states of subjective emotional experience and awareness. ...
... Originally understood in the natural sciences as referring to different organisms with the same structure, the term was adopted in literary criticism to correlate content with form, thus leading to the misleading assumption that form and meaning are somehow separable elements as two different organisms are. In cognitive Poetic Cognition 18 linguistics, George Lakoff andMark Johnson (1980, 1999) have been at pains to maintain the original distinction, and that distinction becomes important for poetic iconicity. ...
... Thus, a childhood spent in a more diverse and open environment will likely result in less enduring and perceptible imprints on thinking than a childhood spent in a strict enclave group. Childhood itself is such an important period for thought-model acquisition because it is a critical time for neural pathway development (Lakoff, 2012). ...
... Exceptions include the treatment of specific issues such as the persuasive use of conceptual blending and metaphor (Charteris-Black, 2011;Fauconnier & Lakoff, 2009;Fairhurst & Sarr, 1996) and the contribution of the choice of words to supporting positive or negative appraisals of the same situations and events (Martin & White, 2003;Scherer, Schorr, & Johnstone, 2001). Furthermore, the establishment of multimodal communication research as a distinct field of inquiry has contributed to shedding new light at the decisive role of nonverbal elements such as pictures, colours, shapes, and physical action in the framing (also) of individual words and vice versa (Powell, Boomgaarden, de Swert, & de Vreese, 2019;Meijers, Remmelswaal & Wonneberger, 2018;Jewitt, Bezemer, & O'Halloran, 2016;Jones, 2014). ...
... All these insights into the construction of meaning were in the air before and during the 19th century and are not the reserve of the 20th century alone (see Smith 1982;; for a summary of what cognitive linguists know about their predecessors, see now Mark Turner's contribution to the cogling list, 30 th of January, 1999). However, these views needed to be pitched against other dominant views (e.g. ...