George Graham's research while affiliated with Pennsylvania State University and other places

Publications (22)

Article
The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of t...
Article
Purpose The AAP recommends that children and adolescents watch no more than two hours of educational screen-time a day. Despite these recommendations, children and adolescents under 18 years old spend three hours watching television and over six hours being sedentary (TV, computer, video games, cell/telephone, reading) each day (Roberts et al., 200...
Article
Full-text available
This article discusses a new genre of video games that require players to physically move in order to control onscreen actions. This combination of exercise and games is aptly termed exergame or exertainment. Although not ideal, playing exergames is arguably a better alternative for youngsters than sitting and twiddling their thumbs. Children who f...
Article
Full-text available
The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of t...
Article
Full-text available
The study purposes were to examine: (a) the determinants of exercise intention and past exercise behavior (PEB) using the theories of reasoned action and planned behavior, and (b) the moderating influences of sex and exercise group (meeting or not meeting exercise guidelines). Participants (n = 676 adolescents) completed self-reported measures of t...
Article
Motivating youth to be physically active is a main concern for parents and educators alike, and given the obesity epidemic, finding alternate strategies that can be incorporated at home are a priority. Besides physical education classes and organized sports, there are relatively few interesting and enjoyable opportunities for adolescents to accumul...
Article
There is growing concern that adolescent physical activity levels around the world are insufficient to prevent lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, and diabetes mellitus (Eisenmann, 2002; Sallis, 1993; Strauss, 2001 ; Tremblay, 2000; Trost, 2002). The combination of increased sedentary activities, deceased levels of p...
Article
The number of low active and sedentary youth in the United States has reached epidemic proportions. Thus, to promote exercise, objectives have been established recommending that youth engage in at least 60 minutes of accumulated moderate to vigorous physical activity on most days of the week (IOM, 2002; NASPE, 2003; WHO, 2003). Limited research, ho...
Article
Experts recommend children to accumulate 30-60 minutes of physical activity each day, but the rates of childhood obesity and lifestyle related diseases have steadily increased. Currently, there is little evidence to suggest that web-based interventions can be an effective method to increase physical activity levels. In response to the decreasing ph...
Article
With the increase in state-mandated high-stakes testing across the USA, schools and school districts are considering ways of increasing instructional time for core curricular subjects such as mathematics, science, English, and social studies. One seemingly logical approach to improving test scores is to reduce the time spent in subjects that are no...
Conference Paper
Experts recommend children to accumulate 30-60 minutes of physical activity each day, but the rates of childhood obesity and lifestyle related diseases have steadily increased. In response to the decreasing physical activity levels we conceptualized, designed and piloted an intervention to determine if students would use a website to track their da...
Article
Fourth and fifth graders who had completed the mile-run physical fitness test were interviewed to determine what they thought, felt, and knew about the test. Students reported little understanding of why they had to complete the test. They viewed it as a painful, negative experience that was little fun. (SM)
Article
Compared how 3 novice teachers (NTs) and 3 experienced teachers (ETs) of PE teach hand-dribbling to the same 3rd–5th graders. Interviews, field notes, and document analyses were used to determine the variety in Ss' planning and teaching. The ETs relied heavily on their past experience to plan their lessons and taught according to the characteristic...

Citations

... Scholars also argue that a number of essential "nonacademic" aspects of education, such as art, music, and even playtime for younger children, have already been eliminated from the school day because of testing, defying research that shows how these experiences contribute significantly to student well-being, engagement, behavior, and achievement (Barksdale-Ladd & Thomas, 2000;Graham et al., 2013). For example, studies show how recess positively influences school climate, effecting favorable student outcomes in both attendance and academics, as well as physical, cognitive, and social benefits for children (London et al., 2015); yet recess is often reduced or eliminated when schools feel pressured to increase "instructional" time to improve test scores (Pellegrini, 2008), denying children's right to play (Dubroc, 2007). ...
... • Fitness testing or fitness education? Fitness testing often occurs in a single lesson, disconnected from broader fitness education programmes ( Simonton, Mercier & Garn, 2019) and with unclear educative aims ( Hopple & Graham, 1995;Placek et al., 2001). Embedding testing within a fitness education unit may support learners in planning, enacting and evaluating a fitness programme. ...
... Chacune d'entre elles englobe un niveau de maîtrise allant des débutants jusqu'aux experts. À cet égard, les recherches font état de plusieurs désignations pour qualifier les meilleurs enseignants : experts ou maîtres enseignants (Piéron, 1982), efficaces/moins efficaces (Phillips et Carlisle, 1983), spécialistes/non-spécialistes (Faucette et Patterson, 1990 ;Graham et al., 1993 ;Rosado et al., 1998), et expérimentés/débutants. Mais pour déterminer le degré d'expertise des uns et des autres, nous devons d'abord définir la notion « d'expertise ». ...
... In contrast, Colley et al (2011) reported that 80% of boys and 67% of girls in this age group met MVPA guidelines only 1 day per week. 4 In our Exergames such as Wii Fit and Dance Dance Revolution in which high amounts of energy are expended 16,32,37,63,64 and which may also contribute to meeting muscle conditioning guidelines, 56 were the most popular exergames. Most exergamers played at home, although many also played at friends' homes. ...
... These exergames provide children with opportunities to maintain their heart rate within the range necessary for developing cardiorespiratory fi tness (Christison & Khan, 2012;Trout & Christie, 2007;Unnithan, Houser, & Fernhall, 2006). Studies have also concluded that dance-based exergames increase enjoyment, improve engagement, promote exercise, and are fun for participants of all ages and abilities (Hicks & Higgins, 2010;Tan, Aziz, Chua, & Teh, 2002;Thin & Poole, 2010;Yang & Graham, 2005). Students enjoy the dance-based exergames because they know the songs and enjoy the dance moves that are specifi cally choreographed to fi t each song. ...
... Estes dados levam a considerar que os estudantes do ensino superior, de uma forma geral, não estão preparados para a transição de um sistema em que a realização de atividade física desportiva é obrigatória para um outro em que ela passa a ser voluntária e autónoma (Côrte-Real et al., 2008;Dias et al., 2008;Sallis & Mckenzie, 1991). Associado a esta problemática, existem diversos impedimentos ou constrangimentos à prática de atividade física desportiva, em especial associados à falta de tempo e de dinheiro (Gomes, 2005;Jackson, 2005), que tornam, em última instância, as instituições de ensino superior, e os seus órgãos de gestão, responsáveis pelo desenvolvimento e promoção de condições para o aumento dessa prática (Côrte-Real et al., 2008). ...
... They also aim at improving the players fitness beyond the gaming context. Previous work found that players of a dancing exergame can have average heart rates between 137 and 148 beats comparable with an aerobic exercise [34,49,85,100]. This energy expenditure can result in significant calorie burn [49], weight loss [83,87], and an improved overall fitness [35]. ...
... According to a large survey conducted by the Centre on Education Policy (McMurrer, 2007), 44% of elementary schools surveyed report decreasing time allocated for physical education, art, music, and recess (among other subjects) in order to increase instructional time for core subject areas (i.e. mathematics, language arts) (for related discussion see Jarrett, 2013;Trost & van der Mars, 2010;Wilkins et al., 2003). However, these findings suggest increasing instructional time in and of itself may not yield meaningful gains in achievement given the weak and unstable relationship between time and learning. ...
... Within the peer-reviewed literature, the importance of these constructs in relation to youth physical activity is readily apparent, as seen for self-efficacy (Allison et al., 2005;Butcher, 1983;Craig, Goldberg, & Dietz, 1996;De Bourdeaudhuij et al., 2005;Ladwig, Va zou, & Ekkekakis, 2018;Ning, Gao, & Lodewyk, 2012;Pender, 1998;Strauss, Rodzilsky, Burack, & Colin, 2001), perceived behavioral control (Craig et al., 1996;Downs, Graham, Yang, Bargainnier, & Vasil, 2006), and perceived physical competence (Allison et al., 2005;Babic et al., 2014;Butcher, 1983;Cox & Ulrich-French, 2010;Craig et al., 1996;Deforche et al., 2011;Goguen Carpenter et al., 2015;Sallis, Prochaska, & Taylor, 2000;Timo, Sami, Anthony, & Jarmo, 2016) as well as perceived physical fitness (Babic et al., 2014). Taylor et al. (2010) studied English adolescents over time in physical education classes and demonstrated that students who had greater levels of need satisfaction for competence showed greater increases in leisure-time physical activity, as compared to students who were lower in perceived competence. ...