George C. Decker's research while affiliated with University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign and other places

Publications (22)

Article
In laboratory rearing studies and 2 types of field studies, Empoasca fabae (Harris) oviposition rates ranged between 2.5 and 3.8 eggs per female per day, and the average number of eggs per female ranged between 33.7 and 57.4. In 9 separate studies conducted in the laboratory over a period of 13 months the percent females produced ranged from 47.7 t...
Article
Eggs of Simyra henrici (Grote) had incubation periods ranging from 20 days at 14.4 to 3 days at 32.2 . Developmental velocity was a straight-line relationship. The theoretical threshold of egg development was about 11.1. Larval development was completed in 7 or 8 instars at temperatures from 14.4° to 32.2. The theoretical threshold of larval develo...
Article
The potential of Simyra henrici (Grote) as a pest of corn and other graminaceous crops is discussed. S. henrici was collected from 10 different host plants and observed as an occasional pest of corn. The average total number of eggs laid per female was 1370.9. Larval development was completed in i or 8 instars. If the width of the head capsule was...
Article
Zones of fatal low temperatures and a range of supercooling points were determined for 4 species of Empoasca. The only one of these 4 species known to overwinter in Illinois,E. recurvata DeLong, survived prolonged exposures at temperatures of -5, -10, or -15°C. The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), a permanent resident of the Gulf Coast a...
Article
Canning pumpkins were grown on soil treated with aldrin and heptachlor. Soil surrounding the roots and vines and soil beneath the pumpkin fruit were analyzed at harvest. Some plants were manipulated so that either roots and vines or the fruit or the entire plant was situated in or on soils containing the insecticides. Pumpkins grown in or on soils...
Article
A 4-year residue study of soybeans grown on soil treated with aldrin and heptachlor establishes a basis for computing the amount of pesticides translocated into soybeans from soils of known residues. Aldrin and heptachlor granules were applied and soil was analyzed during each growing season to find the average residue levels. The level of insectic...
Article
The potato leafhopper, Empoasca fabae (Harris), was reared over a 3-year period both in temperature-controlled cabinets and under known field conditions. In the laboratory, the relation between temperature and rate of development appeared to be linear at temperatures between 60° and 83°F; above 88° the rate of development decreased, and its maximum...
Article
Peanuts, soybeans, oats, corn, and barley were grown on soil treated in 1961 with granular aldrin and heptachlor at rates of 2, 5, 10, and 20 lb per acre. Data from the analyses of the soil and the seeds were used to establish direct relationships (1) between residues found in the soil and in the seed, and (2) between oil content of the seed and th...
Article
Data are presented to delineate (1) the rate and extent of aldrin conversion to dieldrin and (2) the rate of residue (aldrin + dieldrin) dissipation in Illinois soils. Formulae were developed to estimate with reasonable accuracy accumulated residues resulting from repeated annual applications of aldrin. It is concluded that under corn belt conditio...
Article
When heptachlor epoxide was fed to Shorthorn dairy cows at levels of 0.2, 0.5, 1.5, 10, and 50 p.p.m., at the end of 12 weeks it appeared in the butterfat of milk at levels of 4.25, 11.25, 21.7, 119.7, and 460 p.p.m., and in body fat at levels of ?, 7.1, 14.7, 83.5, and 293.4 p.p.m., respectively. In a subsequent feed-off period, the heptachlor epo...
Article
Face flies (Musca autumnalis DeGeer) became numerous in the northern half of Illinois during the summer of 1959. Large-scale residual treatments of farm premises and animals were not effective in controlling face flies. Repellent treatments with R-326 (di-n-propyl isocinchomeronate) or Tabatrex (di-n-butyl succinate) gave a practical level of contr...
Article
Intensive studies, involving two distinct procedures, conducted over a period of 3 years(1955 -57) developed very significant correlations between stable fly (Stomoxys culcitrans (L.)) abundance and reductions in milk and butterfat production during the summer months ( May-September). On the basis of two distinct regression lines, average monthly r...
Article
Recent work on the genetics of DDT resistance in the house fly, Musca domestica L., has indicated the presence of a single autosomal dominant gene for high tolerance to DDT. Two laboratory strains of house flies have been shown to carry this gene, the Multi X strain, studied by Maelzer and Kirk (1953), and the DDT I strain, studied by Lichtwardt (1...
Article
It is no doubt significant that housefly resistance to DDT was first recognized and reported in Europe, where DDT came into commercial use in 1944 and was used extensively by civil and military personnel in 1945. In 1947, Sacca and Missiroli attributed the failure of DDT to control flies in Italy to the presence of a variety of house fly which had...

Citations

... Stable flies (Stomoxys calcitrans) are biting flies that feed on blood leading to high stress and elevated cortisol levels which may impact cattle health, productivity and welfare [1]. Previous studies have reported severe reduction in US dairy and beef cattle productivity due to S. calcitrans [2][3][4][5][6][7]. In 2009, the losses due to stable flies in the U.S. cattle industry were estimated to be $2.2 billion/year, with $360 million losses in the dairy industry [8]. ...
... The ge strain had been maintained and studied in this laboratory for 11 years at the start of these experiments. It is marked with the autosomal recessive eye color green (ge) described by Zingrone, et aL (1959) and located in linkage group II (Hiroyoshi, 1961). Recent electrophoretic studies in our laboratory (J. ...
... Repellents specific to stable flies were reported in several studies in the 1940s and 1950s [121][122][123][124]. Most repellent formulations, however, have only demonstrated at best 1 to 2 d reprieve for animals [32,125], and with many less than 12 h of measurable reduction in stable flies [126]. ...
... A common design flaw is the evaluation of genetically unrelated populations in the experimental set-up. The different genetic background and adaptive variations in life history traits across such populations hamper any reliable claim of a causal effect of the point mutation of interest to the observed differences in population growth dynamics (Raymond et al., 2011;The Anopheles gambiae Genomes, 2017;Varzandeh et al., 1954). An elegant solution to overcome this experimental limitation is to back-cross the target-site mutation of interest into a susceptible genomic background over multiple generations, hereby generating near-isogenic lines. ...
... Pyrethrum and allethrin sprays did not protect animals for more than three days even when used at high concentrations. Field tests with sprays applied to livestock to protect them against tabanids are reported by Goodwin et al. (37), and Bruce & Decker (38,39). They showed pyrethrum preparations were practical and effective against tabanids in the midwestern and eastern United States. ...
... and tabanids, it is generally accepted that biting ies are responsible of a huge loss in livestock production. In a very early study made in 1947 in Illinois, US, it was estimated that controlling tabanids through insecticide spray (every 3-4 days) might bring an additional weight gain of 9-13.5 Kg per 5.5 weeks in free pasturing cattle Decker 1951a, Bruce andDecker 1951b). In a study made in USSR in 1982-84, it was estimated that tabanids were responsible of a decrease of 13% of dairy production; at that time only insecticide spray was proposed to decrease their impact (Minár et al. 1987). ...
... The stable fly (Stomoxys calcitrans) is a cosmopolitan blood-feeding fly that is distributed globally wherever humans keep domesticated animals [1]. Due to their very painful bites, stable flies influence the behavior, health, productivity, and welfare of cattle [2][3][4][5][6][7][8]. Fly-defensive behaviors of cattle bitten by stable flies include tail switching, foot stomping, head tossing, skin twitching, and ear flicking [9][10][11][12]. ...
... Some of the absorbed chemicals are metabolized during the life time of the plant. Dormal et al. (1959) and Breft and Bowery (1958) found 0.3-1.5 g/g DDT residues and 0.4 g/kg lindane residues, respectively, in beans, and McCaskill et al.(1970) found 6 ng/g lindane residues in soybean, while Bruce et al. (1966) reported levels as high as 0.11 g/g heptachlor in soybean. The mean concentration of heptachlor epoxide detected in tomato crops at Akumadan was 1.65 g/ kg, and this was in 51% of the samples analyzed. ...
... Mating can take place as soon as 48 h after adult emergence (Delong 1938). Once females have mated, they oviposit two to five fertile eggs, individually, each day for the remainder of their lives (Delong 1938, Decker et al. 1971. Optimal temperatures for egg laying are 70 -75°F (Kieckhefer and Medler 1964). ...
... Animal experiments have revealed a carcinogenic effect, but as yet no teratogenic action. Residue levels of aldrin (mostly present as dieldrin) do not accumulate indefinitely, as the result of yearly applications at a constant dosage rate, but will reach a maximum level which is, in practice, of the order of that resulting from a single annual dose [56,57]. There is virtually no leaching of aldrin into deeper soil layers and thus no contamination of groundwater, which is eventually used as drinking or irrigation water [58,59]. ...