Geoffrey Swain's research while affiliated with University of the West of England, Bristol and other places

Publications (22)

Chapter
The history of Eastern Europe since 1945 is the story of a once inspirational ideology turned concrete, a system of ideals operationalised into a socio-economic system which was successful in mobilising resources for post-war reconstruction and industrialisation in the absence of Marshall Aid, but which proved unequal to the task of creating suffic...
Chapter
In the ‘long decade’ of the Brezhnev doctrine, between successful ‘normalisation’ in Czechoslovakia and the accession to power in the Soviet Union of Mikhail Gorbachev, neo-Stalinism ruled triumphant. The Eastern European regimes were politically stable, secure beneath the Soviet umbrella. International acceptance of the ‘actually existing socialis...
Chapter
If in the Balkans communists came to power at the head of their own revolutions and, as it were ‘sovietised’ themselves, elsewhere in Eastern Europe the role played by the Soviet Union in shaping the nature of post-war politics was far more important. However, prior to 1947 Stalin had no overall blueprint for expansion, nor a single uniform policy...
Chapter
Life in inter-war Eastern Europe was unpleasant. Czechoslovakia was a democracy, but all the other states of Eastern Europe were governed by authoritarian regimes: Poland was a ‘directed democracy’; Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia were monarchical dictatorships; and Hungary was a monarchical dictatorship with a Regent rather than a King....
Chapter
This chapter presents the collapse of the ancien régime in Eastern Europe, a process which would not have been possible without the role played by Mikhail Gorbachev. Not long after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, Ferenc Fejtö wrote:
Chapter
Between 1953 and 1956 the twin processes of de-Stalinisation and Soviet—Yugoslav rapprochement opened up the possibility of renewal for the communist states of Eastern Europe. With Khrushchev pressing the East European leaders to undo the injustices of the purge trials, and Tito urging them to adopt the Yugoslav system of workers’ councils, there w...
Chapter
The preceding chapters have documented how communist regimes came to power in Eastern Europe with varying degrees of domestic and Soviet support: motivations had been mixed. For the Soviet Union, despite a notional commitment to the long-term goal of world revolution, the primary concern had been geo-political. For the local communists who engineer...
Chapter
In the first five years after the establishment of democratic parliaments throughout Eastern Europe the division between Central Europe and the Balkans became more rather than less pronounced. From the wreck of the socialist experiment which failed, Central Europe retained the element of social reform inherent in communism; the Balkans clung on to...
Chapter
The 1960s, more precisely the years following 1956 until 1968, witnessed two major developments in the post-war history of Eastern Europe: the birth of economic reform and the beginnings of heterodoxy between the Warsaw Pact countries, as Stalinism was replaced by neo-Stalinism. Even as Khrushchev was promising a rosy future based on the superiorit...
Chapter
In the spring of 1947 diversity rather than uniformity characterised Eastern Europe. The Balkan revolutions were an accomplished fact: Yugoslavia and Albania were further along the socialist road than Bulgaria, but that was largely because Bulgaria had been subject to Allied scrutiny. Romania and Poland had experienced revolutions at Soviet prompti...
Chapter
This chapter presents the collapse of the ancien régime in Eastern Europe, a process which would not have been possible without the role played by Mikhail Gorbachev. Not long after the Soviet invasion of Czechoslovakia, Ferenc Fejtö wrote: One may hope – certainly the people of Eastern Europe hope – that the next Dubček will appear in the nerve cen...
Chapter
If in the Balkans communists came to power at the head of their own revolutions and, as it were ‘sovietised’ themselves, elsewhere in Eastern Europe the role played by the Soviet Union in shaping the nature of post-war politics was far more important. However, prior to 1947 Stalin had no overall blueprint for expansion, nor a single uniform policy...
Chapter
Life in inter-war Eastern Europe was unpleasant. Czechoslovakia was a democracy, but all the other states of Eastern Europe were governed by authoritarian regimes: Poland was a ‘directed democracy’; Albania, Bulgaria, Romania and Yugoslavia were monarchical dictatorships; and Hungary was a monarchical dictatorship with a Regent rather than a King....
Chapter
The preceding chapters have documented how communist regimes came to power in Eastern Europe with varying degrees of domestic and Soviet support: Motivations had been mixed. For the Soviet Union, despite a notional commitment to the long-term goal of world revolution, the primary concern had been geo-political. For the local communists who engineer...
Chapter
Between 1953 and 1956 the twin processes of de-Stalinisation and Soviet-Yugoslav rapprochement opened up the possibility of renewal for the communist states of Eastern Europe. With Khrushchev pressing the East European leaders to undo the injustices of the purge trials, and Tito urging them to adopt the Yugoslav system of workers’ councils, there w...
Article
Since its first appearance in 1993, Eastern Europe since 1945 has become an essential text for university students and others keen to understand the complex developments in the region over the last sixty years. This fourth edition has been fully revised, updated and expanded in order to incorporate new material and the events that have taken place...
Chapter
In the ‘long decade’ of the Brezhnev doctrine, between successful ‘normalisation’ in Czechoslovakia and the accession to power in the Soviet Union of Mikhail Gorbachev, neo-Stalinism ruled triumphant. The Eastern European regimes were politically stable, secure beneath the Soviet umbrella. International acceptance of the ‘actually existing socialis...
Chapter
The 1960s, more precisely the years following 1956 until 1968, witnessed two major developments in the post war history of Eastern Europe: the birth of economic reform and the beginnings of heterodoxy between the Warsaw Pact countries, as Stalinism was replaced by neo-Stalinism. Even as Khrushchev was promising a rosy future based on the superiorit...
Chapter
The history of Eastern Europe since 1945 is the story of a once inspirational ideology turned concrete, a system of ideals operationalised into a socio-economic system which was successful in mobilising resources for post-war reconstruction and industrialisation in the absence of Marshall Aid, but which proved unequal to the task of creating suffic...
Chapter
In the spring of 1947 diversity rather than uniformity characterised Eastern Europe. The Balkan revolutions were an accomplished fact: Yugoslavia and Albania were further along the socialist road than Bulgaria, but that was largely because Bulgaria had been subject to Allied scrutiny. Romania and Poland had experienced revolutions at Soviet prompti...

Citations

... Az ukrán és grúz konfliktusok, a szíriai területeken zajló műveletek legfőképpen azt a célt szolgálják, hogy Oroszország kiterjes-sze befolyási övezetének fennhatóságát Európa szomszédságában. 25 Továbbá ezen államok instabilitásának fenntartásával, mintegy gátolja is azok lehetőségeit, hogy csatlakozhassanak az euro-atlanti térség szervezeteihez. A 2016-os varsói csúcs megállapításai szerint az orosz erőalkalmazás és azzal való fenyegetés lényegesen növelte a térség instabilitását. ...
... Na dalších více než čtyřicet let tato strana autokraticky určovala směr vývoje československé společnosti, který měl být po období socialismu završen dosažením komunismu (viz např. Swain & Swain, 1998). Není proto překvapující, že do mnoha oblastí života společnosti i života jednotlivých obyvatel Československa začala KSČ silně prosazovat ideologii marxismu-leninismu. ...
... Further commonalities also exist in that these countries have shared a communist system of one form or another from just after the Second World War to the late 1980s or early 90s. However, these similar experiences do not seem to have created the notion of a region that is a single entity (Swain and Swain 1993, Feher and Arato 1991). The situation becomes further complicated when countries of the former Soviet Union are included in the umbrella term " Eastern Europe " . ...