Geoffrey M Calvert's research while affiliated with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and other places

Publications (155)

Article
Two coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccines are currently authorized for use in the United States. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) for the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine on December 11, 2020, and for the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine on December 18, 2020; each is administered as a 2-dose series. The...
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Background Over 90% of adults with elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in the United States are exposed occupationally. Missouri historically has been among the states with the highest prevalence rates of elevated BLLs. We characterized cases of elevated BLLs among Missouri adults to target preventive interventions. Methods We reviewed 2013 data on...
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Phosphine is a highly toxic gas that forms when aluminum phosphide, a restricted-use pesticide* typically used in agricultural settings, reacts with water. Acute exposure can lead to a wide range of respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal symptoms, and can be fatal (1). On January 2, 2017, the Texas Department of State Health Services (DS...
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Introduction Industry and occupation (I&O) information collected by cancer registries is useful for assessing associations among jobs and malignancies. However, systematic differences in I&O availability can bias findings. Methods Codability by patient demographics, payor, identifying (casefinding) source, and cancer site was assessed using I&O te...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of occupational noise exposure, hearing difficulty and cardiovascular conditions within US industries and occupations, and to examine any associations of these outcomes with occupational noise exposure. Methods: National Health Interview Survey data from 2014 were examined. Wei...
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Total release foggers (TRFs) (also known as "bug bombs") are pesticide products often used indoors to kill insects. After an earlier report found that TRFs pose a risk for acute illness (1), the Environmental Protection Agency required improved labels on TRFs manufactured after September 2012 (2). To examine the early impact of relabeling, the magn...
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Background: The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among noise-exposed US workers within the Agriculture, Forestry, Fishing, and Hunting (AFFH) sector. Methods: Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (17 299 within AFFH) from 2003 to 2012 were examined. Prevalence, and the adjusted risk for hearing loss as compared...
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Objective: The purpose was to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers within the Healthcare and Social Assistance (HSA) sector. Methods: Audiograms for 1.4 million workers (8,702 within HSA) from 2003-2012 were examined. Prevalences and adjusted risks for hearing loss as compared with a reference industry were esti...
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The Summary of Notifiable Noninfectious Conditions and Disease Outbreaks: Surveillance Data Published Between April 1, 2016 and January 31, 2017 - United States, herein referred to as the Summary (Noninfectious), contains official statistics for nationally notifiable noninfectious conditions and disease outbreaks. This Summary (Noninfectious) is be...
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Farmworkers are at high risk of acute occupational pesticide-related illness (AOPI) and AOPI surveillance is vital to preventing these illnesses. Data on such illnesses are collected and analyzed to identify high risk groups, high risk pesticides, and root causes. Interventions to address these risks and root causes include farmworker outreach, edu...
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Introduction: Approximately 60% of the U.S. adult population is employed. Many aspects of a person's job may influence health, but it is unclear which job characteristics are most strongly associated with health at a population level. The purpose of this study was to identify important associations between job characteristics and workers' self-rat...
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CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, North Carolina, Nebraska, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from...
Article
CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) collects data on acute pesticide-related illness and injury reported by 12 states (California, Florida, Iowa, Louisiana, Michigan, Nebraska, North Carolina, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Texas, and Washington). This report summarizes the data on illnesses and injuries arising from...
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Objective To estimate the prevalence of a comprehensive set of self-reported sleep problems by job characteristics, including shiftwork status, among a representative sample of US workers. Methods Data for 6338 workers aged ≥18 years were obtained from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Short sleep duration was defined as <7 hou...
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On August 19, 2015, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) was notified by the Florida Poison Information Center Network and a local hospital of possible sulfuryl fluoride poisonings affecting a family in Martin County, in southeastern Florida. Sulfuryl fluoride is a highly toxic (toxicity category I) gas fumigant used for termite control of homes...
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Dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) is a new soil fumigant that is considered a replacement for methyl bromide. In 2014, the Florida Department of Health (FDOH) received several complaints of illness following a strong DMDS odor in Hillsborough County. Public health investigation of DMDS-related illness was conducted to assess illness and identify areas to t...
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Background: Paraquat and diquat are among the most commonly used herbicides in the world. Objectives: Determine the magnitude, characteristics, and root causes for acute paraquat- and diquat-related illnesses in the US METHODS: Illnesses associated with paraquat or diquat exposure occurring from 1998 through 2011 were identified from the Sentine...
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Background Hearing loss and tinnitus are two potentially debilitating physical conditions affecting many people in the United States. The purpose of this study was to estimate the prevalence of hearing difficulty, tinnitus, and their co-occurrence within U.S. populations. Methods Data from the 2007 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were exami...
Article
The vital importance of agriculture is well-recognised, as is the usefulness of pesticides in increasing agricultural yields and reducing spoilage rates. The usefulness of pesticides in mitigating disease-carrying pests (eg, mosquitos) is also well known. However, there are also risks associated with pesticide use. In addition to causing acute pois...
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Lack of trust in government-supported services after the death of a health care worker with symptoms of Ebola resulted in ongoing Ebola transmission in 2 Liberia counties. Ebola transmission was facilitated by attempts to avoid cremation of the deceased patient and delays in identifying and monitoring contacts.
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Most studies of firefighter cancer risks were conducted prior to 1990 and do not reflect risk from advances in building materials. A case-control study using California Cancer Registry data (1988-2007) was conducted to evaluate the risk of cancer among firefighters, stratified by race. This study identified 3,996 male firefighters with cancer. Fire...
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West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systematicall...
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West Africa is experiencing its first epidemic of Ebola virus disease (Ebola) (1). As of February 9, Liberia has reported 8,864 Ebola cases, of which 3,147 were laboratory-confirmed. Beginning in August 2014, the Liberia Ministry of Health and Social Welfare (MOHSW), supported by CDC, the World Health Organization (WHO), and others, began systemati...
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The purpose of this study was to estimate the incidence and prevalence of hearing loss for noise-exposed U.S. workers by industry sector and 5-year time period, covering 30 years. Audiograms for 1.8 million workers from 1981-2010 were examined. Incidence and prevalence were estimated by industry sector and time period. The adjusted risk of incident...
Article
Background Cancer and chronic disease are leading causes of death in the US with an estimated cost of $46 billion.Methods We analyzed 11 million cause-specific deaths of US workers age 18–64 years in 30 states during 1985–1999, 2003–2004, and 2007 by occupation, industry, race, gender, and Hispanic origin.ResultsThe highest significantly elevated p...
Article
On April 10, 2014 the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) was notified by a local newspaper of a suspected pesticide poisoning incident in Douglas County involving pesticides not previously reported in the published literature to be associated with human illness. On that same day, WSDA notified the Washington State Department of Healt...
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To determine the incidence and epidemiological characteristics of work-related asthma in Korea. During 2004-2009, the Korea Work-Related Asthma Surveillance (KOWAS) program collected data on new cases of work-related asthma from occupational physicians, allergy and chest physicians, regional surveillance systems, and workers' compensation schemes....
Article
Twenty-two million workers are exposed to hazardous noise in the United States. The purpose of this study is to estimate the prevalence of hearing loss among U.S. industries. We examined 2000–2008 audiograms for male and female workers ages 18–65, who had higher occupational noise exposures than the general population. Prevalence and adjusted preva...
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Objective To explore associations between self-reported hypertension and workplace psychosocial factors that are common among U.S. workers and to identify industries and occupations (I&Os) that are associated with a high prevalence of hypertension, even after adjustment for common known risk factors.Methods Data from the 2010 National Health Interv...
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Cardiovascular disease accounts for one in three deaths in the United States each year, and coronary heart disease and stroke account for most of those deaths. To try to prevent 1 million heart attacks and strokes by 2017, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services launched the Million Hearts initiative, promoting proven and effective interve...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Since 1987, acute occupational pesticide-related illness and injury has been one of the conditions under surveillance by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH supports these surveillance activities by providing cooperative agreement funding and technical support to state health departments. The program...
Article
ABSTRACT Ergonomic risks from agricultural tasks can compromise musculoskeletal health of workers. This study estimated prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms in a sample representing almost 2 million US agricultural industry workers. This study used National Health Interview Survey data from 2004 to 2008. Weighted prevalence was calculated by demo...
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During an influenza pandemic, information about the industry and occupation (I&O) of persons likely to be infected with influenza virus is important to guide key policy decisions regarding vaccine prioritization and exposure-control measures. Health-care personnel (HCP) might have increased opportunity for exposure to influenza infection, and they...
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Alternative shift work is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Certain cancer screening tests reduce cancer mortality. The 2010 National Health Interview Survey was used to examine associations between adherence to breast, cervical, and colon cancer screening recommendations and alternative shift work among female workers. Workers on alternat...
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Along with public health and clinical professionals, employers are taking note of rising obesity rates among their employees, as obesity is strongly related to chronic health problems and concomitant increased healthcare costs. Contributors to the obesity epidemic are complex and numerous, and may include several work characteristics. To explore as...
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ABSTRACT Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is the most common type of leukemia found in adults. Identifying jobs that pose a risk for AML may be useful for identifying new risk factors. A matched case-control analysis was conducted using California Cancer Registry data from 1988 to 2007. This study included 8,999 AML cases and 24,822 controls. Industrie...
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To determine the prevalence of cigarette smoking cessation and examine the association between cessation and various factors among workers in a nationally representative sample of US adults. Data were derived from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey. Prevalence rates were calculated for interest in quitting smoking, making an attempt to quit...
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Dichlorvos-impregnated resin strips (DDVP pest strips) are among the few organophosphate products still available for indoor residential use. The residential uses for most other organophosphate products, including most DDVP products, were canceled because they posed unreasonable risks to children. DDVP pest strips act by inhibiting acetylcholineste...
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Excluding disinfectants, pyrethrins and pyrethroids are the pesticides used most commonly in and around homes. Respiratory effects and paresthesia are among the concerns about pyrethrin/pyrethroid exposures. Acute pesticide-related illness/injury cases were identified from the Sentinel Event Notification System for Occupational Risks-Pesticides Pro...
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Over the past several decades there has been a remarkable reduction in environmental sources of lead, improved protection from occupational lead exposure, and an overall decreasing trend in the prevalence of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in U.S. adults. As a result, the U.S. national BLL geometric mean among adults was 1.2 µg/dL during 2009–201...
Conference Paper
Background and Objectives: Several studies have suggested associations between hypertension and certain work organization and psychosocial occupational exposures, but most of these have been small and/or restricted to specific industry or occupational groups. The goal of this study was to explore these associations among a nationally representative...
Article
By pooling data from six studies that participated in the Upper-Extremity Musculoskeletal Disorder Consortium (UEMSD), Dale et al's recent publication "Prevalence and incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome in US working populations: pooled analysis of six prospective studies" (1) provides an important contribution to the literature on carpal tunnel sy...
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ABSTRACT Acute severe pesticide-related illness among farm worker children is rarely reported. The authors report a toddler with acute onset of apnea, cyanosis, somnolence, hypotonia, tachycardia, and miosis who required hospitalization. Health care providers suspected pesticide poisoning, but were unable to determine the causal agent. Investigatio...
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To determine whether current job is a reasonable surrogate for usual job. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were utilized to determine concordance between current and usual jobs for workers employed within the past year. Concordance was quantitated by kappa values for both simple and detailed industry and occupational groups. Good...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: The NIOSH’s Adult Blood Lead Epidemiology and Surveillance (ABLES Program uses a standardized set of 18 variables for the surveillance of elevated blood lead levels (BLLs) in adults. This session aims at improving the quality of coding variables for ABLES program. NIOSH, the ABLES Coding Committee, and State ABLES programs representativ...
Conference Paper
BACKGROUND: Since 1987, acute occupational pesticide-related illness and injury has been one of the conditions under surveillance by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). NIOSH supports these surveillance activities by providing cooperative agreement funding and technical support to state health departments. The program...
Conference Paper
Brief Summary Brief Summary: Occupational surveillance focuses primarily upon injury and illness among working people. To estimate the populations at risk, programs rely upon external sources of labor force and general population data. These population estimates are often used as denominators when calculating rates of injury and illness. Depending...
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Surveillance is needed to capture work organization characteristics and to identify their trends. Data from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were used to calculate prevalence rates for four work organization characteristics (long work hours, non-standard work arrangements, temporary positions, and alternative shifts) overall, and by...
Article
Objective: Assess the national prevalence of current workplace exposure to potential skin hazards, secondhand smoke (SHS), and outdoor work among various industry and occupation groups. Also, assess the national prevalence of chronic workplace exposure to vapors, gas, dust, and fumes (VGDF) among these groups. Methods: Data were obtained from th...
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Patterns of prevalence and work-relatedness of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among workers offer clues about risk factors and targets for prevention. Data from an occupational health supplement to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey were used to estimate the prevalence of self-reported clinician-diagnosed CTS overall and by demographic charact...
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Background: Little nationally representative information on job insecurity, work-family imbalance, and hostile work environments experienced by workers in the US is available. Methods: Prevalence rates from the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) were calculated for three workplace psychosocial factors (job insecurity, work-family imbal...
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Background: Prevalence patterns of dermatitis among workers offer clues about risk factors and targets for prevention, but population-based estimates of the burden of dermatitis among US workers are lacking. Methods: Data from an occupational health supplement to the 2010 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS-OHS) were used to estimate the prev...
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Acrolein is an aquatic herbicide used in the western United States to prevent impaired water flow in irrigation canals. Despite its toxicity, few cases of acrolein-related illness have been reported in the literature. On August 15, 2012, an irrigation district notified the Washington State Department of Labor & Industries (L&I) of acrolein-related...
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Objectives: Occupational exposure to chlorinated aliphatic solvents has been associated with an increased cancer risk, including brain cancer. However, many of these solvents remain in active, large-volume use. We evaluated glioma risk from non-farm occupational exposure (ever/never and estimated cumulative exposure) to any of the six chlorinated...
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Understanding glioma etiology requires determining which environmental factors are associated with glioma. Upper Midwest Health Study case-control participant work histories collected 1995-1998 were evaluated for occupational associations with glioma. "Exposures of interest" from our study protocol comprise our a priori hypotheses. Year-long or lon...
Article
Farmworkers have a high risk for acute pesticide-related illness and injury, and the rate among female farmworkers is approximately twice as high as that among males. Surveillance data were used to identify reasons for this gender difference. We identified acute pesticide-related illness and injury cases among farmworkers from the Sentinel Event No...
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With the exception of agriculture, all other Republic of Korea industrial sectors have comprehensive systems in place for workplace surveillance (i.e., disease, injury, and exposure), research, and targeted interventions. However, because few statistics are available on the occupational health and safety conditions in the Republic of Korea agricult...
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An excess incidence of brain cancer in farmers has been noted in several studies. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health developed the Upper Midwest Health Study (UMHS) as a case-control study of intracranial gliomas and pesticide uses among rural residents. Previous studies of UMHS participants, using "ever-never" exposure to fa...
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Abstract A total of 18 708 male cases of leukemia from the California Cancer Registry, including 1703 cases usually employed in construction, were each matched with up to five controls from the same source who were diagnosed with cancers not thought to be related to exposures common in construction. Compared to other workers, construction workers w...
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Although lung cancer risks can vary by race/ethnicity and by construction occupation, these risks have not been examined extensively. This study analyzed 110,937 lung cancer cases identified from the California Cancer Registry between 1988 and 2007. Mean age at diagnosis, proportion diagnosed at an advanced stage, and proportion with 3-year surviva...
Article
Zinc phosphide (Zn3P2) is a readily available rodenticide that, on contact with stomach acid and water, produces phosphine (PH3), a highly toxic gas. Household pets that ingest Zn3P2 often will regurgitate, releasing PH3 into the air. Veterinary hospital staff members treating such animals can be poisoned from PH3 exposure. During 2006-2011, CDC's...
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In response to pandemic (H1N1) 2009, data were collected on work status and industry of employment of 3,365 adults hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed influenza during the 2009-10 influenza season in the United States. The proportion of workers hospitalized for influenza was lower than their proportion in the general population, reflecting under...
Conference Paper
Background: Farmworkers have a high risk for acute pesticide poisoning, and the rate among female farmworkers is approximately twice as high as that among male farmworkers. Objective: Explore reasons for the gender difference of acute pesticide poisoning among farmworkers. Methods: We identified acute pesticide poisoning cases in farmworkers betwee...
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Work-related injuries and illnesses in the educational services sector have not been well studied. This analysis examined whether teachers and other school workers are at higher risk of head/chest cold compared to all other workers in the United States. Seven years (1998-2004) of National Health Interview Survey data on currently employed workers w...
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Recording patient work history is vital to identifying work-related injuries and illnesses. As electronic health records become widespread, this is an important time to ensure occupational health data elements are included in EHR standards.
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Pesticides are widely used in agriculture, and off-target pesticide drift exposes workers and the public to harmful chemicals. We estimated the incidence of acute illnesses from pesticide drift from outdoor agricultural applications and characterized drift exposure and illnesses. Data were obtained from the National Institute for Occupational Safet...
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To estimate the national burden of physical ergonomic hazards among working adults in the US. We estimated the population prevalence of and the total number of workers who are exposed to physical ergonomic hazards, such as vibration, working in cramped space, kneeling, body bending or twisting, climbing, and repetitive motions using Occupational In...
Chapter
Publisher Summary This chapter describes state-based, national, and international surveillance systems for pesticide-related illness and injury. Surveillance systems are the network of individuals and activities that engage in the process of surveillance. Pesticide poisoning among humans generally occurs either because of lack of compliance with ex...
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An occupational health supplement (OHS) to the 1988 National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) bypassed many limitations of traditional occupational health surveillance systems, but the data collected about chronic work-related conditions have not yet been reported. We calculated the prevalence and proportion of cases related to work for the aggregati...
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Perchloroethylene (PCE) is a known animal carcinogen and probable human carcinogen. Dry cleaning exposures, particularly PCE, are also associated with renal toxicity. The objective was to follow-up a cohort of dry cleaners to evaluate mortality and assess end-stage renal disease (ESRD) morbidity. This study adds 8 years of mortality follow-up for 1...
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We examined risk factors for injuries to nursing assistants from assaults by nursing home residents at both the individual and the organizational level. We analyzed data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey that were linked to facility information from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey by use of multilevel modeling that accounted for...
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We aimed to estimate the proportion of nursing assistants (NAs) in the US with work-related injuries and insufficient socio-economic resources by race/ethnicity. Data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey (NNAS), a nationally representative sample survey of NAs employed in United States nursing homes, were analyzed accounting for the comp...
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Fipronil is a broad-spectrum phenylpyrazole insecticide widely used to control residential pests and is also commonly used for flea and tick treatment on pets. It is a relatively new insecticide and few human toxicity data exist on fipronil. This paper describes the magnitude and characteristics of acute illnesses associated with fipronil exposure....
Article
Antimicrobial pesticides (e.g., sterilizers, disinfectants, and sanitizers) are chemicals used to destroy or suppress the growth of harmful microorganisms on inanimate objects and surfaces. Health-care facilities use antimicrobial pesticides to prevent pathogen transmission from contaminated environmental surfaces. Occupational exposures to antimic...
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Following the investigation of a birth defects cluster involving migrant farmworkers employed in North Carolina and Florida, it became clear that greater efforts were needed to protect agricultural workers from pesticide exposure. Documentation is drawn from peer-reviewed published articles, government reports and news accounts. The birth defects c...
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To explore whether employment in industries likely to have non-standard work schedules (e.g., manufacturing and service) and occupations with long work-weeks (e.g., managerial/professional, sales, and transportation) is associated with an increased risk of short sleep duration. Cross-sectional epidemiologic survey. Household-based face-to-face surv...
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Objectives. We examined risk factors for injuries to nursing assistants from assaults by nursing home residents at both the individual and the organizational level. Methods. We analyzed data from the 2004 National Nursing Assistant Survey that were linked to facility information from the 2004 National Nursing Home Survey by use of multilevel modeli...
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Some studies of brain cancer have found an excess risk for farmers. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health previously found no increased glioma risk for ever (vs. never) being exposed to pesticides on a farm among 798 cases and 1,175 population-based controls (adult (ages 18–80 years) nonmetropolitan residents of Iowa, Michigan,...