Genevieve Eastabrook's research while affiliated with The University of Western Ontario and other places

Publications (35)

Article
Full-text available
Background Assessment of fetal adipose tissue gives information about the future metabolic health of an individual, with evidence that the development of this tissue has regional heterogeneity.Objective To assess differences in the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) between fetal adipose tissue compartments in the third trimester using water-fat ma...
Article
Full-text available
Background: Despite its many advantages, experience with fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is limited, as is knowledge of how fetal tissue relaxation times change with gestational age (GA). Quantification of fetal tissue relaxation times as a function of GA provides insight into tissue changes during fetal development and facilitates comparis...
Article
Full-text available
Adrenal Cushing syndrome during pregnancy is rare, and there is limited information on the effect and safety of metyrapone treatment both for mother and fetus. We present a 24-year-old woman diagnosed with adrenal Cushing syndrome at the end of the second trimester. We elected treatment with metyrapone titrated to 250 mg 3 times daily, resulting in...
Article
Acetaminophen has become a novel treatment option for patent ductus arteriosus (DA) closure in premature infants. This raises concerns as to whether acetaminophen should be avoided in late pregnancy, similar to non-steroidal anti-inflammtory drugs, which is due to the risk of in utero DA closure. This article critically evaluates the literature rep...
Article
Background: Sickle cell disease (SCD) is associated with hematologic complications including delayed hemolytic transfusion reactions (DHTRs) and pregnancy-related morbidity and mortality. Hyperhemolysis syndrome (HS) is the most severe form of DHTR in patients with SCD, in which both transfused and native red blood cells are destroyed. Further tra...
Article
Obesity and gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are becoming more common among pregnant women worldwide and are individually associated with a number of placenta-mediated obstetric complications, including preeclampsia, macrosomia, intrauterine growth restriction and stillbirth. The placenta serves several functions throughout pregnancy and is the...
Article
Aim: Obesity has been associated with changes in autophagy and its increasing prevalence among pregnant women is implicated in higher rates of placental-mediated complications of pregnancy such as pre-eclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction. Autophagy is involved in normal placentation, thus changes in autophagy may lead to impaired placenta...
Article
Full-text available
Many viruses are detrimental to pregnancy and negatively affect fetal growth and development. What is not well understood is how virus-induced inflammation impacts fetal-placental growth and developmental trajectories, particularly when inflammation occurs in early pregnancy during nascent placental and embryo development. To address this issue, we...
Article
Objective: This study sought to determine the incidence and severity of respiratory morbidity among late preterm and term babies born by elective Caesarean section (CS) in London, Ontario. Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted of all elective CSs performed at or beyond 360 weeks gestation from June 2010 to June 2014 at London Healt...
Article
Purpose: Analysis of fetal adipose tissue volumes may provide useful insight towards assessment of overall fetal health, especially in cases with abnormal fetal growth. Here, we assess whether fetal adipose tissue volume can be reliably measured using 3D water-fat MRI, using a quantitative assessment of the lipid content of tissues. Materials and m...
Article
Preeclampsia is a serious pregnancy condition defined as new-onset hypertension and proteinuria, commonly characterized as either early, ‘placental’, or late onset, ‘maternal’, using a cut-off of 34 weeks gestation. However, it may be more useful to differentiate between the vascular remodelling and placental invasion vs. inflammation and metabolic...
Article
Abnormal maternal lipid profiles, a hallmark of increased maternal adiposity, are associated with pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia and gestational diabetes, and offspring long-term metabolic health is impacted as the consequence of altered fetal growth, physiology and often iatrogenic prematurity. The metabolic changes associated with m...
Article
Background: Decorin, a leucine-rich proteoglycan produced by decidual cells, limits invasion and endovascular differentiation of extravillous trophoblast cells during early placentation by binding to multiple tyrosine kinase receptors, in particular, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-2. Objective: Since many studies have report...
Article
Objective: This executive summary presents in brief the current evidence assessed in the clinical practice guideline prepared by the Canadian Hypertensive Disorders of Pregnancy Working Group and published by Pregnancy Hypertension (http://www.pregnancyhypertension.org/article/S2210-7789(14)00004-X/fulltext) to provide a reasonable approach to the...
Article
Placental DNA methylation is thought to be influenced by environmental exposure. Decidual natural killer cells (dNKs) directly contact with cytotrophoblasts in the early stage of pregnancy. dNKs may affect DNA methylation of extravillous cytotrophoblasts (EVTs) directly or indirectly through their secreted soluble factors.Objectives Previously, we...
Article
The regulatory mechanisms involved in VEGF-C secretion by trophoblasts during placentation are poorly understood. We investigated whether or not decidual natural killer cell conditioned medium (dNK-CM) stimulated VEGF-C secretion in the extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) cell line HTR8/SVneo. The effects of dNK-CM and recombinant IFN-γ on VEGF-C in...
Article
Pre-eclampsia is a multisystem disorder with profound implications for both mother and fetus. Its origins lie in the earliest stages of pregnancy. Abnormal interactions between fetal trophoblast and maternal decidua, including the cells of the maternal immune system, lead to inadequate placental invasion and maternal vascular remodelling. However,...
Article
Extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) migration, invasion and endovascular differentiation are regulated by a variety of growth factors, cytokines and adhesion molecules. Decidual natural killer cells (dNK) and their secreted cytokines probably modulate these processes. In this study, we used dNK-derived conditioned medium (dNK-CM) to investigate whet...
Article
Adequate invasion of the human placenta during the first weeks of pregnancy is a critical step in ensuring both fetal and maternal health. A rapidly expanding body of evidence suggests that decidual natural killer (dNK) cells, a distinct population of CD56brightCD16- lymphocytes, are key regulators of this complex process. Experiments using murine...
Article
Pre-eclampsia is often associated with inadequate cytotrophoblast invasion and remodelling of the uterine spiral arteries. Examining a first trimester, 2D in vitro explant culture model which mimics in vivo placentation, including trophoblast column formation and extravillous cytotrophoblast (EVT) migration, we previously suggested that excessive m...

Citations

... Although not yet clinical, there are ongoing attempts to perform fetal and neonatal CSE MRI for assessment of liver PDFF as well as other body compartments [24]. Performing this technique in the fetus offers particularly unique challenges, including very small size of the liver, low signal-to-noise ratio, and motion artifacts (e.g., due to both maternal and fetal movement). ...
... 99 100 Metyrapone use in pregnancy has been previously reported in the literature and has 101 been shown to be effective in reducing cortisol levels. 4,5,6 Although not approved for use 102 in pregnancy, this steroidogenesis inhibitor is the most commonly used medication to 103 treat Cushing's syndrome in pregnant women. 3,5 Due to metyrapone's inhibition of 11-104 beta-hydroxylase, there is a buildup of steroidogenesis precursors such as 11-105 deoxycorticosterone, which can worsen hypertension, increase frequency of 106 preeclampsia, and cause hypokalemia. ...
... The oxidative stress might be lessened with better diet including an increase in vitamins (78,(109)(110)(111)(112)(113)(114). Melatonin (78,(115)(116)(117)(118)(119) also may mitigate ROS effects and as well as affect sleep. Balance of Mϕ1 and Mϕ2 is important for a normal pregnancy, but the ratio may vary at different stages (28,120,121). ...
... 104 The reciprocal of this is also true in some cases: autophagy defects can cause inflammation. 101 In a recent study by Cohen et al, 105 maternal obesity reduced placental autophagy through quantification of autophagy-related proteins LC3B and p62 from placentas from pregnancies complicated by obesity compared with healthy weight counterparts. However, hypoxia, a known inducer of autophagy, 106e108 was increased in placentas of patients with obesity and was accompanied by a concomitant increase in placental markers of autophagy in Gohir et al, 56 albeit by messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and not protein expression as reported in the study by Cohen, et al. 105 The genes used as autophagy markers were also different between the 2 studies, with Vsp15 and Vps34 used in the study by Gohir et al 56 and LC3B and p62 in the study by Cohen et al, 105 which may account for differences between the 2 studies. ...
... Placental efficiency is defined as the relationship between the weight of the fetus and the weight of its respective placenta 41 . Previous studies have shown that poly(I:C) treatment on GD13.5 in the pregnant rats decreased placental weight, area and thickness 42 . Of all the studies involving gestational infections by different pathogens and viral mimics from our group [11][12][13] , poly(I:C) was not able to affect fetal weight and the fetal weight/placental weight ratio. ...
... As an effective method to solve high-risk pregnancy, dystocia and other obstetric critical illness, the use of a cesarean section has been increasing each year, and in 2015, an estimated 29.7 million (21.1%) births globally were by CS, which represented almost a doubling in the proportion since 2000, when 16.0 million (12.1%) births were by CS (31). Although cesarean delivery can reduce the incidence of neonatal asphyxia and meconium inhalation, the risk of respiratory morbidity and the probability of admission into the NICU are significantly higher (32,33). Furthermore, previous studies have reported that cesarean section is a risk factor for respiratory diseases, such as respiratory distress syndrome (34)(35)(36), transient shortness of breath (37) and pulmonary hypertension (38), but few of these studies examine the association between ventilator use and cesarean section. ...
... Safe assessment of subcutaneous fetal adipose tissue using MRI in the third trimester of pregnancy has been demonstrated [5]. PDFFs in subcutaneous adipose tissue in the fetal trunk increase from 10% at 30 weeks' gestation to 24% at 34 weeks' gestational age (GA) [5], increasing to 78% (63-89%) in the infant shoulder by 5 months of age [6]. ...
... The role of sFlt-1 and PLGF in the identification of women with preeclampsia has been largely reported, and during pregnancy, the placenta secretes large amounts of PlGF and sFlt-1. As a decoy receptor for VEGF and PlGF, increased sFlt-1 binds to free VEGF and PlGF in maternal circulation and inhibits the biological actions of their membrane receptor (23)(24)(25). Studies by Cui et al. (26) showed that PlGF and sFlt-1 are important biomarkers for predicting the occurrence of preeclampsia and its complications. In addition, the result also showed that the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio is a useful triage tool for the pregnancy outcome of patients with PE, and its predictive performance is better than the individual marker. ...
... The placenta plays a central role in linking mother and fetus (13,14). Development and metabolic requirement of the placenta and fetus can be changed to meet the pregnant mother's metabolism and nutrient availability (15,48). Fetal growth is influenced by the process of placental nutrient transfer. ...
... Zimmer [9] discusses the translation challenges in The Little Prince. Lemay [10] discussed the attention of the world of autism. Chinese researchers mainly focus on the symbolic meaning and the translation of The Little Prince. ...