Gary Rhoades's research while affiliated with The University of Arizona and other places

Publications (69)

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Amidst public calls for greater internationalization, universities are marketing to international students. We explore how universities in regional hubs (Lee & Schoole, 2015) enact "dramaturgical performances" (Goffman, 1959), presenting images of themselves in geopolitical space. We find: (1) bifurcated marketing strategies to distinct student aud...
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This study takes college teaching/educational quality seriously by taking teachers’ working conditions seriously. Data consist of contractual provisions about adjunct faculty members’ access to instructional resources and professional development in 254 collective bargaining agreements. The research analyzes the negotiated balance in quality-relate...
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Globalizing forces have both transformed the higher education sector and made it increasingly homogenous. Growing similarities among universities have been attributed to isomorphic pressures to ensure and/or enhance legitimacy by imitating higher education institutions that are perceived as successful internationally, particularly universities that...
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This study of 252 collective bargaining agreements examined language negotiated in “class cancellation fee” provisions addressing “just-in-time” employment of adjunct faculty. The analysis focused on the balance between managerial discretion and professional rights and on whether and how contract language addresses remuneration (bread) and respect...
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This chapter analyzes collective bargaining agreements in 4-year institutions of higher education, examining language surrounding ownership, use, and distribution of the proceeds of intellectual property in distance education, and identifying ways in which the public good can be, and occasionally is, built in to contractual provisions.
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Burton R. Clark's 1998 book, Creating Entrepreneurial Universities, has had a major impact on the field of higher education, especially internationally. In this paper, key aspects of Clark's conceptualisation of organisational pathways of transformation are identified, speaking to its theoretical and empirical contributions to higher education stud...
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This paper reports the performance of global competitiveness and higher education competitiveness between two groups of countries. The first group is formed by four Asian countries; the second one by four Latin American countries. Indicators from the World Economic Forum 2007-2015 are compared. The indicators with the nearest proximity were found i...
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p>Amidst global discourse about universities’ internationalization, how do universities position themselves and their purposes in recruiting international students? For professionals working to establish partnerships and increase cultural enrichment both on their home campuses and through international exchange, the purposes that are often foregrou...
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The purpose of this chapter is twofold. Adhering to the CINHEKS premise that there is much to be learned from how researchers negotiate methodological and conceptual challenges, the first part of the chapter describes the evolution of the third and final stage of a sequential mixed-methods study: the large-scale, mixed-methods international survey....
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The purpose of this chapter is to examine the external collaboration networks of United States academics outside their university. Utilizing results of a social network analysis (SNA), the analysis showed how collaborative ties of academics in three public institutions in the United States are structured along various dimensions, from the employmen...
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The chapter examines how academic labor markets in the U.S. are socially structured. These markets express and enhance social stratification, and are reproduced and renegotiated through ongoing social action. First, we review the classic literature on the subject. Then we consider the presence of secondary labor markets in STEM fields, contextualiz...
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Contingent faculty members are marginally situated at the bottom of a highly stratified academic workforce in the academy. Yet they are central to and at the lead of the academic labor movement. What contingent faculty members, groups, and unions lack in formal positions of power is more than made up for by their creative leveraging of the not inco...
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Reviewing three key areas of literature in our field (college choice, state policy, and faculty) the article identifies gaps that we can fill by reembodying and repoliticizing “choice,” by which is meant moving beyond the individualized and “neutral” market logic in addressing the actions of collective entities in relation to politically charged po...
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To what extent has university service work changed in the US universities with the shift to the knowledge economy? In this chapter, we consider whether and the ways in which a new knowledge/learning regime in the USA is translating into new forms of service/outreach for faculty and universities. The chapter reports on findings from a research proje...
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This paper presents two clarifying cases of socially oriented student entrepreneurship. The findings illuminate an overlooked organizational space located at the intersection of the public good and academic capitalist knowledge/learning regimes (Slaughter & Rhoades, 2004) that provides students with the entrepreneurial agency to create social chang...
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This study considers a distinct case of a college outreach program that integrates student affairs staff, academic administrators, and faculty across campus. The authors find that social networks and critical agency help to understand the integration of these various professionals and offer a critical agency network model of enacting change.
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This study is based on analysis of copyright policies and 26 interviews with science and engineering faculty at three research universities on the topic of copyright beliefs, values, and practices, with emphasis on copyright of instructional materials, courseware, tools, and texts. Given that research universities now emphasize increasing external...
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Drawing on examples from the more developed realms of technology transfer and other “managerial professions” (Rhoades, 1998; Rhoades & Sporn, 2002) in the academy, this paper explores possible organizational sites for housing protocols for the measurement of the social value of individual innovations in higher education (that may enter the market o...
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As colleges and universities become more entrepreneurial in a post-industrial economy, they focus on knowledge less as a public good than as a commodity to be capitalized on in profit-oriented activities. In "Academic Capitalism and the New Economy," higher education scholars Sheila Slaughter and Gary Rhoades detail the aggressive engagement of U.S...
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This essay critically examines the centrality of mobility to the model of being a higher education professor or a student affairs professional. Using three narratives of lower-income Latino students about their educational and professional choices, we offer a reading based on Gouldner's classic conception of cosmopolitans and locals, and on Baez's...
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This paper introduces the emergent role of the state-sponsored student entrepreneur within the academic capitalist knowledge/learning regime. Drawing on two clarifying cases of such entrepreneurship, the study explores the shifting boundaries between public and private sectors, the creation of new circuits of knowledge, and the entrepreneurial lear...
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Although information technology is increasingly used to deliver distance and conventional courses, there have been few studies of the effect of technology‐enhanced education on the organization and purposes of academics’ instructional work. I explore this issue in undergraduate and masters level education through the vehicle of case analyses of tec...
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The flow of international students into U.S. higher education has received substantial attention following policy and enrollment shifts in the aftermath of 9/11. Considerable political debate has surrounded the Bush administration and Congress’ promotion and implementation of various policies and practices related to national security that target i...
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This chapter discusses the rising costs of administration and considers the place of student services within restructured institutions.
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My first exposure to Maurice Kogan’s work came in 1981, when I read a little book of his entitled, The Politics of Education: Edward Boyle and Anthony Crosland in Conversation with Maurice Kogan (1971). Within his interviews and commentary lay three key and enduring features of his scholarship. First, Kogan afforded the reader entrée into the compl...
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Historically, the configuration and working conditions of professors in the United States have been profoundly influenced by fundamental patterns and shifts in the larger political economy of the country. At the turn of the twentieth century, the industrialization of the American economy and rationalization of the nation-state had profound implicat...
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In this paper, originally delivered as the 2004 ASHE presidential address, the author relates four streams of his research to the increasingly stratified system of U.S. higher education. He traces the effects of academic capitalism and the new economy, identifies the rise of managerial professionals as a Mode III form of production, discusses the c...
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The authors explore criticism of the corporatization of the academy as offered by graduate employee organizers. They suggest that graduate employee unionization may serve as both a symbol of and a challenge to corporatization. Methodologically, the authors draw from qualitative case studies conducted at graduate employee unions located at three pub...
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In this article, the authors detail the conditions and patterns of academic capitalism and the new economy in US higher education. Subsequently, a conceptual model is offered for considering the international reach and national and local patterns of academic capitalism. Further, a distinctive Mexican case of entrepreneurialism is offered. The artic...
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This article examines the relationship between sponsored research monies and the graduation of undergraduate students at 22 public research universities. Using institutional and student characteristics for 59,982 students at these universities, we conducted chi-square, cross-tabulation, correlation, and hierarchical nonlinear modeling (HNLM) analys...
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In this chapter, we argue that, in the United States, an academic public good knowledge regime is shifting to an academic capitalist knowledge regime. The public good knowledge regime was characterised by valuing knowledge as a public good to which the citizenry has claims. Mertonian norms — such as communalism, universality, the free flow of knowl...
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This paper analyzes the public discourse of graduate student employee unions in the United States. Drawing on extensive archives from ten graduate employee unions' Web sites, it examines their publicly presented identities (marginalized workers and future professionals), ideologies (traditional and/or professional unionism with little focus on soci...
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This paper offers an overarching analyticalheuristic that takes us beyond currentresearch, anchored in conceptions of nationalstates, markets, and systems of highereducation institutions. We seek to shapecomparative higher education research withregard to globalization in much the same waythat Clark's (1983) ``triangle'' heuristic hasframed compara...
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In this article we study globalization in termsof the diffusion of quality assurance modelsand practices between two ``core'' regions, theU.S. and Europe, as well as within Europe,concentrating particularly on Germany andAustria. We examine the timing of theemergence and diffusion of quality assuranceand relatedly of strategic managementpractices....
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Discussions of strategic managementand productivity generally overlook fundamentalfactors of production that are on the rise withnew models of management and new modes ofproduction by which instruction and research iscreated. This paper draws on national,institutional and professional association datafrom universities and emergent professions inAus...
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Drawing on a review of scholarly literature, this article suggests rethinking productivity in academic institutions along four dimensions: the productivity of whom, productivity for which unit of analysis, productivity according to what functions, and productivity in whose interests. It offers principles for promoting enlightened discussion and pur...
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This article discusses a new program for collaborative study of information technology, commercialization intellectual property and transformations of education research practives in universities. Three themes define the program. First, the authors investigate the ways that information technologies shape content, organization, and delivery of facul...
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In asking "Who's doing it right?", this essay explores three myths about public research universities: that no change occurs without managerial initiative, that managers focus fragmented academic units and loyalties, and that they rationalize budgeting and planning. Based on department head interviews at four universities, Rhoades challenges these...
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This article addresses professional workforce issues related to part-time faculty in unionized institutions. Collective bargaining agreements of 183 institutions/systems in the 1990s are content analyzed. I find extensive managerial discretion and limited professional constraints regarding the use of part-time faculty, in appointment/release workfo...
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This article describes the emerging bipartisan political coalition supporting commercial competitiveness as a rationale for research and development (R&D), points to selected changes in legal and funding structures in the 1980s that stem from the success of the new political coalition and suggests some of the connections between these changes and a...
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In this paper, we look at the way the state has helped shape the climate for the commercialization of science in a public university, and at how this has shaped the terms of professional labor for faculty. We examine patent policies of a public research university and of its Board of Regents, and the relevant state statutes from 1969–1989. Policies...
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This case study analyzes the negotiation of university policies regarding technology transfer at one public Research I university. Drawing on and modifying institutional theory and reproduction-resistance theory, it explores the process by which organizational policies concerning faculty property rights are defined. Through participant observation...
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Gary Rhoades is professor and director of the University of Arizona's Center for the Study of Higher Education. Rhoades studies academic labor, higher education, and institutional policy. His publica-tions focus on the restructuring of academic labor and of higher education institutions. His latest book is Academic Capitalism in the New Economy (Jo...
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F aculty governance—especially the impact of unionization on governance— is often a key issue on campuses voting on a bargaining unit. Opponents of bargaining depict unions and senates as antithetical, though bargaining unit members and teams often negotiate for expanded professional involvement in campus decision-making. How do faculty members per...

Citations

... Green et al., 2020), and the expansion of mobility in the midst of global environmental crises (Huish, 2021). While critical approaches do draw attention to marginalized voices and populations (Moon, 2010), they often argue that international students have been mobilized to serve a political economy of globalization dominated by Western-centric economics, politics, and culture (Steger, 2005), reflecting an increasingly centralized and polarized world order (Slaughter & Rhoades, 2006). Madge et al. (2015) argue that ISM literature would be well-served to move beyond simply viewing students in terms of their cultural capital and the social reproduction of class advantage and move toward "consideration of the implications of student mobility for pedagogy" (p. ...
... The resistance as opposition framework also proves useful in considering the landscape of neoliberal HE, subject as it is to 'corporate takeover' or academic capitalism (see Giroux, 2002;Rhoads & Rhoades, 2006). Amid the corporatization of HE, forms of oppositional resistance challenge the rollback of the 'welfare state' amid increasingly hegemonic private interests and focusses on decolonizing the 'practicable' aspects of neoliberalism. ...
... For experienced evaluators and evaluation educators, these nontenure-track appointments seem more accessible now than in the past (Rhoades, 1996) and often offer flexibility for faculty to maintain up to full-time employment beyond teaching their workshops and classes. The workshop compensation rate is high compared with the amount of work required to make the experience successful, though the compensation rate for university adjunct teaching is consistently low. ...
... The strategic choices that universities make have also been pursued in various analyses. Studies of how universities try to globally brand, market, and build their reputation have not least become commonplace (Blanco Ramirez, 2016;Christensen et al., 2019;Rhoades et al, 2019). These studies often point to a paradoxical development in which higher education institutions on the one side display considerable effort in portraying themselves as unique and distinct, although studies also have pointed out the many similar marketing profiles developed (Drori et al, 2015;Papadimitriou & Blanco Ramírez, 2015). ...
... (Ran & Sanders, 2020). In addition, part-time faculty often encounter various challenges that negatively influence their engagement with the institution and with students (e.g., no office space, insufficient involvement in departmental decisions, etc.; Buch et al., 2017;Rhoades, 2020;Wyles, 1998). Thus, providing a sufficient level of support where adjunct and part-term faculty are more commonly employed may provide a critical foundation toward improving the engagement and effectiveness of our college teaching force. ...
... This research focuses on the understudied experiences of internationalization administrators, faculty and staff and how they may be in tension with national initiatives to democratize education access. Drawing on a previous study (Lee et al., 2020), I use global rankings as a proxy for institutional status (Stensaker et al., 2019) to provide an analysis of how hierarchical positions within the field of HE influence the strategic choices of a South African university. ...
... Studies have indicated the growing reliance on adjunct faculty has resulted in many occupational and employment issues such as insufficient institutional support (Kezar & Bernstein-Sierra, 2016;, inadequate compensation and lack of benefits (CCCSE, 2014;Kezar & Sam, 2013;Pons et al., 2017;Tierney, 2014), feelings of exclusion or segregation (Eagan et al., 2015;Kezar, 2013;Kezar & Sam, 2013;Pons et al., 2017), and generalized marginalization (Franczyk, 2014;Kezar & Sam, 2013;Moorehead, Russell, & Pula, 2015). The adjunct model has become an isomorphic phenomenon and institutionalized feature among most HEIs at all levels of postsecondary education (Morest 2015: Rhoades, 2017. The research of notable scholars and findings of this study lends credence to the belief that a hierarchical system of haves and have-nots may exist at some institutions of higher learning. ...
... Associated with this, some dealt with feelings of incompetence in new technology (Vu et al., 2016). Others had concerns about their intellectual property and how it might be distributed on the internet or monetized beyond their control (Aaron & Roche, 2015;Rhoades, 2017). Sometimes faculty receive a lack of recognition for developing distance education courses and so lack the motivation to make distance learning a priority over face-to-face teaching, writing, or research (Moore & Kearsley, 1996). ...
... According to Shattock, Clark's research generated a significant impact among universities in Europe (Shattock, 2010). Clark's work also triggered an interest among scholars to conduct case studies in order to gather a more holistic view of the complex changes taking place in universities operating within dynamic regional economies (Rhoades and Stensaker, 2017). For example, Bramwell and Wolfe explore the impact of the University of Waterloo on the regional economy by identifying the "virtuous cycle of deep and interactive links with the local industrial community" (Bramwell and Wolfe, 2008). ...
... Globally, competition is more prevalent at elite universities in the USA and UK. Lopez-Leyva & Rhoades (2016) conducted a study about the correlation between state competitiveness and higher education indicators. This study mentions the eight indicators of educational evaluation developed by the World Economic Forum (WEF) in measuring the Global Competitiveness Index (GCI). ...