Gary Johns's research while affiliated with University of British Columbia - Vancouver and other places

Publications (52)

Article
Full-text available
The impacts of COVID-19 on workers and workplaces across the globe have been dramatic. This broad review of prior research rooted in work and organizational psychology, and related fields, is intended to make sense of the implications for employees, teams, and work organizations. This review and preview of relevant literatures focuses on (a) emerge...
Preprint
Full-text available
COVID-19’s impacts on workers and workplaces across the globe have been dramatic. We present a broad review of prior research rooted in work and organizational psychology, and related fields, for making sense of the implications for employees, teams, and work organizations. Our review and preview of relevant literatures focuses on: (i) emerging cha...
Article
Full-text available
This position paper brings together recent and emerging developments in the field of presenteeism. A critical synthesis of the evidence is needed due to persisting conceptual and methodological challenges as well as the increased volume of research in the field.This paper integrates emerging evidence and critical thinking into three areas: (1) concep...
Article
Although scholars in the field of organizational behavior have raised concerns about a lack of contextual appreciation, there has been a recent embrace of contextual thinking in the organizational sciences. In this review, I discuss several recent theories and measures of context. The added value of a contextual approach is illustrated by how conte...
Article
Employing a sample of 197 employee-supervisor dyads, we explore whether employees’ attitudes and underlying motivation for engaging in organizational citizenship behaviours (OCBs) differentially relate to supervisors’ assessments of their individual performance and reward recommendations. We theorized that employees who perform OCBs with self-servi...
Article
This is a reflection on my 2006 article "The Essential Impact of Context on Organizational Behavior," which received the 2016 Academy of Management Review Decade Award. Some studies are reviewed supporting my earlier contention that the impact of context has been underappreciated in management research. Then, the genesis of the article is recounted...
Article
Full-text available
In this article we take a big picture perspective on work design research. In the first section of the paper we identify influential work design articles and use scientific mapping to identify distinct clusters of research. Pulling this material together, we identify five key work design perspectives that map onto distinct historical developments:...
Article
We aimed to shed light on the reason why individual employees adjust their absence levels to their co-workers' absence behavior and under what conditions imitation is most likely by integrating social learning theory and social exchange theory. In Study 1, a vignette study among 299 employees, we found that respondents were more likely to call in s...
Article
Abstract Purpose In line with findings that organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs) may be driven by selfless and self-serving motives, we sought to determine supervisor effectiveness in distinguishing good soldiers from good actors. Design/Methodology/Approach Employing a sample of 197 supervisor-subordinate dyads, we collected self- and super...
Article
Interest in presenteeism, attending work while ill, has flourished in light of its consequences for individual well-being and organizational productivity. Our goal was to identify its most significant causes and correlates by quantitatively summarizing the extant research. Additionally, we built an empirical model of some key correlates and compare...
Article
We investigate a long-standing methodological rule of thumb, the idea that the frequency of absenteeism from work approximates an expression of voluntary behavior while total time lost better reflects involuntary behavior and ill health. Conducting original meta-analyses and using results from existing meta-analyses, we determine that time lost and...
Article
Full-text available
This study examines the role of team political skill in predicting team effectiveness. Extending the current paradigm of individual political skill and contributing to the team effectiveness literature, we offer a theoretical framework for team political skill composition and test a model whereby task and social cohesion mediate the relationship be...
Chapter
Presenteeism is attending work even though one is ill. As such, it represents a state between sickness absenteeism and healthy, full work engagement. Scholars in human resources, organizational behavior, and occupational health have generally been interested in determining the factors that precipitate the act of presenteeism, while those in occupat...
Chapter
Absenteeism is the failure to report for scheduled work. Organizations are interested in absenteeism because of its cost, while scholars are interested because it indicates something essential about the nature of employees' attachment to the organization. There is no dominant theory of absenteeism, in part because the surface similarity of the beha...
Article
The fact that women engage in a higher rate of absence than men is a common finding in management research, but one that, due to its taken-for-granted nature, has not been the subject of a great deal of deliberate research. In fact, explanations for women’s higher absenteeism have consisted primarily of health issues and family duties, although res...
Article
Because of a variety of access limitations, self-reported absenteeism from work is often employed in research concerning health, organizational behavior, and economics, and it is ubiquitous in large scale population surveys in these domains. Several well established cognitive and social-motivational biases suggest that self-reports of absence will...
Article
Attending work while ill, commonly called presenteeism, has important repercussions for employee well-being, employing organizations, and theory in the area of attendance at work. This study examines contextual conditions and individual differences that influence people’s attributions and judgments about employees’ decisions to attend work or to be...
Article
Although the impact of social influence on employee absenteeism is well established, almost nothing is known about the dynamic, temporal accrual of this influence. Latent growth modeling was used to trace absenteeism trajectories over 4 years for employees who differed in years of organizational tenure. As expected, higher-tenure employees exhibite...
Article
Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to propose a model in which work centrality, locus of control, polychronicity, preference for gender-role differentiation, and perceived social support were expected to vary between nations and to be associated with general perceptions of absence legitimacy and self-reported absenteeism. Design/methodology/app...
Article
The Many Definitions of PresenteeismConsensus Around Health EmergesProblems with Presenteeism ResearchSome Modest ProposalsNoteReferences
Article
This study explores contextual issues surrounding absenteeism through a content analysis of 2847 articles from the New York Times that have featured absence from work. Our analysis focuses on two issues related to context. First, how does the representation of absence from work compare between the contextual domains of academic research and of the...
Article
Presenteeism is attending work when ill. This study examined the antecedents and correlates of presenteeism, absenteeism, and productivity loss attributed to presenteeism. Predictors included work context, personal characteristics, and work experiences. Business school graduates employed in a variety of work positions (N = 444) completed a Web-base...
Article
Drawing from past research suggesting that high prior commitment leads to stronger reactions to unfairness in the workplace (Brockner, Tyler, & Cooper-Schneider, 1992), we predicted that those forming relational as opposed to transactional psychological contracts would exhibit stronger detrimental effects of felt violation on job satisfaction, turn...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the relation between personality and three dimensions of job performance (in-role performance, creativity, and citizenship behavior) under differing levels of job scope. The basic premise was that higher job scope would facilitate performance for those who were dispositionally inclined toward a particular dimension of performanc...
Article
The article focuses on political skill. Political skills are defined as the ability to understand coworkers and influence others to behave in ways that improve one's personal and/or organizational objectives. The Political Skills Inventory (PSI) was developed using samples from North America. The authors probed the generalizability of the political...
Article
Presenteeism refers to attending work while ill. Although it is a subject of intense interest to scholars in occupational medicine, relatively few organizational scholars are familiar with the concept. This article traces the development of interest in presenteeism, considers its various conceptualizations, and explains how presenteeism is typicall...
Article
The purpose of this article is to examine the relationships between absenteeism and presenteeism and employee well-being. Absenteeism is the failure to report for work as scheduled. Presenteeism is showing up to work when one is ill and the decrement in productivity that follows from this practice. On a continuum, presenteeism stands between full w...
Article
Work strain has been argued to be a significant cause of absenteeism in the popular and academic press. However, definitive evidence for associations between absenteeism and strain is currently lacking. A theory focused meta-analysis of 275 effects from 153 studies revealed positive but small associations between absenteeism and work strain, psycho...
Article
This study explores the societal expectations surrounding women's absenteeism from work by means of a content analysis of newspaper articles that have appeared in the New York Times over the last 100 years. The results suggest that a distinct absence culture exists for women that might legitimize their absenteeism, but might also perpetuate gender...
Article
I argue that the impact of context on organizational behavior is not sufficiently recognized or appreciated by researchers. I define context as situational opportunities and constraints that affect the occurrence and meaning of organizational behavior as well as functional relationships between variables, and I propose two levels of analysis for th...
Article
Full-text available
This research examined the relationship between employee personality and psycho- logical contract type, perceptions of contract breach, and feelings of contract violation. In general, personality characteristics (extraversion, conscientiousness, neuroticism, self-esteem, equity sensitivity, and locus of control) were related to reported contract ty...
Article
This study addressed some of the research gaps in the area of organizational politics by examining politics as a group-level construct, directly testing for the cross-level effects of various predictors, and providing insight into the nature of conflict processes involved in the development of politics. Data from 69 academic departments in six prom...
Article
It is argued that great strides have been made in absenteeism research, in part due to the wide diversity of research methods that have been employed to study the phenomenon. The inherent difficulties in studying a complex, low base rate behavior with negative connotations have stimulated methodological diversity. In addition, methodological divers...
Article
In recent years there has been increasing interest in the cross-cultural aspects of organizational behavior. This interest is a joint effect of the globalization of business, increasing cosmopolitanism among researchers, and recognition that cultural contrasts can provide a new optic on traditional domains of organizational research. Despite the gr...
Article
This study examined the interactive effects of group cohesiveness and absence culture salience on absence proposed by Johns and Nicholson (1982). It was hypothesized that group cohesiveness and absence culture salience would be negatively related to work-group absence. Emphasis was placed on the interactive effects of cohesiveness and cultural sali...
Article
Outlines a multi-level theory which proposes that self-serving is functionally equivalent for individuals, groups, and organizations. Core causes of self-serving include identity protection and the pursuit or protection of material resources. Uncertainty and retroactive scrutiny are argued to exacerbate self-serving tendencies. Proactive scrutiny i...
Article
When and how should researchers combine measures to form so-called composite variables or indexes? Just how broad should the constructs defined by these composites or indexes be? Does this approach make sense in the domain of organizational withdrawal? These are the essential questions raised by the research of K. Hanisch and C. Hulin (1990, 1991)...
Article
Cross-cultural theory was marshaled to predict how views of absence from work would be similar and different in Canada and the People's Republic of China. Respondents (N = 1,209) from both cultures had self-serving perceptions of their own absence levels, seeing them as exemplary compared with those of their work group and occupational peers. The C...
Article
This study examined relationships among job scope, perceived fit between job demands and ability, and stress. Data on scope and stress were provided by 418 full-time employees. Ratings of job complexity from the Dictionary of Occupational Titles (DOT) and the Occupational Prestige Index (OP) also measured job scope. All three job scope measures had...
Article
For a number of reasons, self-reported absence data have often been used in research in lieu of records-based data. Forty-three studies that present self-reported absence data are reviewed. The purpose of the research is discussed, as is the rationale for using self-reports. The author considers the nature of self-report measures, including the tim...
Article
The social cognition literature and a deviance model of absenteeism were used to generate a series of predictions about employees' and managers' estimates of levels of absenteeism. Employees revealed a clear self-serving pattern in comparing their own absenteeism with occupational norms and their own work group's absence, and they underestimated th...
Article
Surveys of organizational personnel practices often indicate that techniques advocated by industrial and organizational (I/O) psychologists are used with less frequency than might be expected given their technical merit. This article attempts to explain this phenomenon by viewing the adoption of I/O-type personnel practices as organizational innova...
Article
A test of the complete Job Characteristics Model (Hackman & Oldham, 1976, 1980) was conducted, with particular emphasis on the little-investigated mediating and moderating effects specified by the model. Three hundred lower level managers provided questionnaire data. Results indicated that the model's psychological states generally mediated the rel...
Article
It is argued that a careful consideration of possible constraints on organizational behavior and attitudes can facilitate both the production and consumption of organizational research. The nature of such constraints is explored, and examples are given of the likely operation of constraints in several research areas, including constraints on absent...

Citations

... На основу фокусираних прегледа ранијих истраживања, као и најновијих истраживања која су обављена у току пандемије, мапиране су области проблема и теме којима би истраживачи требало да се баве у трагању за одговорима које могу да понуде као психолози рада и организације (нпр. Kniffin et al., 2021, важно је истаћи да се овај рад појавио почетком августа 2020. године; Rudolph et al., 2021, рад се појавио крајем маја 2020). ...
... Beyond the financial impact, research indicates that entrepreneurs may also suffer emotionally (Giones et al., 2020) since oftentimes their ventures are at risk. Furthermore, governmental measures and restrictions put an additional toll on entrepreneurs' well-being, increasing for instance their feeling of loneliness (e.g., Kniffin et al., 2020;Williamson et al., 2021). ...
... Kemangkiran adalah praktek untuk menjauh dari pekerjaan dengan alasan yang tidak baik. Menurut (Miraglia et al., 2021), menjelaskan bahwa kemangkiran adalah beban bagi suatu perusahaan, bahwa pekerjaan awalnya dianggap berasal dari tugas yang diberikan tidak dapat diselesaikan oleh seseorang yang dibayar ketika orang tersebut tidak hadir. Dijelaskan bahwa ketidakhadiran tanpa ijin, atau kemangkiran, didefinisikan sebagai suatu peristiwa ketika seorang karyawan tidak melaporkan dirinya untuk bekerja, pada saat terdapat kewajiban mengikat, dan dilakukan tanpa persetujuan (Papakonstantinou et al., 2022). ...
... This study investigated perceptions about presenteeism from the viewpoints of frontline nurses and nurse managers, but it did not investigate nurse managers' presenteeism. As suggested by Ruhle and Breitsohl [54], future research about presenteeism should also examine the consequences of how managers' behavior may lead to presenteeism, as well as exchanges between managers and frontline nurses concerning this topic. In addition, future research should explore the mechanisms of interaction between the precipitating factors and consequences of presenteeism. ...
... Working on complex tasks requires a high level of cognitive information processing from the individual, including high attentional control and cognitive flexibility (Chen et al., 2001), which can be burdensome and may result in cognitive overload for some people (Humphrey et al., 2007;Sung et al., 2017). Accordingly, some evidence suggests that job complexity is positively related to emotional exhaustion and job-related anxiety in employees (Xie and Johns, 1995;De Jonge and Schaufeli, 1998). ...
... RC. Nine items of the psychological contract scale developed and reported by Raja et al. (2004) were used to measure the relational aspect of the psychological contract. An example of the items of this measure was 'To me, working for this organization is like being a member of a family'. ...
... 36 Service-oriented OCB, which consists of the three behaviors of service delivery, loyalty, and participation, refers to the citizenship behaviors toward customers performed by service employees. 37 From this perspective, as a type of OCB, service-oriented OCB can be regarded as a tool with which actors can obtain organizational resources, such as high-level leader-member exchange (LMX), the trust of supervisors, etc. 38,39 In public, coworkers may engage in service-oriented OCB to service customers, but in private, they may be self-interested in gaining the trust of their supervisors, which may lead to inconsistencies in their service-oriented OCB. Similarly, studies have shown that the behaviors displayed by individuals may not always be consistent. ...
... The organizational work environment is an inclusive and broad construct and includes all aspects of the organizational context. The importance of considering the organizational context has been highlighted by Johns (2001Johns ( , 2006Johns ( , 2018. Johns (2006: p. 386) defined context as " . . . ...
... Researchers have been encouraged to identify and examine IT-specific variables more closely tied to the context of cyberslacking (Aghaz and Sheikh 2016), which might provide more specific guidance to direct design and practice (Hong et al. 2014;Venkatesh and Bala 2008;. This is consistent with the calls to leverage context in theoretical inquiry (Hong et al. 2014;Johns 2006Johns , 2017. ...
... In Schneider et al., a new measure of job characteristics was shown to be a significant correlate of workforce engagement that mediated its relationship to organizational financial performance and customer satisfaction outcomes. Thus, if the JDS (or another well-researched measure of work design; see Parker et al., 2017) was used to tap into the underlying antecedents of workforce engagement across companies, such studies may also yield workforce engagement (Schneider, Yost et al., 2017) as the mediator between job characteristics and organizational performance. ...