Garth Davies's research while affiliated with Simon Fraser University and other places

Publications (20)

Article
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Although many researchers, practitioners, and policymakers are concerned about identifying and characterizing online posting patterns of violent extremists prior to their engagement in violence offline, little is empirically known about their online patterns generally or differences in their patterns compared to their non-violent counterpart partic...
Article
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Historically, research in terrorism studies has drawn from a variety of disciplines including, but not limited to, political science, psychology, and security studies. More recently, however, researchers have argued that criminological approaches can and should inform terrorism studies as well. In this paper, we apply four criminological perspectiv...
Article
Media portrayals of terrorism, particularly right-wing terrorism, have been understudied. In response, this study focuses on understanding how right-wing terrorism is portrayed by the New York Times and the Washington Post. A qualitative content analysis was conducted on five cases. Framing theory and thematic analysis were used to inform the resea...
Article
Historically, pandemics had inevitably produced demonization and scapegoating, and the COVID-19 pandemic has been no exception. Some individuals and groups have attempted to weaponize and exploit the pandemic, to use it as a means of spreading their extremist ideologies and to radicalize others to their causes. Segmented regression analyses of seve...
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Since the advent of the Internet, right-wing extremists and those who subscribe to extreme right views have exploited online platforms to build a collective identity among the like-minded. Research in this area has largely focused on extremists’ use of websites, forums, and mainstream social media sites, but overlooked in this research has been an...
Article
Use of force is among the most contentious issue facing law enforcement today. Unfortunately, much of the conversation surrounding use of force is driven by misunderstandings, in large part the result of lacking data. Despite repeated calls for more and better information regarding police use of force, departments and agencies have been slow to ado...
Chapter
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Purpose – This chapter examines how sentiment analysis and web-crawling technology can be used to conduct large-scale data analyses of extremist content online. Methods/approach – The authors describe a customized web-crawler that was developed for the purpose of collecting, classifying, and interpreting extremist content online and on a large sca...
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Researchers have previously explored how right-wing extremists build a collective identity online by targeting their perceived “threat,” but little is known about how this “us” versus “them” dynamic evolves over time. This study uses a sentiment analysis-based algorithm that adapts criminal career measures, as well as semi-parametric group-based mo...
Article
Moving away from high-profile, hard-lined tactics, approaches to crowd policing have become increasingly geared towards softer, negotiation-based policing methods. Despite their perceived benefits, there exist a number of challenges relating to the successful implementation of these low-profile approaches, most notably being the officers themselves...
Article
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The dark web is a concealed portion of the Internet that can only be accessed through specialized software. Although multiple dark web technologies exist, with a common trait of using encryption to enforce anonymity, the Tor network remains the most prominent dark web network. To visit websites on the network, the user must use a heavily modified F...
Article
Both homicide and clearance rates in Canada have declined significantly over the last few decades. The existing literature predominantly focuses on differentiating between cleared and uncleared cases, with less attention given to circumstances affecting the time taken to solve homicides. To address this gap, data were taken from the Homicide Survey...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to examine the nature and dynamics of crowd disorder from the perspective of the police in a Canadian context, as well as to extend this perspective to include the opinions of female police officers. Design/methodology/approach A total of 460 Vancouver police officers participated in this study. Following the 2...
Article
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As violent extremists continue to surface in online discussion forums, law enforcement agencies search for new ways of uncovering their digital indicators. Researchers have both described and hypothesized a number of ways to detect online traces of potential extremists, yet this area of inquiry remains in its infancy. This study proposes a new sear...
Article
Recognising that the police response may have a significant impact on the type of behaviour displayed by the crowd has prompted many police departments to adopt less obtrusive approaches to crowd management. Low-profile, negotiation-based public-order policing strategies have been used successfully in low-risk crowd situations. However, it remains...
Chapter
Why would a terrorist choose to utilize the Internet rather than the usual methods of assassination, hostage taking, and guerrilla warfare? Conway (2006) identified five major reasons why extremist groups used the Internet: virtual community building, information provision, recruitment, financing, and risk mitigation. Terrorist and extremist organi...

Citations

... Davies, Wu, and Franck (Davies et al., 2021) define BLM as a group advocating "for a wide range of changes oriented toward Black liberation and is part of a broader social justice ecosystem, encompassing other movements, including feminism, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) rights, climate activism, economic justice, and immigration reform". Violence has also permeated some of their events (Davies et al., 2021). Antifa or the anti-fascist movement has also engaged in violent actions (Davies et al., 2021). ...
... Such being the case, no matter what anti-riot tactic is being used, if the very rank-and-file who are assigned and expected to enforce such tactics are not suitable for that purpose, then the operation is deemed to fail (Dawson and Davies 2018). Indeed, police knowledge, attitudes, and values, by and large, shape, if not define, to a great extent the police approach to such public order interventions. ...
... we have been part of this growing field of research at the international CyberCrime research Centre (iCCrC), situated in Simon fraser University's School of Criminology. 1 our work has ranged from identifying radical users in online discussion forums (e.g., Scrivens, Davies, & frank, 2017) to understanding terrorist organizations' online recruitment efforts on various online platforms (e.g., Davies et al., 2015), to evaluating linguistic patterns presented in the online magazines of terrorist groups (e.g., macnair & frank, 2018a, 2018b). these experiences have provided us with insights regarding the applicability of a specific set of machine learning techniques and research methods to conduct large-scale data analyses of extremist content online. 2 in what follows, we will first describe a customized web-crawler that was developed at the iCCrC for the purpose of collecting, classifying, and interpreting extremist content online and on a large scale. ...
... Complementary work that draws on the social movement literature explains that "collective identity" 2 and its sense of "we-ness" can be actively constructed through interactions (see Melucci, 1995). Indeed, Gaudette et al. (2021) found that the "upvote" feature in Reddit has been implicated in the formation of collective identities through validating extremist discourse (although, the qualitative data in Gaudette et al.'s study cannot provide evidence for the causal role of the upvote feature). This very much aligns with the propositions of the IMIF (Postmes et al., 2005) and the INN-formation model (Smith et al., 2015). ...
... Just as it makes sense to have a unifying framework to enhance consistency in these areas, it makes sense to have a national framework to standardize the collection, storage, and presentation of use-of-force data. This is especially important because differences currently exist across jurisdictions in terms of what data are collected (e.g., draw and display of intervention options versus actual applications of force) and how they are collected (Kiedrowski et al. 2015;Davies et al. 2019;Wortley et al. 2021). ...
... For this study, publicly accessible Reddit data consisting of comments made within the r/Incels subreddit were used. All open-source content during this time frame on r/Incels was captured by one of the authors using a custom-written computer program that was designed to collect vast amounts of information online (for more information on the web-crawler, see Scrivens et al. 2019). In total, the web-crawler extracted approximately 1.4 million comments made by approximately 45,000 authors between January 2014 and November 2017. ...
... Instead, research has overwhelmingly focused on identifying "radicals" online (e.g., Scrivens et al., 2020b;Scrivens, 2020), and not those who adhere to radical beliefs but are violent as well (Wolfowicz et al., 2021). In addition, research on violent online political extremism has been concerned about the extent to which individuals are immersed in violent extremism online, with a particular focus on the relationship between the impact of extremist online content and violent radicalization (see Scrivens et al., 2020a). ...
... is problem was initially proposed in the background of market basket analysis with instruction to discover frequent cybercrime activity collections that are accepted [1]. Subsequently, its prescribed classification, at initial, an extraordinary number of algorithms, has been designated [2]. Further, most of these algorithms are constructed on naive Bayes algorithm or Apriori-like methods creating a gradient of candidate items, sets, or patterns molded by several fusions of single items [3]. ...
... It builds on the premise that society is stratified, and that criminal justice actors use discretion in processing a case, that includes victim preferencing and victim devaluation. Black holds that victims of lower social status receive 'less law' than victims of higher status, which results in a lower likelihood of police attention, arrest, or conviction, and a lower likelihood of a severe sentence for the perpetrator (Pastia et al. 2017). This theory has been extended from individual factors to neighbourhood and group factors, arguing that depending on their socio-demographic constellations, neighbourhoods can receive more or less 'law' (Borg and Parker 2001). ...
... Studies have established a direct link between social support and mental health (Ellrich 2016;Lee and Yun 2014). A study by Dawson and Davies (2017) on 24 female police officers who lacked social support from male colleagues and worked in a non-supportive work environment revealed poor well-being and low job performance. Conversely, American workers who received social support reported good mental wellness and quality of life (Chen 2016). ...